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Settlement Zharkovo-1



a. B. Shamshin, S.L. Izotkin, S.M. Sitnikov

The paper deals with the materials of the Late Bronze Age from the settlement of Zharkovo-1 located in the Kulunda steppe. The basis of the settlement complex is made up by the Sargarinsko-Alekseevsky pottery, while Begazyi-Dandyibaevsky, Stankovy and Irmen pottery being sporadic. Presence of the Sargarinsko-Alekseevsky pottery in the Irmen settlements might point to a certain role of the Sargarinsko-Alekseevsky population in building up the Irmen culture. The materials of the Sargarinsko-Alekseevsky culture are currently dated between the late 2nd — early 1st millennium B. C. which is confirmed by rather late look of the pottery — a big number of non-ornamented pottery, presence of "pearls", as well as rare availability of comb pattern and geometric figures in the ornamentation.

Zharkovo-1 is located by Poseleniye in Bayevsky district of Altai Krai, in 2 km to the northeast from the village of Pokrovka, east of being of Zharkovo, between a zharkovsky pine forest and Staritsa of the Kulunda River (fig. 1, 1). The monument is opened by N.D. Brusnik — the director of the Pokrovsk eight-year school. In 1987 A.B. Shamshin on the settlement put a prospecting hole of 8 sq.m in size. In 1992 works were continued. Now the total opened area of a monument is about 80 sq.m. Rich archaeological material is received.

From stock on the settlement the tools manufactured of various materials were found. This a bronze tetrahedral pricker (fig. 1, 3) in section, bronze tetrahedral in section small chekan with the roller thickening in a middle part (fig. 1, 2). Tips of arrows are distinguished from bone tools. One of them is presented by a finished product (fig. 1, 4), another — preparation (fig. 1, 11). On a monument the bone stamp (fig. 1, 10), a scraper from an edge of an animal for a dressing (fig. 1, 7) and a product of unclear appointment (fig. 1, 6, 8) were also found. Clay tools are presented by a counter from a wall of a vessel (fig. 4, 16), pryaslitsy (fig. 1, 5) and fragments of bricks of oval or rounded shape. Besides, on the settlement, chippers from small pebbles (fig. 1, 9, 12, 13) were found.

4

Fig. 1. Plan (1) and stock (2-13) of the settlement Zharkovo-1:

2, 3 — bronze; 4, 6-8, 10, 11 — a bone; 5 — clay; 9, 12, 13 — a stone

The main quantity of finds on the settlement Zharkovo-1 are bones of animals and ceramics. In the cultural plan the ceramics is divided into begazy-dandybayevsky (fig. 2, 1-3), easel (fig. 2, 4-6), irmensky shape (fig. 2, 7-12; 3, 5; 4, 7, 18) and sargarinsko-alekseevsky.

Begazy-dandybayevskaya the ceramics is presented by fragments of three vessels of pottery forms. One of them is decorated ranks of the shaded triangles with tops up (see fig. 2, 1), on a trunk of the second there are mastoidal nalepa (see fig. 2, 2), the top part of the third is ornamented with two corbels of a slanting smooth network (see fig. 2, 3).

The easel ceramics is presented by several fragments of gray, red or brick color 0.5-2 cm thick (see fig. 2, 4-6). Surface of vessels sometimes angobirovana. It is curious that one of vessels had a pallet (see fig. 2, 4).

Fig. 2. Ceramics of the settlement Zharkovo-1

The ceramics of irmensky shape is not numerous (see fig. 2, 7-12; 3, 5; 4, 7, 18). These are the vessels of pottery forms decorated on a nimbus with corbels of a slanting network (see fig. 2, 11, 12), at a coat hanger sometimes there are ranks of triangles tops down (see fig. 2, 8, 9), on a trunk there are ranks of fillets (see fig. 2, 7, 8, 10). One of vessels was made on a potter's wheel (see fig. 2, 7).

The basis of a complex is formed by sargarinsko-alekseevsky ceramics. From 460 fragments it is ornamented 115 (25%). In the equipment of figuration the smooth stamp (47.0%) dominates, on the second place there are nail prints (14.3%), on the third — rollers (8.3%), collars (7.1%) and fillets (6.5%). Less often ware was decorated by means of a srednezubchaty edge stamp (4.2%), having pinned (3.6%), a zhemchuzhnik (2.4%). It is single in figuration the application of poles (1.8%), nail tucks (1.8%), the drawn lines (1.2%), krupnozubchaty (1.2%) and crenulate (0.6%) edge stamps is recorded.

In a form the sargarinsko-alekseevsky ware can be divided into several groups:

1) vessels of smooth profiling with the direct or slightly unbent outside nimbus and a srednerazduty trunk (fig. 3, 1, 4, 7, 8-11; 4, 1, 2, 5, 6, 9, 11; 5, 1, 3-5, 8-10, 12, 13). This group the most numerous;
2) vessels of kuvshinovidny forms (fig. 2, 15; 3, 10, 12; 4, 4). The group is presented by four copies;
3) vessels with a roundish nimbus, so-so or strongly inflated trunk and the roller upon transition from a neck to a coat hanger (fig. 3, 2, 6, 9; 5, 7). Not less than 14 vessels enter into group;
4) banks — 4 copies (fig. 4, 10; 5, 2, 6, 14).

The ornament was most often applied on a nimbus — 42.2%, a neck — 70.58% or a coat hanger — 44.82%. The trunk — 20% and a benthonic part — 10% was less often decorated. The bottom was not ornamented.

Among ornamental motives the important place is taken by the rollers and collars decorated with a slanting grid, corbels from slanting crosses, inclined prints of a smooth stamp.

From other ornamental motives it should be noted ranks of prints of a nail (fig. 3, 4; 4, 5; 5,

11), various fir-tree patterns (fig. 3, 7, 8; 4, 3, 6; 5, 3), a zhemchuzhnik (see fig. 4, 6; 5, 5, 12), heats and a vdavleniye (see fig. 3, 7; 4, 10; 5, 6, 8), fillets (see fig. 3, 10; 4, 4; 5, 8), geometrical patterns (fig. 4, 13, 14).

Stay in a cultural layer of a monument in a small amount of begazy-dandybayevsky and easel ceramics is quite typical for settlements of final bronze of steppe Altai [Ivanov, 1993, page 134; Umansky, Bulrushes, 1995, page 46; Bulrushes, 1998, page 73; Dyomin, Bulrushes, 1998, page 45;

Kiryushin, etc., 1999, page 382-383; Father's, etc., 2000, page 152; Father's, Shamshin, 2001, page 67] and Kazakhstan [Varfolomeyev, 1987, page 59; Shamshin, etc., 2000]. However there are no settlements containing only begazy-dandybayevsky or easel ceramics in the territory of Altai and Kazakhstan [Shamshin, etc., 1999, page 36]. In Northern Kulunda, settlements Burla-3 and Kaygorodka-3 in whose ceramic complex there is easel and begazy-dandybayevsky ware approximately at equal proportions are open [Udodov, 1994, page 11]. In Kazakhstan a large number of begazy-dandybayevsky burial grounds [Yermolaeva, is known 1987; Margulan, 1979], many of which differ in special richness of funeral stock and complexity of nadmogilny constructions. According to V.A. Korenyako, "emergence in the Central Kazakhstan funeral complexes like Dandybay-Begaza — a consequence of social and economic differentiation of primitive society" [1990, page 33]. It is quite probable that carriers of begazy-dandybayevsky culture held some predominating, dominant position in the sargarinsko-alekseevsky environment [Kuzmina, 1994, page 131]. The wealth is explained by it

funeral crypts of the Central Kazakhstan, existence of begazy-dandybayevsky ceramics

Fig. 3. Ceramics of the settlement Zharkovo-1

on sargarinsko-alekseevsky settlements and lack of clean begazinsky settlements [Shamshin, etc., 1999, page 36].

In our opinion, stay in a cultural layer of the settlement Zharkovo-1 of ceramics of irmensky shape is interesting. Separate fragments of irmensky ceramics are met on settlements Chekanovsky the Log-1 [Dyomin, Sitnikov, 1998, fig. 4, 1-4], the Small Resident of Krasnoyarsk [Chernikov 1960, tab. 41, 17, 22, 23], Ruble At! [Shamshin, 1999, fig. 1, 1]. The ceramics close to ranneirmensky occurs from the settlement of Novoilyinka [Kiryushin, etc., 1990, page 115] and is considered by the authors who published these materials as result of "contact with carriers of irmensky traditions" [In the same place, page 123]. On the settlement Goose Lyaga-1 located in Northern Kulunda, the ceramic complex contains ware pozdneirmensky, easel, begazy-dandybayevsky and sargarinsko-alekseevsky (dongalsky) types. Finding of pozdneirmensky, easel, begazy-dandybayevsky and sargarinsko-alekseevsky ceramics in filling and at the bottom of the dwelling of the settlement Goose Lyaga-1 allows to consider them single [Sitnikov, Gelmel, 2000, page 161]. The ceramic complex of the settlement of Dongal contains a number of vessels which ornamental composition is comparable to irmensky [Is broken, 1987, page 125].

Fig. 4. Ceramics of the settlement Zharkovo-1

In turn, on settlements of irmensky culture the ceramics which, apparently, should be considered sargarinsko-alekseevsky is met: The big Log [Chlenova, 1994, fig. 23, 1, 2, 5, 6] to Die 2 [In the same place, fig. 43, 4], Milovanovo-3 [Sidorov, 1985, fig. 2, 8, 10, 11, 14], Zakovryashino 1 [Shamshin, 1991, page 145-146, fig. 4, 4-12]; Bykovo III [Kiryushin, Shamshin, 1998, fig. 4, 4-7], etc. [Shamshin, Tsivtsina, 1999].

Possibly, a certain role played in addition of irmensky culture not only begazy-dandybayevsky [Hoopoes, 1991, page 88; Kiryushin, Shamshin, 1992, page 212], but also sargarinsko-alekseevsky population [Kiryushin, 1985; Shamshin, 1988, page 112-113]. In favor of it close type of economy [Galchenko, Kiryushin, 1986, page 98-99], profiling of some irmensky vessels and a similar set of stock demonstrate. In particular, irmensky bronze buttons and pugovkovidny metal plates bear bone sargarinsko-alekseevsky quite a strong resemblance [Bulrushes, 1998, fig. 8, 4, 7, 9].

of Fig. 5. Ceramics of the settlement Zharkovo-1

Further between carriers of irmensky culture and the sargarinsko-alekseevsky population peaceful contacts which were in many respects caused by requirement of irmensky society for metal as irmenets of the Top Priobye had no ore bases continue to be supported. In the territory of Southwest Altai and Kazakhstan there is a large number of fields of copper and tin which development began during an era of early bronze, proceeded in average and actively developed in late bronze. Communication of irmensky and sargarinsko-alekseevsky groups is confirmed by finding of "typically Kazakhstan knives in irmensky complexes" [Chlenova, 1994, page 17]. These contacts were probably made through Kulunda and basin of the river Aley [Shamshin, etc., 1999, page 40].

Now materials of sargarinsko-alekseevsky culture are dated most of researchers within the end of II — the beginning of the I millennium BC [Ivanov, 1988, page 104; Bulrushes, 1998, page 73; Shamshin, etc., 2000, page 9]. Apparently, the settlement Zharkovo-1 is dated

beginning of the I millennium BC. The offered dating is confirmed also by rather late shape ceramic material which is characterized by existence of a large number

not ornamented ceramics (75%), use of a zhemchuzhnik, rather rare use in figuration of an edge stamp and geometrical figures.

In the system of edinokulturny complexes of Altai this monument, most possibly, is synchronous to the settlement Chekanovsky the Log-1 which is dated on the basis of ceramic and bronze material X-IX (VIII?) centuries BC [Dyomin, Sitnikov, 1998, page 46; 1999, page 30].

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Barnaul, Altai state university, Barnaul state pedagogical university

[1] Work is performed with assistance of the Russian Federal Property Fund, project No. 01-06-80173.

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