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Condition of education among the non-russian people of Central Volga area in the second half the XIX beginning of the 20th century

i. A. Anokhina



Work is presented by department of national history of PGPU of V.G. Belinsky. The research supervisor - the candidate of historical sciences, professor V.A. Vlasov

On the example of the Penza, Samara and Simbirsk provinces are shown the level of education of the non-russian people in the second half of XIX in article - the beginning of the 20th century, the relation of the non-russian population to educational institutions of provinces.

The article describes the level of education in the second half of the 19th century - the beginning of the 20th century and their relation towards educational institutions. The research is carried out by the examples of the Penza, Samara and Simbirsk regions.

As show materials of the First general population census of the Russian Empire 1897 defining national identity on the basis of the native language, the Volga region differed in exclusive ethnic variety. From indigenous people of the Volga region the most numerous were Tatars (11.4% of all population). A little Chuvashs and a mordva (7.8 and 5.8% of the population of the Volga region) 1 conceded to Tatars on number.

Educational level of the non-russian population of the Penza province was lower, than Russian: the literacy among Russians was 26%, among Tatars -

14.3%, mordva - from 9.4 to 12.2%. In counties with the Mordovian population - Kerensky, Saransk, Krasnoslobodsky and Pisarsky - from 100 people aged from 9 up to 50 years were only 9-12 able to read and write, among women - 3-4.

The first data on opening of national educational institutions in the Penza region belong to the 30th of the 19th century. In 18651867, according to official figures, in the Penza province there were 88 parish schools in settlements of the state peasants with total number of the population in 489,180 people of both sexes. Including in the Mordovian settlements, with total on -

settlements in 126,187 people of both sexes, there were only 6 schools, namely: in the villages of Seliksa of the Gorodishchensky County, Suzgarye and Pshene-ve of the Insarsky County, Kochkurov and Floor Tavly the Saransk County and in Karsayev-ke Chembarsky uyezda2.

The Uchilishchny committee of the Ministry of national education considering in February, 1867 a question of training language at schools of non-russian nationalities spoke resolutely against training at the native language.

National schools played an important progressive role in life of the people of the Volga region, increased the cultural level and consciousness of the population. In the 1890th in the province 78 Mordovian schools worked already: 36 submitted to uchilishchny councils and 42 - to the Ministry of national education. On counties of school were distributed as follows: in Saransk - 9, Insarsk - 11, Gorodishchensk - 11, Chembarsky - 5, Krasnoslobodsk - 4, Nizhnelomovsk - 1, Narovchatsk - 1.

In May-June, 1905 under the chairmanship of the minister of education the special meeting on - a razovaniye of east foreigners" was led ". According to the decision of this meeting for training of teachers in foreign schools there had to be several types of educational institutions: 1) the central schools, 2) teacher's seminaries, 3) pedagogical classes at two-great schools.

In 1860 in "The Penza provincial sheets" the attitude of Tatars to education and to school was noted: "In Tatars there is a special aspiration to education. Everyone who has though small sums of life, by all means sends the son and the daughter to school to study. Tatars have deep respect for the education, is equal as to places of the education" 3.

In 1894 in the province also 74 Mohammedan schools, including 9 madrasahs functioned (Muslim average and vys-

Shae the school training attendants of a cult, teachers, employees of government) and 65 mekteba (elementary Muslim school of parish type). The network of Muslim educational institutions grew: in 1902 88 schools (13 madrasahs and 75 mekteba), including in the city of Penza - 1 madrasah, in Kerensky the county - worked already

1 madrasah and 4 mekteba, in Chembarskom -
23 a mekteba, in Krasnoslobodskom - 8 madrasahs and 25 metebe4, in Moksha - 1 mekteba, in Nizhnelomovskom - 2 madrasahs, in Saransk - 1 madrasah and 17 mektebe5, Insarsky -
5 a mekteba and also 2 spiritual schools, Pshiminskoye and Atmissko-Tankayevskoye in the Nizhnelomovsky County. Training at Mohammedan schools was carried out by local mullahs in Tatar. Total number of the Tatar and Mordovian schools in the province on the eve of the October events fluctuated from 161 to 166.

According to inspection, 115 Tatar schools at mosques were 1906-1911 in the Penza province. Despite barriers of religious character, some Muslim children were engaged in studying secular disciplines at the Russian parish schools. Development of female education became one of features of the Tatar education of the beginning of the 20th century. In particular, in the city of Troitsk of the Penza region in 1909 it was open specialized women's shkola6.

On literacy level the Samara province took the 33rd place among the provinces of Russia. By the time of bourgeois reforms of the 60th of the 19th century the national education in the huge territory of the Samara province was in embryo. In 1865 in Samara on 34,000 inhabitants there were a little more than one thousand pupils (including students in private boards). On a census of 1897 the literacy of the population of the Samara province was only 22.1%7.

National oppressed people of tsarist Russia were especially robbed in the sense of education. It is characteristic that network

schools in counties with the considerable non-russian population (Bugulma, Buzuluk, Buguruslan, Stavropol) was the most rare, and expenses on national education - especially low.

Among a number of ethnic minorities there was especially a lot of illiterate and semiliterate. On a census of 1897 91.3% of the Mordovian population of the province, 95.3% - chuvashskogo8 were illiterate.

In statistical data on a condition of national literacy in the Samara province for 1863-1864 it is said that in the Tatar settlements the relation of number of the inhabitants studying to number "is very favorable" 9. So in specific settlements of the Samara province alone in which Tatars up to 20,000 people, there are 24 schools, and in them 1690 boys and girls; from this number of boys 999 that on male population "in nine too thousands of people gives the relation as 1 to 9". All training at these schools is limited to reading for girls and, besides, the letter for boys and that not for vsekh10.

Great assistance in material support of schools from the middle of the 60th of the 19th century of hundred -

whether to render zemstvoes. In 1866 from the Synod the address to chairmen of territorial justices with a request for support of parish schools which in 1865 was 21,420, with 413,524 pupils followed. In the Synod, comments from 55 district territorial meetings from 22 provinces, including Samara, Simbirsk, Penza in which it was reported about allocation of allowances, mostly constant, on national education were received.

Schools provided needs of the population for literacy, for initial education. They opened for representatives of the non-russian people a possibility of continuation of education in average and higher educational institutions, promoted progress in communication between the people, to development of bilingualism, increase in level of intellectual, cultural development of the population.

Growth of number of schools at the beginning of the 20th century was caused by democratization of policy of the government and strengthening of the national movement of the non-russian people of Russia. Despite considerable expansion of school network, it nevertheless did not meet needs of the non-russian people for education.

1 Yu.I. Smykov, L.N. Goncharenko. The national structure of the population of the Volga region in to. The 19th century//the Ethnic question in Tataria of the pre-October period. Kazan, 1900. Page 99.
2 N.V. Taldin. Essays of history of the Mordovian school. Saransk, 1956. Page 7.
3 A. Glebov. About Tatars of the Penza province//the Penza provincial sheets. 1860. No. 18-19.
4 State Archive of the Penza Region (SAPR). T. 5. Op. 1. 7080. L. 146.
5 GAPO. T. 5. Op. 1. 7080. L. 300.
6 R.M. Mukhamedshin. Education system. Cultural development at the beginning of the 20th century. Kazan, 2004. Page 183.
7 The first general population census of the Russian Empire, 1897. The edition of the Central statistical committee Ministries of Internal Affairs / Under the editorship of N.A. Troynitsky. XXVI. Samara province. Page 8, 9.
8 L.I. Birger. National education in the Samara province before the October revolution//Scientific notes of the Kuibyshev state Pedagogical Institute of V.V.Kuibyshev. Issue 41. 1963. Page 482.
9 1863-1864 are Statistical data on a condition of national literacy in the Samara province//the Samara Volga region with antiquity until the end of the 19th century: Sb. documents and materials. Publishing house of scientific center of the Russian Academy of Sciences; 2000. Page 316.
10 In the same place. Page 318.
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