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Publishing of Statistical committee of Area of army of Donskoy (the second half of XIX - the beginning of the 20th century)



UDK 655.11.3

PUBLISHING of STATISTICAL COMMITTEE

AREAS of ARMY of DONSKOY (the SECOND HALF of XIX - the BEGINNING of the 20th CENTURY)

© 2011 urban districts A. Gorobets

Pedagogical Institute of Southern Federal University, Pedagogical Institute of Southern Federal University,

B. Sadovaya St., 33, Rostov-on-Don, 344082, B. Sadovaya St., 33, Rostov-on-Don, 344082,

rspu@pi. sfedu. ru rspu@pi. sfedu. ru

The history of publishing of Statistical committee of Army of Donskoy created in 1839 according to the decision of the government under the name of the Novocherkassk statistical committee is investigated. The various publishing products of Statistical committee in the form of memorable books, works, collections, descriptions with the purposeful and systematic publication of sources on history, archeology, ethnography of edge were an effective form of representation of scientific and local history researches to Dona. As a result life is created the peculiar scientific complex which is still keeping the value for researchers.

Explores the history ofpublishing activities of the Statistic Committee of the Don Army, created in 1839 by the government decision under the name of Novocherkassk Statistic Committee. Various publishing production of the Statistic Committee in the form of commemorative books, works, collections, descriptions with the purposeful and regular publication of sources on history, archeology, ethnography of the region was the effective form of the representation of researches science and natural history research on the Don. As a result there was created an original scientific complex that retains its value to researchers up to now.

One of the most important aspects of activity of the Don Statistical committee, as well as similar institutions in other regions of the Russian Empire, were preparation and the edition of the various scientific literature devoted to studying edge. For years of existence of the statkomitet a lot of such literature was published. The analysis of its subject and contents allows to understand character and features of activity of this establishment, its scientific value and the place in development of regional culture.

The overview of history of statistics in Russia of the end XIX - the beginning of the 20th century gives M.V. Ptukh [1]. The main vnima-

ny he gives to origin of statistics and its formation on new, scientific level. Provincial statistical committees, and then the provincial scientific archival commissions of Russia created original scientific infrastructure of the country. The huge massif of the historical, archaeological, ethnographic sources written and published in the province as it was noted by the author, remained unclaimed. N.M. Balatskaya and A.I. Razdorsky made attempt to systematize the saved-up printing material of provinces and areas of the Russian Empire since 1836 [2]. A.I. Agafonov emphasizing addressed a publishing subject statkomite-that to Dona

great value of periodicals. According to him, the main attention of editorial board of "Collections" was directed to studying activity of outstanding persons in the Don history, education and education, settling and economic development of the Don earth [3]. According to M.N. Tarasova, activity of the Don statkomitet, as well as other local statistical committees, in general "was concentrated on issue of serial editions". She emphasized exclusively positive value of this activity for the province. There was an opportunity to systematically publish materials on history, statistics, economy, ethnography of Don region that formed public consciousness of residents of the area [4].

Establishment of provincial statistical committees in Russia belongs to 1834. They were created for needs of the Ministry of Internal Affairs, in connection with the increased requirement of the government for the checked and evidence-based local statistical data of which there was statistics of the country. The statistical office (since 1848 - the Central statistical committee) the Ministries of Internal Affairs was the highest authority for provincial committees.

Education of Regional army of the Don Statistical committee was provided by "The provision on management of the Don army". It was open on July 16, 1839 on the basis of the order of the director of the department of military settlements under the name "Novocherkassk Statistical Committee" [5]. At first the existence the committee had no means and existed only on donations, being engaged in collecting of statistical materials on Area of army of Donskoy.

Under the influence of the new structure of the public statistical service and reforms in the system of national education, collecting and introduction to scientific turnover of considerable statistical materials and expansions of opportunities for publications of statistical works and researches practical statistics in Russia of the second half of the 19th century in comparison with last century becomes more perfect. It belonged to the system of the organization in collecting of concrete data on various aspects of life of the Russian society thanks to what big actual material for the subsequent scientific analysis collected. Developed at the same time a statistical thought and its scientific-theoretical bases [1, page 5].

Since 1865. The statistical committee began to exist on a new basis. The means determined by a provincial sample were allocated for maintenance of needs of committee, there was an opportunity to publish own works and collections [4, page 43]. Periodicals begin to take the important place among sources on the history of the Area of army of Donskoy.

The keen interest in the historical past took minds of the intellectuals of the country and provincial towns. In many of them in the first half of the 19th century attempts to expand and to somehow organize work on versatile studying provinces are made, there are first experiments of such study, increases vni-

manias to archeological and ethnographic sites, to archive materials, begin their purposeful search. The local history thought of Russia generated a peculiar form of works - "Descriptions" of certain provinces, counties and cities. Authors and contemporaries of these researches considered them generation of "local, regional" a historiography though according to contents of "Description" had broader and even universal character. Historical data in them were reported along with statistical (economic), geographical, sometimes ethnographic.

The Don earth was not an exception. The area of army of Donskoy had by the end of the 19th century already three "Statistical descriptions". The first in time is made in 1834 by the major general I.F. Bogdanovich and the officer of army attached to him [6]. This work was very solid, but gradually its data became outdated. There is no historical essay at it, but there is a description of army regalia, rights and privileges of army. This work comprises the geographical and topographical description of area. The second in time work was published in 1863 under the name "Materials for Geography and Statistics of Russia". "Earth of army of Donskoy" [6, l. 13]. The author of this work, the full member of statistical committee N.I. Krasnov, managed to give the full set of the statistical data existing at that time. As well as I.F. Bogdanovich's work, N.I. Krasnov's work was divided into the same parts, however in it there were some additions. The historical essay, special chapter about education with division on religious, intellectual and moral and also the head "Internal and external life of Cossacks" [6, l was added. 13 about].

In 1869 the "Statistical review of army of Donskoy for 1868" made by the secretary of Statistical committee A.M. Savelyev was published. In it there was no number of the data relating to geography, topography, hydrography, to some questions of history and culture. However and some other data from A.M. Savelyev's review were outdated. So, the national census of 1873 gave absolutely new data on the population, than it was in a review, distribution of lands also changed. Therefore, data from A.M. Savelyev's review became outdated in several years after its exit to the public [6, l. 13 about].

Other scientific products published statkomite-volume, its "Descriptions" have universal character. They submit the main type of local history publications of the first and second half of the 19th century that was defined by a number of factors of scientific, public and state life of the country. They were result of gradual strengthening of impact of the science developing in Russia on the study of local lore passing on a joint of various fields of knowledge and also were generated by a condition of local history work of that time. Requirements of provincial cultural society for local history knowledge were big. Realizing the fact of existence of such cultural requirements and having faced at all not studied past and the present of regions of the country, members of local statkomitet made an attempt to capture whenever possible more wide range in -

the pro-owls belonging to knowledge of edge. At last, local history works of the first and second half of the 19th century were created under strong influence of government care of the organization of statistical service. Feeling the need for the exact, checked statistical data, the power sought to assign functions of collecting and processing of these data to local historians at statistical committees on places. At the same time in their works first of all the checked statistical material was appreciated. In the conditions of Russia 19th century merging of research requirements with a government initiative of their organization even if on the basis of uzkostatistichesky tasks, was an important factor of local history work. In the course of the development it gradually overcame a narrow framework of the tasks set by the power nominated to a first line studying local history in its various manifestations.

Publishing of the statkomitet can be divided into several stages. The first began since 1866 when "Memorable books of Department of Internal Affairs" were published. They represented the official universal reference media. Many of them, especially early, published in the middle of the 19th century, differ in bad safety, difficult and non-standard publishing registration. For example, in them there were two title pages with the different text, divergences in titles on the title page and on a cover were noticeable.

Memorable books stand among the most valuable local editions of the Russian Empire - regional (provincial) sheets, diocesan sheets, works of the regional (provincial) scientific archival commissions. The special value of memorable books is that they allow to recreate a picture of life of provinces and areas, the certain settlement, to receive first-hand the information about structure and classes of residents of the area (province) which is not distorted by the latest amendments, a state of nature, economy, culture, life, to watch the changes happening in the area or the province in a year. In many provinces and areas the memorable books became the first and then for many years the most stable and considerable local editions. From this point of view they are of undoubted interest to historians [2, page 8]. In Regional Statistical committee of Donskoy's army an author of memorable books was I.P. Popov. According to the order of the army nakazny ataman he held a position of the secretary of committee and for many years was his full member. Feature of some memorable books was "The historical department", in it not only historical acts, but also the small researches concerning Don region [7] were located.

Usual ways of distribution of memorable books were sale within the area and the province, distribution on networks of local institutions and exchange of editions between statistical committees. The order of distribution was defined statkomitety. So, concerning the memorable book for 1881 it was specified that it needs "to be dispatched in the subject institutions, and to equally Honorary and Full members of committee on an example of former years and to release private

to persons, not over 10% of cost of the edition" were paid for the commission on sale of books [8]. Constant exchange of editions was provided in what expressed interest regional statkomiteta. So, wishing "to fill up the library with the editions of other statistical institutions and scientific societies of the Empire which are not available in it", the Kuban regional statistical committee asked "to send in exchange in one copy of all editions of the Don regional statistical committee" [9, page 3].

However "Memorable books" could not follow completely the main directions and the principles of studying history of Don region. In 1867. The statistical committee publishes the first issue of Truds that was the second stage in publishing. On the structure defined statkomitety Truds were divided into two departments. In the first articles of research character were located, the second department was given for the publication of sources of various origin on the history of Don region. A.M. Savelyev under whose edition there was this first Trud, understood that for studying edge undoubtedly rich material will give identification, the description and studying written and material ancient monuments. But, the met objective difficulties on collecting the archive material and not supported by army administration, statistical committee publishes the second and last collection such in 1874

The third stage begins since 1901 when the "Collections of Regional army of the Don statistical committee", more available, than "Memorable books" are published. They also treat the category of the official periodical press. Entered into group of authors of this edition both representatives of army administration, and the famous Don historians, publicists, local historians, public figures, one of whom was A.A. Kirillov. Since 1901 he became the member of drafting panel according to the edition of "Collections". Peru this historian possesses a large number of publications of documents on the history of Don and also articles about formation of the Don diocese, activity of clergy, construction and architecture of the Don churches, secular and spiritual education in the field of Donskoy's Army, military and household history of the Cossacks. In 1888 for works on studying Don region A.A. Kirillov is elected the member of Regional army of the Don statistical committee, at this position it remained till 1917 [10, page 165]. "Collections" were under construction according to the same scheme that it was developed for "Works of Department of Internal Affairs of statistical committee". The structure of arrangement of material inherited from Truds in "Collections" allowed to capture all aspects of life of Don region. But what is very important, new documents from archives of Moscow, St. Petersburg, regional army and provincial, published in the second department were introduced for scientific use.

In the preface to the first release the members of the committee H.I. Popov, I.P. Popov, M.K. Kalmykov made the program of the edition. It was decided to print articles on history, statistics, ethnography on various regional questions, researches about last and modern life of Don, the small notes separate historical

acts. Members of the committee considered collections as publishing, research and public and popular body. 13 collections in which articles on history, geography, ethnography, religion, statistics, to agriculture, the industry of edge are published were published.

Thus, the Statistical committee of Area of army of Donskoy gradually began to create original scientific humanitarian infrastructure of edge. Under "The provision on provincial and regional statistical committees" of December 26, 1860 the radical restructuring of provincial statistical committees which allowed them to become the main and only scientific and publishing centers in the majority of the provinces of Russia was carried out. Requirements to committee constantly increase, periodic collecting and bringing of data on various questions, for example, of crops and about a harvest of bread, about the population and on others is established.

Blossoming of scientific activity of Statistical committee of Area of army of Donskoy is the share of the end of XIX - the beginning of the 20th century. The most valuable source on the history of Don region of the studied period is the complex of the published documents and periodicals of committee: collections, works, descriptions, memorable books. Was whenever possible fuller to collect by the purpose of their edition historical, geographical, statistical data of edge which, renewing and being updated annually, could slu-

Came to edition

to live materials for a detailed systematic research of Area of army of Donskoy.

Literature

1. M.V. Ptukh. Essays on the history of statistics in the USSR. M, 1959. T. 2.
2. N.M. Balatskaya, A.I. Razdorsky. Memorable books of provinces and areas of the Russian Empire (1836 - 1917). SPb., 1994.
3. A.I. Agafonov. Collections of Area of army of the Don statistical committee as historical source//Don vremennik. 1999.
4. M.N. Tarasova. Periodicals of the Don statistical committee//Local history notes. Novocherkassk, 2005. Issue 7.
5. GARO. T. 353. Op. 1. 2. L. 2.
6. In the same place. 251.
7. A.A. Kirillov. Ivan Petrovich Popov's memories//Collection of Regional army of the Don statistical committee. Novocherkassk, 1907. Issue 7. Page 1 - 7.
8. GARO. T. 353. Op. 1. 25. L. 2; 223. L. 5; 238. L. 6; 330. L. 2.
9. I. Popov. Regional Donskoy's troops statistical committee in the first years of its existence//Collection of Regional army of the Don statistical committee. Novocherkassk, 1901. Issue 1.
10. A.I. Agafonov. Our local historians. Andrey Aleksandrovich Kirillov//Donskoy vremennik. 2006. Issue 1.

On October 18, 2010

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