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MASS CONSCIOUSNESS of RUSSIANS (geopolitical and ethnic roots)



natalya OREKHOVO

MASS CONSCIOUSNESS of RUSSIANS (geopolitical and ethnic roots)

In article the relevance of mass consciousness as the factor fastening the Russian people to the uniform state, society reveals. The author in a historical context shows a role of evolution of geopolitical and ethnic roots in formation of mentality of mass consciousness of Russians.

Mass consciousness is considered as subject of consolidation of Russian people in the integrated society, state. The author disclosed the role of geopolitical and ethnic roots in evolution of the mass consciousness according to the Russian historical context. Works of famous scientists, writers, religious thinkers are considered in the paper.

mass consciousness, historical memory, mentality, patriotism, culture; mass consciousness, historical memory, mentality, patriotism, culture.

The modern Russian State and society endure deep crisis. Industry decline, mass poverty, sharp social polarization of the population — all this manifestations of system crisis of capitalism. One of its results and at the same time one of the fundamental reasons is distortion of mass consciousness of the people as main subject of history.

The Russian people were historically equipped on the great plain located on a joint of Europe and Asia. According to N.A Berdyaev, immensity of the Russian land, lack of borders and limits were expressed in the structure of the Russian soul: "The landscape of the Russian soul corresponds to a landscape of the Russian land, the same infinity, formlessness, width" 1.

Throughout all the history the Russian people constantly contacted to the western and east neighbors. These contacts gained character as peaceful economic, political, cultural cooperation, and major military confrontation. But in all cases Russia acted as a peculiar binding bridge between Europe and Asia, carried out the important geostrategic role connected with maintenance of world balance.

The location on the plain which is not protected from the West, the South and the East led to the fact that Russia was open for attack of aggressive neighbors from all directions. Not to consider wars, generally defensive character which the Russian people had to conduct. War became for the Russian people a severe necessity, and Russia reminded the peculiar besieged fortress. From 1228 to 1462, for 234 years, Russians had 160 external wars. In the 16th century they are at war in the northwest and the West against the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth, the Livonian award and to Sweden there are 43 years, for a year without interrupting war against the Tatar hordes on southeast and southern borders. In the 17th century Russia was at war 48 years, in XVIII — 56 let2. Also the last two centuries were severe. The 19th century: three wars with Turks, one — with Persians, the Caucasian, Central Asian wars, Napoleon's invasion, the Crimean war. The 20th century — two wars with Japanese, two world wars, intervention of the Entente in Civil war and nuclear blackmail of the second half of the 20th century

OREKHOVO

Natalya

Anatolyevna —

to. filos. N, associate professor

departments of sociology and

cultural science

Moscow

technical

university

of N.E. Bauman

orehovskaya@yandex.ru

1 N.A. Berdyaev. Russian idea. The main problems of the Russian thought of the 19th century and the beginning of the 20th century//About Russia and the Russian philosophical culture. Philosophers of the Russian postoctober abroad. — M.: Science, 1990, p. 64.
2 N.A. Benediktov. Russian shrines. — M.: An algorithm, 2003, p. 46 — 48.

"The Russian history developed so that for it there was no choice; or it was necessary to battle, or to be destroyed; to wage war or to turn into slaves and to disappear" 1. At the same time scales of wars and fights which were waged by Russia, degree of tension of efforts of the people in all centuries were incommensurable to the European. So, one of fights of 1119 between the French and English feudal lords in which 900 knights from whom three persons were killed were involved was considered as large and fierce and 140 people are taken prisoner.

In infinite series of the armed oppositions and the military conflicts there were heavy failures and military happiness, crushing defeats and brilliant victories. Such difficult and contradictory destiny accustomed Russians not to lose courage and not to despair of the most hopeless situations. It formed in the Russian souls "confidence that if they got beaten in national fight, this defeat — only the "first" head of a fight, "second" will mean clarification and accumulation of forces, "third" — a victory, release, revival" 2.

Every time when the foreign army interfered in Russia, war inevitably developed into national, brightly highlighting all best mental properties of mass consciousness of the Russian nation. As wrote L.N. Tolstaya, "because of a cross, because of the name, from threat people cannot accept these awful conditions: there has to be other, high incentive reason. And this reason is the feeling which is seldom shown bashful in Russian, but lying in the depth of everyone — love for the country" 3.

The geopolitical specifics of Russia are connected with its median situation on the Eurasian continent, the multinational structure of the population. In the course of finding of new lands by Russia the special type of the international relations not peculiar to other European empires was developed. It is based on feeling of respect for other people, to their religion, customs and traditions. The Russian immigrants easily entered economic,

1 I.A. Ilyin. Essence and an originality of the Russian culture//Collected works in 10 t., t. 6, prince 2. — M.: Russian book, 1996, p. 477.
2 In the same place, p. 483.
3 L.N. Tolstoy Sevastopol in December//Collected works in 10 t., t. 2. — M.: However, 1984, p. 19.

cultural, friendly and family relations with indigenous people, organically and everywhere growing into the surrounding foreign environment. The fact of voluntary entry into Russia of a number of the people that in literal sense saved some of them from physical destruction was an unknown in terms of formation of the western empires also.

We will emphasize: not on foreigners, and on shoulders of the Russian people the main weight of maintenance of power of the multinational state lay. It is indicative that in Russia from the ethnic card any people did not disappear actually while in the course of colonization of America by romano-Germans and Anglo-Saxons great original civilizations were destroyed. Russia for foreign tribes was not an angry stepmother, but kind and careful mother. Therefore most of the Russian people had reciprocal good feeling to the Russian people, believing themselves a full part of multiethnic Russia.

Kind and respect for foreigners in soul of the Russian people — not a propaganda imperial invention, but the historic fact confirmed with centuries-old joint life of dozens of ethnic groups in the uniform state. The collapse of the USSR which is followed by interethnic collisions does not disprove the mission of Russia as bearers of the idea of universal humanity in the relations between the people. History placed not all in the final places. Probability comprehensive, voluntary is not excluded from a range of historical opportunities, it is not obligatory within the uniform state of integration of earlier uniform Eurasian people around the historical kernel — Velikorossiya.

The factor of interethnic mixture in the course of education of the Russian people had considerable impact on formation of features of the Russian mass consciousness. Slavic influence — ethnically the most powerful, but at all not the only thing in the Russian people. Such is the law of ethnogenesis, because as still A.S. Homyakov noted, "the one-spontaneous people in the history almost do not meet... we can notice prevalence of one or other beginning; but we cannot and should not bring without clear proofs national names under the columns made for tribes and se-

my" 1. The Russian people as superethnic group represent itself the difficult multiethnic natural and social education which integrally absorbed in itself Slavic, Finno-Ugric and Turkic influence.

The Slavic beginning acts as a core and a kernel of great Russian type of mass consciousness. In historical literature a few certificates on initial mental qualities of mass consciousness of east Slavs remained. The late antique author Mauritius the Strategist considers the defining line of Slavs love inherent in them for freedom: "They cannot be inclined to slavery or submission in the country at all" 2. Slavs are hardy, easily transfer cold, a heat, nakedness, a lack of food, they treat the foreigners who came to them tenderly. This author is impressed by modesty and devotion of the Slavic women who are voluntarily losing life after the death of the husband and also ingenuity and bravery of Slavic soldiers. Also such impartial properties as insidiousness, inability to keep the word of rather signed contracts, tendency to contentions and lack of agreement of opinion among tribespeople do not remain in the shadow.

Mental properties of mass consciousness of the people in no small measure depend on the nature of their activity. A.S. Homyakov divides on this sign all people into two groups: aggressive and agricultural. The aggressive people to which it carries the German people differ in cruelty, contempt not only to defeated, but also to all stranger. The agricultural people to which number Slavs belong are closer to the universal beginnings, they differ in susceptibility to all stranger: "The feeling of aristocratic contempt for other tribes is inaccessible to them, but all human finds in them accord and sympathy... The Russian looks at all people zamezhyovanny in infinite borders of the Northern kingdom as the brothers..." 3. From such mirochuvstvovaniye

1 Homyakov A.S. Semiramis (Research of the truth of the historical ideas)//Compositions in 2 t., t. 1. — M.: The Moscow philosophical fund, the Medium, 1994, p. 63 — 64.
2 Reflections about Russia and Russians. Strokes to the history of the Russian national character / Sost. and predisl. S.K. Ivanov. — M.: Progress, 1994, p. 28
3 A.S. Homyakov. Decree. soch., t. 1, p. 98 — 99.

the world responsiveness of the Russian people noted later by F.M. Dostoyevsky takes the roots, its empatichesky gift to empathize and take very much to heart troubles and sufferings of other people. However the susceptibility and ability incorporate lines of inoplemennik can also have and negative consequences. Slavs, owing to softness, mildness, a pereimchivost of the character, easier than other people give in to impact of assimilation, losing at the same time the original breeding and national lines.

The considerable and significant effect on great Russian ethnos made impact of the Tatar-Mongolian tribes. Traditionally this influence is described by negative paints and it is considered that nearly all negative lines in the Russian people are the investigation of an otravlennost tatarshchiny. However I.A. Ilyin — in general the representative of negative assessment of the Tatar influence on the Russian people — is forced to admit the fact of ambiguity of such influence. On the one hand, he speaks about awful consequences of the Mongolian yoke, with another — about positive aspects of its influence on the Russian people. Continue - the telny yoke brought up in Russians not only weak, but also strong mental properties: insight, saintly patience and firmness; ability to take out the lowest living standards and at the same time not to lose courage; art of self-sacrifice and reckless devotion; vital firmness of soul; surprising complaisance and flexibility; hereditary courage; pronounced, in generations well-mannered art of defensive war.

The orthodox church which activity Mongols did not repair special obstacles becomes active social and spiritual power in the Russian society during tataromongolsky enslavement. It bore to the Russian people a consolation, force and belief, Christianity becomes the center of national life. "Experience of Russia — the Patriarch of Moscow and all Russia Kirill notes — shows that the active role of religion in life of the country helped our ancestors to overcome historical difficulties, to build the state which united a great number of peacefully getting on people and religions, to create recognized great rus-

I will hold down culture" 1. During this period there was a Christianization of soul of the Russian people which became for long centuries distinctive national feature. Therefore under a patriotic banner our foes "critically reinterpret" past events, try to carry out shutdown of historical memory and morality. So, for example, in the book by the English professor J. Fennel "The crisis of medieval Russia" is given Alexander Nevsky's image as traitor, helper of the Tatar-Mongolian justice, "the British stereotypes of the Russian past" are created. Some ideological structures, media introduced in mass consciousness these the "British stereotypes" destroying an image of one of the main Russian Saints, a symbol of national pride. Therefore in recent years in mass consciousness of the Russian people it was succeeded to distort strongly a historical picture of a political range of Russia, to introduce in consciousness of youth elements degero-izatsii2.

Thus, the Tatar-Mongolian yoke and fight became with it finally

1 Metropolitan Kirill. Orthodoxy and education//Policy, 2008, No. 2, p. 16.
2 S.G. Kara-Murza. Manipulation with consciousness. — M.: Eksmo, 2007, p. 513.

the powerful catalyst of formation of the great Russian people, influencing formation of statehood, life, culture and mass consciousness. Having begun in the 13th century, process of formation of the Russian superethnos generally came to the end in the first half of the 16th century. By this time national release from tercentenary Tatar dominion was victoriously carried out. Besides, territorially there was the state registration of the Moscow Russia in the form of the huge kingdom, and there was a national-state ideology. From now on the Russian people were forced to bear a burden of three calls of history on the shoulders: 1) polyethnicity; 2) severe environment; 3) huge sizes of the country. Before the Russian civilization such historical calls which in their complex any large civilization did not face were put. The Russian people answered these calls of history with features of the economic and spiritual life, a unique set of qualities of the mass consciousness. In this regard it is necessary to remind that mass consciousness is an important factor of adaptation of the people to features of the natural and social environment.

Esther Fernandez
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