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Territorial statisticians at congresses of the Russian scientists and doctors



sergy LYoVIN

TERRITORIAL STATISTICIANS AT CONGRESSES of the RUSSIAN SCIENTISTS AND DOCTORS

Important milestones in development of territorial statistics of a stapa congresses of the Russian scientists and doctors which took place in the end of XIX - the beginning of the 20th centuries. On them topical issues of territorial statistics were considered. The recommendations accepted at congresses found practical application.

The congresses of Russian natural scientists and doctors at the end of the 19th - the beginning of the 20th centuries were the important landmarks in the development of zemstvo statistics. They considered the topical issues of zemstvo statistics. The decisions of the congresses found their application in practical activities.

report, territorial statisticians, discussion, estimated works, program, congress; report, zemstvo statisticians, discussion, evaluation works, program, congress.

LYoVIN

Sergey

Vladimirovich — to. and. N, associate professor of history of the Balashov institute of SGU of N.G. Chernyshevsky 8eshch. Etp @ yandex.ru

The congresses of scientists and doctors which took place in 1894, 1898, 1901 and 1909 became important milestones in development of territorial statistics. Territorial statisticians took active part in work of these congresses also.

All attempts of territorial statisticians to gather in the capital or any provincial city for discussion of the professional questions came to an end without results. The government with undisguised suspicion treated territorial statisticians, including them "dangerous propagandists", "messengers of the revolutionary ideas". Meanwhile, the tasks facing territorial statistics demanded the discussion and the decision. In particular, it was required to sum up the results of basic researches on economical statistically inspection of country farms. After adoption on June 8, 1893 of the law on assessment of lands and immovable imushchestvo it was necessary to develop criteria of definition of profitability of lands, rural and city real estate, to discuss methodological and organizational aspects of estimated works.

Therefore when preparation for the regular IX congress of scientists and doctors in Moscow began, professors of statistics A.I. Chuprov and A.F. Fortunatov appealed to organizers of a congress to put statistics section into its operation. Independent section to territorial statisticians it was refused. The administrative committee on the organization of a congress made the decision to allocate in geography section statistics subsection that statisticians apprehended as undoubted success. It became the beginning of "broad organized communication of the Russian statisticians at congresses of the Russian scientists and doctors" 1.

To the IX congress in 1894 there arrived about 100 statisticians representing 16 territorial provinces. More all participants (21 statisticians) were delegated by the Moscow province. From the St. Petersburg and Nizhny Novgorod provinces there arrived about 10 statisticians. Eight members of a congress presented the Voronezh and Kherson provinces. On only one participant was present at a congress from Vyatka, Novgorod, Ryazan, Kharkiv and Chernihiv guberniy2.

The following was the most important issues which were discussed at statistics subsection meetings: development crumpled

1 Z.M. Svavitskaya. The Moscow university and territorial statistics//Essays on the history of statistics of the USSR: collection of articles. — M, 1957, No. 2, page 98.
2 Statistics subsection meeting on January 11//the Diary of the IX congress of the Russian scientists and doctors / under the editorship of D.N. Zernov. — M, 1894, No. 10, page 2.

Dov and methods of carrying out estimated works in territorial provinces according to Rules of assessment of immovable imu-shchestvo for taxation by the territorial collecting approved on June 8, 1893; organization of the current statistics; discussion of problems of school statistics. Actually, these three groups of questions were considered by statisticians and at the subsequent congresses of scientists and doctors.

The question of methodology of estimated researches was the central issue discussed at the IX congress. Not all territorial statisticians were positive to the new law. Negative assessment was caused by the provision on creation of provincial and district evaluation committees which had to control carrying out estimated works as district territorial justices.

The commissions on the organization of the current agricultural and school statistics came to a conclusion about need of reorganization of the current agricultural statistics and drawing up the special program of collection of data on a question of national education according to the law of June 8, 1893. A.V. Peshekhonov who made the report "To a question of the current territorial statistics" suggested to unite in counties correspondents, voluntarily collecting data for statistical bureaus, in local statistical institutions. S.N. Subbotin pointed to an opportunity and desirability of attraction to collecting statistical material of rural heads. A.A. Rusov offered in each county and even the largest volosts to establish positions of district and local (volost) territorial statisticians.

The main sections of the program and also the purpose and task of school statistics were planned in the report of the famous territorial figure and publicist D.I. Shakhovsky. It provided data on a condition of statistics of national education on 31 provinces that, according to I.M. Bogdanov, "is the first in statistical literature report executed according to the extensive program characterizing school network of the city and village with big detail..."!.

1 I.M. Bogdanov. Questions of statistics of national education at congresses and meetings of the Russian statisticians (till 1905)//Essays on the history of statistics of the USSR: collection of articles. — M, 1957, No. 2, page 158.

The X congress of scientists and doctors which took place in August, 1898 in Kiev brought together already 138 statisticians, 30 reports were submitted, 7 meetings took place, as a part of a subsection of statistics 6 commissions worked, and "the number of the persons attending meetings hesitated from 150 to 200 people" 2. Summing up estimated works, a condition of the current statistics, change of programs of school statistics remained the main issues still.

On the first group of questions the report of the Kherson statistician P.P. Firsov "Factors of Land Profitability and Receptions of a Conclusion of Normal (Class) Profitability of Lands" in which for definition of profitability of the earth the following three principles were offered became central: "1) assessment has to be class, but not individual; 2) it is necessary to avoid at creation of estimated conclusions of difficult calculations; 3) it is necessary to distinguish two categories of factors of land profitability: a) following from the nature of things which influence has to be taken into consideration and b) obliged by the origin to will of any given group of persons which influence needs to be excluded from estimated data" 3. I.P. Belokonsky in the report "About abnormality of setting of estimated works" flayed the law of the June 8, 1893 which withdrew statistics from maintaining zemstvoes and transferred her to hands of evaluation committees. He suggested to abolish evaluation committees, and to transfer all works on definition of profitability of lands and real estate to hands of zemstvo.

All speakers stated an acute shortage in many zemstvoes of spetsi-alistov-statisticians which could carry out the assessment of lands and real estate, being guided by provisions of the law of June 8, 1893. In a number of zemstvoes started estimated works, being based on the data of household censuses of the country farms which are carried out in the 1880th. Definition of profitability of lands

became other, not less important problem
2 The minutes of a subsection of statistics on August 29//the Diary of the X congress of the Russian scientists and doctors in Kiev / under the editorship of L.L. Lund. — Kiev, 1898, 10, page 426.
3 The minutes of a subsection of statistics on August 22//the Diary of the X congress of the Russian scientists and doctors in Kiev / under the editorship of L.L. Lund. — Kiev, 1898, 3-4, page 83.

and immovable imushchestvo according to standards of Rules in areas, different in economic specialization.

Questions of estimated statistics, first of all the systems of group of country farms, were the focus of attention and at the XI congress of the Russian scientists and doctors which was taking place in December, 1901 in St. Petersburg. A.V. Peshekhonov's report "External conditions of territorial and statistical works" contained sharp criticism of Rules of assessment of immovable imushchestvo for taxation by territorial collecting which complicated statistics a number of incompatible or impracticable requirements, having replaced in many cases creative work of a critical thought as the regulations imposed from the outside 1.

Discussion of questions of school statistics, including definition of the general for all regions of school age of children and duration of training was not less rough at the X congress.

The discussion was caused also by A.E. Lositsky's report "To a question of studying literacy of the population of Russia". On the basis of the carried-out analysis of statistical material on several counties of provinces of Lower Volga area, A.E. Lositsky came to a conclusion about direct dependence between literacy of peasants and the sizes of their acreage: the less these sizes, the bigger development are gained, respectively, by seasonal and local domestic industries, and it, in turn, contributes to the development of literacy among country people.

At the XII congress of the Russian scientists and doctors from 49 reports and messages only in 19 territorial estimated statistical works were considered, 11 reports were devoted to labor statistics questions, 5 — resettlement policy on the law of November 9, 1906, 4 — to the analysis of the law. Also general questions of statistical science, economic division into districts, statistics of the woods, the systems of agriculture and use of fertilizers, literacy of the population, insurance statistics understood. The special commission which, according to Z.M. Svavitskaya, can be considered "the first

1 A.V. Peshekhonov was organized. External conditions of territorial and statistical works//Works of a subsection of statistics of the XI congress of the Russian scientists and doctors in

St. Petersburg on December 20 — 30, 1901, page 481.

experience of discussion of questions of labor statistics" 2.

So, congresses of the Russian scientists and doctors, undoubtedly, became important milestones in development of territorial statistics. The issues discussed at statistics subsection meetings had not only narrowly professional value, they reflected the all-Russian trends in economy, the social sphere, national education. Accepted on June 8, 1893. Territorial collecting it is possible to call rules of assessment of immovable imushchestvo for taxation a turning point in the history of territorial statistics. It changed the purposes and problems of territorial statistical researches, having put on the first place estimated works, development of accurate criteria of definition of profitability of the lands which were in agricultural circulation and immovable imushchestvo, both rural, and city. It is thought, will not be considerable exaggeration to say that organizational execution of territorial estimated statistics begins with the X congress of the Russian scientists and doctors. On it rather general criteria of definition of profitability of lands and real estate were for the first time defined, the methodology of estimated works is developed. At congresses topical issues of national education, the correct organization and normal functioning of school statistics were considered.

Decisions of congresses had important practical value. The criteria elaborated at statistics subsection meetings for definition of profitability of lands, rural and city real estate were widely used by zemstvoes during estimated works. In a number of provinces and even counties there was current agricultural statistics reorganized according to the recommendations accepted at congresses. Congresses of the Russian scientists and doctors completed the organizational formation of territorial statistics which began in the 1880th and contributed to its forward development.

2 Z.M. Svavitskaya. Decree. soch., page 122.
Nielsen Arne
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