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Heads of the Oryol gymnasium of Leskov time (materials to N.S. Leskov's biography)

e. N. Ashikhmina

HEADS of the ORYOL GYMNASIUM of LESKOV TIME (materials to N.S. Leskov's biography)

Work is presented by department of history of the Russian literature of the 11-19th ages of the Oryol state university. The research supervisor - the Doctor of Philology, professor T.V. Kovalyova

Article is devoted to heads of the Oryol gymnasium A.Ya. Kroneberg and P.A. Azbukin who were real prototypes of works of N.S. Leskov.

E. Ashikhmina

HEADS OF THE ORYOL GYMNASIUM OF THE LESKOV TIME (materials on N. S. Leskov&s biography)

The article is devoted to A. Ya. Kroneberg and P. A. Azbukin, heads of the Oryol gymnasium, who were the real prototypes for N. S. Leskov&s works. Key words: N. S. Leskov, Oryol gymnasium, prototypes.

N.S. Leskov's stay in the Oryol gymnasium left a bright mark in the creative biography of the writer. A gymnasium, her teachers, living conditions and educational level of educational institution were estimated by Leskov is low. However, speaking about teachers of Leskov time, it is worth to remember that most of them were educated, many-sided persons, the majority of whom had university education that the interests of many of them were beyond only gymnasia activity. It is absolutely clear that, being representatives of the estate and developed in the society of foundations, they were crucially estimated by Leskov. But for understanding of the personality and creative process of the writer it is important to know that for teachers surrounded the boy during his study in Oryol.

This article does not set the purpose to tell about all teachers teaching in a class of Leskov and his companions among whom there were such not ordinary persons as the inventor of the Russian barometer, the famous physicist and the teacher K.D. Krayevich, the founder of Association of mobile art exhibitions painter G.G. Myasoyedov, European famous histologist A.I. Babukhin subsequently, etc. Article is devoted to representatives ruko-

vodstvo of a gymnasium of times of Leskov which, on the one hand, were not ignored in works by the writer with another - influenced formation of its character.

Her inspector, the collegiate adviser Pyotr Andreevich Azbukin (1806-1880) brought under the surname in the Leskov "The died estate" and "Life of one woman" was one of the most outstanding personalities in the environment of teaching staff of the Oryol gymnasium of that time. It is known that Azbukin left about himself not the most flatter impression at Leskov. The strict and pedantic inspector of the Oryol gymnasium did not refuse physical punishments of grammar-school boys - a measure, as we know, standard in the Nikolaev Russia not only concerning pupils. Leskov will write to "Life of one woman" about a conversation with the grammar-school boy of the Oryol gymnasium Mischa who "is not afraid of school how we were afraid of it. Tells that at them do not beat pupils any more as, happened, us everything, from Pyotr Andreevich of Az-on, our inspector, to his confidant watchman Leonov whom Pyotr Andreevich did not separate from himself and, inviting the pupil & #34; in канцелярию" spoke ordinary: & #34; Let's go; we with Leonov vospisuy тя"".

Heads of the Oryol gymnasium of Leskov time (materials to N.S. Leskov's biography)

But in educational circles of that time Azbukin was known not for some physical punishments of grammar-school boys. Official lists of Directorate of schools of the Oryol gymnasium reflect milestones of the biography of the teacher for four decades. It is known that Pyotr Azbukin, "from an ober-officer rank", 1804 year of birth, in 1818 came to the 2nd class of the Oryol provincial gymnasium and, having ended it, became in 1821 the svoyekoshtny student of the Moscow university of moral and political office. In 1824 graduated from educational institution with a rank of the Valid student. On February 10, 1825 Azbukin "was let out in Public service in the Oryol gymnasium by the teacher of the Russian literature" [3, 143, l. 19 about.]. From now on till the period of the retirement in April, 1847 the Oryol provincial gymnasium will become the place of work of Azbukin.

These years "excellent progress" of his gymnasia pupils was noted more than once. So, following the results of visit of classes of Azbukin by the inspector of the Moscow educational district the gnome by Verevkin to Azbukin was announced on November 13, 1828 "official appreciation" [3, 1027, l. 4 about.]. In 1833 "by Situation G.G. Ministrov Is most tallest founded pro for perfectly diligent service on the Oryol school of children of office attendants" Azbukin is awarded with a diamond ring [3, 143, l. 7 about.].

Fulfilling the pedagogical duties, Azbukin was not limited only to them. He became the pioneer of many cultural undertakings in the province. The Oryol library workers consider Azbukin the first provincial bibliographer, the Oryol journalists - the first editor of the leading edition of the province "Oryol provincial sheets" (since 1838), geographers - the first full member of the Russian Geographical Society of the first structure, archeologists - that who stood at the origins of archeology in the region. So, in 1853 the Oryol governor N.I. Krusenstern sent the full member of the Russian Geographical Society Azbukin to the village of Bobraki for a research of the unique objects of antiquity found near it. Azbukin carried out then the competent analysis

the found objects, having published the same year in the "Vestnik Imperatorskogo Russkogo Geograficheskogo Obshchestva" magazine the Article "About Antiquities Opened in the neighborhood of Oryol" [2, page 107].

Azbukin became the first serious researcher of the Oryol region. Appointed in 1836 the Oryol governor "the managing director of the Oryol exhibition of works and the museum", he was the first museum worker of the province [3, 143, l. 9 about.]. And let it was a certain small meeting of archaeological rarities and objects of national life, Azbukin was engaged in collecting and classification of artifacts. Officially Oryol museum will open only in 1897. It will be entrusted not to mathematician, but teacher of literature Azbukin to prepare the "Statistical description of the Oryol province" brought to Crown Prince Alexander. Will receive the second diamond ring for this work Azbukin. In 1837 the Minister of Finance will approve it Oryol manufactories correspondents [3, 143, l. 10 about.].

Azbukin can be considered and the pioneer of the Oryol tourism - in 1836 he was elected the Minister of Internal Affairs "the corresponding member of tourist office of Council of ministers of Internal Affairs" [3, 143, l. 10 about.].

The fact that near Leskov and his companions there was a personality with not provincial outlook who was responsible for educational activity in general, the person under the leadership of whom the gymnasia library was filled and also to a certain extent was defined also the content of education, had huge, let and the mediated value for formation of the identity of future writer.

Alexander Yakovlevich Kroneberg directed a gymnasium of Leskov time. By the nature of pedagogical classes the mathematician, Kro-neberg came "from foreigners of the Saxon nation". According to his relative V.V. Astrakhantsev, Alexander's father Jacob Kroneberg (1757-1813) graduated from office of divinity at the Gallic university. Having arrived in Russia, he served as the rector of church school at St Michael's church in Moscow, then "was the senior pastor at old

Lutheran church" Moscow [4]. In the same place, in Moscow, also there began the office deyatl-nost A.Ya. Kroneberg. Follows from "Personal record" of the Director of schools that for the first time he came on service in 1808 to "An expedition of the Kremlin building that nowadays Moscow office, to Architect school the mathematics teacher with a rank of the bureaucrat" [3, 759, l. 9 about.]. In 1811 he received the first rank of the collegiate registrar. In 1813 Kroneberg comes to the state of the Moscow justice of deanery the translator, and in September, 1817 "is defined to the Moscow educational house by the mathematics teacher 1 and 2 classes of classical pupils". All this time Kroneberg slowly moves ahead on an office ladder, becoming the provincial secretary in 1818, the collegiate secretary in 1821. At the end of the 1820th - the beginning of the 1830th he teaches arithmetics "at Alec-sandrinsky orphan institute of the 2nd male age" in preparatory classes of men's office; conducts classes and in the first classes of women's office [3, 759, l. 10 about.]. In February, 1832 the rank of the titular counselor is appropriated to it. In 1834 Kro-neberg teaches German at the same institute "in 1 female class [3, 759, l. 10 about.]. Soon the son of the German pastor changes religion. Both he, and his children will become Orthodox Christians now that will be specified by Kroneberg in each official list.

In 1834 Kroneberg's life abruptly changes. That year he goes into the disposal of the Kharkiv educational district and goes to the Voronezh gymnasium the inspector. There is it, most likely, because at this time the brother his Ivan Yakovlevich was again elected the rector of the Kharkiv university who supervised educational institutions of the Kharkiv district. In Voronezh Kroneberg receives a position of "the teacher of mathematical sciences", and in 1837 is appointed correcting a position of the director of schools of the Kursk province, and for the skillful management of "economy" receives an official message of thanks of the Kharkiv educational district (1839) [3, 759, l. 11 about.]. Having got in "I will embrace the leading persons", Kroneberg moves to Oryol.

Kroneberg will head directorate of the Oryol schools in May, 1841 [3, 759, l. 12]. In the fall of the same year the grammar-school boy Leskov will for the first time meet it. For young Leskov the director of school will become the first in his life official. Kroneberg quickly grows in Oryol on an office ladder, becoming the titular counselor in 1843 and the collegiate adviser in 1844 [3, 759, l. 48 about., 98]. But in November, 1846 Kroneberg gives to resignation which was probably connected not so much with the director's illness, how many with the inspection which is carried out by the inspector of schools of the Kharkiv educational district. By its results "Suggestion" where it was told about inadmissibility of corporal punishments of grammar-school boys without the permission of a faculty meeting and about the immediate termination of the practiced cramming was written [1, page 281].

The system of the corporal punishments applied in school developed long before Kroneberg's appearance. And he did not change "the charter of the monastery". Leskov exact in details would not begin to say in "Laughter and a grief" slander the director if that was not present at punishments and would not distribute "ringing slaps in the face".

Undoubtedly, the management style of Nicholas I as big barracks was well acquired by all parts subordinated to it. It is known, however, that noblemen could not be subjected to corporal punishments, and these rules kind of receded during educational process in educational institution of the Nikolaev time. Perhaps, someone from noblemen was dissatisfied with so radical otkhozhdeniye from the class rights allowed in relation to his child; it is possible for this reason a certain complaint which, maybe, is still stored in the Kharkiv archive went to the Kharkiv educational district on actions of the Oryol administration. In any case, at this particular time inspection was sent to Directorate of Schools of the Oryol province. An inspection was carried out after Leskov's leaving a gymnasium. And the unpleasant deposit from the "Nikolaev" orders in it was not erased from his memory. And in the Russian literature thanks to the writer there were two real residents of Oryol - Azbukin and Kroneberg.


1. Aleksin R.M. Novoye about children's and youthful years of Leskov. On materials of the Oryol archives//Literary inheritance. T. 101: Unpublished Leskov. Book II. IMLI RAS, "Heritage". M, 2000. 575 pages
2. E. Ashikhmina of N, Livtsov A.V. Orel - the Oryol Polesia. Guide to an excursion route. Eagle: LLC Formula Pechati, Publisher A.V. Vorobyov, 2007. 688 pages
3. State archive of the Oryol region. T. 78 (Oryol directorate of national schools). Op. 1.
4. Central historical archive of Moscow. T. 2099. Op. 1. 16.


1. Aleksina R. M. Novoye o detskikh i yunosheskikh godakh Leskova. Po materialam orlovskikh arkhivov//Literaturnoye nasledstvo. T. 101: Neizdanny Leskov. Kniga II. IMLI RAN, "Naslediye". M., 2000. 575 s.
2. Ashikhmina E. N., Livtsov A. V. Orel - Orlovskoye Poles&ye. Putevoditel& po ekskursionnomu mar-shrutu. Orel: OOO "Formula Pechati", Izdatel& Vorob&yov A. V., 2007. 688 s.
3. Gosudarstvenny arkhiv Orlovskoy oblasti. F. 78 (Orlovskaya direktsiya narodnykh uchilishch). Op. 1.
4. Tsentral&ny istoricheskiy arkhiv Moskvy. F. 2099. Op. 1. D. 16.
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