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Institute of military history of the Ministry of Defence of the Russian Federation, Moscow

Article is devoted to the Europeans who got to Turkestan at the end of XIX - the beginning of the 20th centuries. It is shown that after conquest of Turkestan by the Russian Empire in the region there was a network of educational institutions of the European sample in which natives of Europe taught. Europeans were a noticeable layer among the Turkestan intellectuals and made a considerable contribution to studying the Russian Turkestan and formation of the humanity of the region


The article is devoted to the Europeans migrated to Turkestan in the late XIX - early XX centuries. It is shown that after the subjugation of Turkestan by the Russian Empire a network of educational institutions of the European model in which natives of Europe taught emerged in the region. The Europeans were an appreciable layer among Turkestani intelligentsia and made a considerable contribution to studying the Russian Turkestan and the formation of the humanities of the region

Natives of the countries of Western, Central and Northern Europe left a noticeable mark in the history of Turkestan [1]. At first sight can seem that because of small number they could not have serious impact in the sphere of science and education, in general cultural life of the region. But at more in-depth and comprehensive study it becomes obvious that it is not that case where quantity in direct ratio to quality. First of all, it is connected with existence in the list of the Europeans of considerable number of the intellectuals arriving in the region.

At the end of XIX - the beginning of the 20th century the edge had deficiency not only in highly skilled engineers, mechanics, builders, workers of agriculture, but also in experts of different fields of science and, especially in the educational sphere. After conquest of Turkestan by the Russian Empire in the region there was a network of educational institutions of the European sample. These educational institutions began training of specialists who made a big contribution to further studying edge and development of production. It is a lot of natives of Europe who were very much appreciated professional qualities, we will find among teaching staff of educational institutions of edge. They were very noticeable layer among the Turkestan intellectuals. In this regard, for example, it is possible to note activity of Germans: M.G. Shota - the teacher Tash -

the Kentish commercial school, M.F. Mazinga, A.M. Kong - teachers of the Tashkent real school, N.A. Pfeyfer - the teacher of the Tashkent female gymnasium; French: G.A. de Bongar - the teacher of mathematics and French [2] in the Tashkent military school, A. Lafonda - the teacher of French of the Samarkand men's gymnasium; Swiss Lidiya Viss (in Korotkova's marriage) who arrived to Tashkent in 1905 for work as the governess and taught French in the Tashkent military school, Czech Schneider is teachers of parish schools in Tashkent and many others [3].

Besides, home education, as well as in all empire, became widespread in the Russian Turkestan. In the second half of the 19th century in the region there are governesses and tutors living there is constant or temporary. Among them generally there were natives of England, France and Switzerland. As house English teachers and French they worked in Samarkand, Tashkent, Skobelev (nowadays Fergana - Since) and other large cities. In everyday life and professional activity they were more connected with the Russian military and official layers and merchants and practically did not contact to indigenous people of the region [4].

Active inflow of the European scientists begins with the second half of the 19th century to Central Asia and

the travelers coming alone or as a part of scientific expeditions [5]. In total during the period from 1871 to 1914 Central Asia with the scientific purposes was visited by more than 30 Austrian and German and about 20 French scientists.

Among them Joseph-Antoine Castanie's figure is of the greatest interest. His hobbies: archeology, ethnography, linguistics, history.

It it was very positively remembered by the academician V.V. Bartold when he wrote that "would be quite possible now to make the archaeological map of Turkestan on which amendments and additions could be brought subsequently especially as performance of this work is substantially prepared by one of Kastanye's researchers who recently left country". Bartold noted strict scientific approach of Kastanye assembled of archaeological material, so rare for amateur archeologists of that time. Here original opinion on this occasion of the largest orientalist: "From private collections of archaeological objects with which I managed to get acquainted it is possible to mention the meeting belonging to Zh.A. Kastanye. The meeting is result of numerous business trips and traveling and is stored in a full order; the origin of each subject is precisely specified".

Some time of Kastanye worked on drawing up the archaeological map of Central Asia, was a member in archaeological section of the Commission on protection of ancient monuments and art of Turkestan. Having forcedly left Turkestan in 1917, it forever kept love for edge. In France Ruo-zef Kastane sadly wrote in the book: "These immense monotonous and sad plains, these fertile oases and these moving deserts - Turkestan, the real country of contrasts and greatness. Everything in it extremely touches...". In Zh. Kastanye's emigration created a cycle of the works devoted to the history of Turkestan. These works in the Soviet historiography were considered tendentiously, the archeologist was declared "the agent of imperialistic powers".

Before World War I from Paris to Samarkand there came other French linguist Gaultier for study Sughd (yagnobsko-go) language in connection with drawing up the first Sughd grammar [6]. In 1896-1897 and in 1899 in Bukhara, members of the Danish expedition to Pamir stopped. One of them, Ol Olyufsen, the lieutenant of the Danish army, subsequently professor of geography, gave the collection containing more than 700 objects to the National museum in Copenhagen. Besides, it made more than one hundred pictures which depicted ethnic types of the people living in the Bukhara emirate and also an edge sight. The Dane published results of travel in the book "Emir of Bukhara and His Country" which appeared in London in 1911 in English. In the monograph pearls of medieval architecture of Central Asia of the mausoleum Samanidov were for the first time described.

In 1896-1897 the member of the Turkestan circle of fans of archeology to the Finn V.A. Kallaur by means of several locals managed to find one of three stones with runic the letter -

us in the natural boundary Ayratam (the foothills of the Talas Alatau - Since). After this find in the spring of 1898 in Talas there arrived the special archaeological expedition of Finno-Ugric scientific society from three employees - the master of philosophy G.I. Gey-kelya, the baron Munch and professor O. Donner. To Scandinavians has the luck to find two more stones with runic inscriptions. One of them in 1899 was taken out to Helsingfors. After decoding of runic writing the scientists established that inscriptions belong to Turkic peoples, and it was the second largest language family in the territory of the Russian Empire after Slavs [7].

In the ethnographic plan Turkestan interested many researchers. At the end of the XIX century to the region there arrived the German scientist-ethnologist of Bas-tian [8] who gave the small jugs (ancient vessels) presented to it in Tashkent to the Berlin museum. Left fine models of ethnographic chronicles, the visited Turkestan in 1895 the German artist Richard Sommer. Great Britain subject F. Grant for the purpose of ethnographic researches visited Tashkent and Merv in 1911. The examples given above far do not exhaust all list of the researchers foreigners who got acquainted with edge by 1917

It should be noted that researches in the field of various directions of science are medicine, stories, geography, region economies - were carried out by generally German and Austrian scientists. For example, in 1871 professor V. Petsgold visited Turkestan for the purpose of study and collecting geographical data. Other traveler Max von Proskowez wrote the book about trade and agriculture of Bukhara and Samarkand subsequently.

In the 80th of the 19th century the ornithologist Valigrian Russov made a number of trips and gave the description to 3,500 bird species of Turkestan [9]. In 1897 the German doctor V. Zellerbek [10] visited the Zakaspiysky region, Turkestan and Bukhara with the scientific purpose.

In 1911 the privatdozent of the University of Vienna U. Mokhel and also the German citizens K. Vild, K. Reyter, A. Bronner made a two-month trip with the scientific purposes around the Turkestan region [11].

It is separately possible to allocate merits of Europeans in the field of development of medicine. In 1908 at the initiative of A. Schwartz the Society of scientists and doctors of Turkestan was created, and in 19101913 under the leadership of Ropp with participation it is mute - tsev-Mennonite in Khiva the hospital of the European sample and mail were constructed [12].

Speaking about development of medicine and chemical science in the region it is impossible to avoid activity of the German doctors of G.G. Fegler - the chief physician and the manager of the Tashkent city out-patient clinic, K.O. Reyngart - the chief health officer of edge, H. Tsenner - the managing director of the Tashkent city pharmacy [13].

I.I. Krause, besides business activity, was the organizer of the first regional chemical laboratory in Tashkent for check of sanitary standards in the made products. It also opened the first pharmacy in the region and had a reputation for the famous pharmacist.

Germans were engaged in gardening of edge, delivered seeds of forest breeds, created nursery forests. In Tashkent and its vicinities, forestry specialists and gardeners - the father and Grebera's son and V. Gross lived and worked. The fine garden at the palace of the grand duke N.K. Romanov with rectangular breakdown of the avenues set with the Russian oaks, pines, fir-trees, lindens and other imported trees was created by I.I. Krause. The considerable contribution to creation of a gene pool of local grades of fruit trees and grapes was brought by the enthusiast of it put K. Zaring [14].

Many of the European scientists came here to Turkestan not only for the period of the researches or collecting exhibits, but also remained here, continuing the scientific activity. Some of them before arrival to Turkestan lived in Russia though they ethnically were natives of the Western European countries. Especially much among them was ethnic Germans. This is R.R. Schröder [15], E.K. Beth-ger [16], I .I. Geyer, L.S. Berg, A.F. Middendorf, G.K. Rizenkampf, P.I. Lerkh, V.V. Bartold, A. Schmidt, A. Kuhn and many others [17].

Concerning scientific heritage of I.I. Geyer, it should be noted the width of range of its research interests. It visually illustrates the list of its main scientific works: "Up Pyandzhu", "Country colonization of Syr-Daryinsky area", "Domestic industries in Tashkent", "On the Russian settlements of Syr-Daryinsky area", "The collection of materials for statistics of Syr-Daryinsky area", "Turkestan guide", Turkestan. Also Geyer took active part in work of the biological station founded in 1899 and the Pathological office at the Turkestan society of agriculture [18].

A.F. Middendorf's work the Fergana Valley devoted to comprehensive study of the national economy of Turkestan [19] is of Great interest.

The considerable contribution to studying edge was made by L.S. Berg who worked in 1899-1903 in the Turkestan department of the Russian Geographical Society. He investigated the largest reservoirs of Central Asia - the Aral Sea and Lake Balkhash. In 1908 the monograph by Berg Aral Sea in which results of its research are stated and generalized was published. Work contains rich historiographic data on settling of Amu Darya and Pri-aralya in connection with changes of the water mode and fluctuations of level of the Aral Sea [20].

Great attention is deserved by P.I. Lerkh's works containing historical and geographical data on an ancient era and the Middle Ages in the territory of the Khivan khanate [21].

We know also of various scientific expeditions which purpose was no Turkestan, but, getting here in transit, their participants asked for permission at the Russian government to carry out collecting any exhibits for researches and museum collections. Here some examples: the Austrian citizen, the member of the Russian entomological society in St. Petersburg - Iosif Gabergau-er asked for permission to journey through Turkestan to China and carrying out necessary scientific collecting in Turkestan [22]; German expedition Bremen

go the Geographical Society [23] to Western Siberia asked for permission to holding a fact-finding excursion to the Semirechensky region for the purpose of zoological researches [24].

Among the Europeans who visited Turkestan was much just adventurers travelers or businessmen. But Turkestan so struck them that they left the diary entries which are of considerable interest to the modern researcher. They are curious also because unlike notes and reports of professional scientists, were made without thinking about the tsarist government [25]. Are fascinating as well diaries of Europeans who long lived in Turkestan as obliges. Many of them are not published and are stored in various archives of the world therefore it is difficult to estimate up to the end their importance and scientific value.

Thus, even from such overview obviously that Europeans - natives of Western, Central and Northern Europe made a considerable contribution to studying the Russian Turkestan and formation of such branches of science as history, ethnography, archeology, geography, economy, medicine, etc. here many fundamental scientific works which and a century later, did not lose the relevance and scientific value Were written. Many of works of the European scientists were published that was a further push for drawing attention of new generations of researchers to the rich history and a peculiar culture of Turkestan. At the same time modern scientists should pay attention not so much to eminent scientists whose works are already property of world scientific community and, undoubtedly, deserve not one more special scientific research, but also those whose works are less known, or are unknown at all.

Literature and comments

1. The most part of natives of the countries of Western, Central and Northern Europe for the period of emergence in the Russian Turkestan were dews - siysko - citizens and arrived together with the Russian immigrants here after 1867. However Europeans-inostrannopoddannye also began to arrive to the same time to the region.
2. Georgy was born Avgustovich de Bongar in one of suburbs of Paris in 1872. In Moscow there lived his aunt madam Siu who owned chocolate factory. Somehow she invited the young nephew on a visit. In Moscow it was pleasant to Georgy. Accepted Orthodoxy. Having quickly mastered Russian, came to one of military colleges. Upon termination of study in 1901 it was sent to Tashkent in a rank of the shtabs-captain of a cavalry regiment to teach mathematics and French in military school.
3. A.M. Matveev. From history of the western and southern Slavs in Central Asia at the end of XIX - the beginning of the 20th centuries//the Soviet Slavic studies: Materials of the IV conference of historians-Slavists. Minsk, 1969. Page 442.
4. We will bring some from the available numerous examples. Ms. Englishwoman

A horn served as the governess at the governor general of edge L.V. Vrevsky. The governess Louise Bisson is French-citizen, six years worked in Tashkent (since 1910), then year in Kokand. I.I. Geyer also began the activity in Tashkent as the private teacher. Soon according to the recommendation it was presented to the military governor of the area Syr-Daryin-skoy N.I. Gradekov. On March 20, 1890 it was accepted on public service as the secretary of Syr-Daryinsky statistical committee. After its huge educational abilities were shown in holding the most interesting lectures from the "Society of national readings" which opened in Tashkent on March 25, 1898. These lectures it sought "to distract the people from festive revelry and it is reasonable to give it the chance and it is useful to spend hours of festive rest".

5. Among them were: the French - R. Bonaparte, L. Blo, Zh. Brosherel, B. de Lacoste, G. Kapyu, Zh. Shaffanzhon, G. Dovern, E. Galois, G. Durant, G. Krafft, P. Labbe, P. Lessar, E. Mayar, Zh. Marten, G. Moser , P. Kadar, de Ponsen, A. Roger Viole, Sh.E. Uyfalvi, S. Saly, etc.; Germans - K. Vild, H. Reyter, A. Bronner, V. Petsgold, M. von Proskowez, A.K. Geyer, V. Russov, etc.; British - F. Grant, J. Peacock and many others.
6. The essay of the Sughd language finished by R. Gaultier in 1913 entered scientific use only after 1923. This essay reflects the first achievements of a sogdologiya, in it there is no statement of the Sughd morphology yet though R. Gaultier who published the Sughd izvoda "Vessantara of a dzhataka" and "Sutra of causes and effects" and watching closely the first publications of Sughd and Christian texts had already considerable material on grammar of the Sughd language. (Pioneers in learning the Sughd language were also - K.G. Zaleman, F.V. Müller, A. Meye, E. Benvenist, P. Tedesco). All these scientists when studying grammar attracted materials of yagnobsky language which as it was established in the first decade of the 20th century, is a descendant of one of the Sughd dialects. M.M. Iskhakov. A verb in the Sughd language (documents from the mountain Mug). Tashkent, 1977. Page 5-6.
7. Already presently the famous orientalist G.S. Klyashtorny specified that all Epi-tafiynykh group of runic monuments of Talas of a palegraficheska is absolutely uniform and is dated no later than the middle of the 13th century
8. CGA RUz. T. I-3. Op. 1. 34. L. 24.
9. R.R. Nazarov, V.R. Aliyeva, D.M. Yunusova. To

the history of formation of the German diaspora in Turkestan//Uzbekistonda etnodemografik zharayonlar (halkaro a conference material lari) I kism. Tashkent, 2005. Page 215.

10. V. Zellerbek is a doctor of the Guards infantry division in Berlin.
11. CGA RUz. T. I-20. Op. 1. 1241. L. 20, 64.
12. R.R. Nazarov, V.R. Aliyeva, D.M. Yunusova. Decree soch. Page 216.
13. S.R. Konopka. Turkestan region. Tashkent, 1912. Page 32-38, 41,43,47, etc.
14. Republican center of Germans of Uzbekistan access "Renaissance" / Mode: schur. gmx. de
15. Dane R.R. Schröder is the large scientist-selector, since the end of 1902 managed the Turkestan agricultural station near Tashkent (successfully worked in the field of biology, selection and an agrotechnology of a cotton; author of a grade of a cotton & #34; Шредер"), founded the scientific institute bearing now his name.
16. German E.K. Betger is a bibliographer, the founder of library science in Uzbekistan, the founder of the State public library of Navoiy, the collector of rare manuscripts.
17. It is possible to rank as this number of scientists partly and those whose ancestors were the natives interesting us, but at the time of emergence in Turkestan they already became the Russian citizen. For example, the outstanding archeologist of Central Asia academician M.E. Mason, and the grandson of Dane T.N. Nielsen - the ancestor of post and cable communication in Turkestan had the English roots - V.A. Nielsen became the doctor of architecture. The great specialist geologist Konstantin Vendland, subsequently the celibate priest Ioann, the Metropolitan New York had the German and Swedish roots.
18. D.Yu. Misharev. A contribution of outstanding representatives of the German diaspora to development of the Turkestan region in the second half of XIX - the beginning of the XX centuries: I.I. Geyer//Uzbekiston - yes etnodemografik zharayonlar (halkaro a materiallara conference) I kism. Tashkent, 2005. Page 209.
19. History of Uzbekistan. T. 2. Tashkent, 1968. Page 442.
20. In the same place. Page 447.
21. In the same place. Page 448.
22. CGA RUz. T. I-1. Op. 34. 692. L. 85.
23. Structure of an expedition: Brim, Finch, Valdburg-Tseyl//CGA RUz. T. I-1. Op. 20. 8791. L. 1-6.
24. In more detail about activity of this expedition see the diary of the lieutenant colonel Friderikh accompanying them//CGA RUz. T. I-1. Op. 20. 8791. L. 23-29.
25. In 1899 Turkestan as tourists was visited by two Englishwomen - Günter and Ganbury which left descriptions of edge.
Harrington Thomas
Other scientific works: