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Features of the Altai glassblowing in the second half to the XVIII first half of the 19th centuries



gard it is cynical and we consume for money, that is it takes "the consumer form". Therefore it is exclusive in this concrete a situation of the triumphing kitsch and "neonizm" the use of already familiar concepts "actor" and "tektura" which, in essence, are the same metaphors, as well as "post-art", and "post-person" is obviously possible. Art remains art, a kitsch - a kitsch, and the postmodernism ("post-art" V.A. Kutarev) never applied for the status of art, preferring to be called "not art", erasing sides between life and art, becoming the life. Postchelovek - the same person, about the Oprede-bibliography

lenny type of the aloof relations with the world [6]. Having been disappointed in reality, sometimes he goes to "world behind the looking-glass" of the computer screen, to the "onlaynovsky" games replacing life. And this new circumstance raises a number of the new questions demanding separate consideration. Emergence of computer reality - a celebration of the relations over the world of material objects? The person is eager for communication and receives it! He dialogichen - means is spiritual! The relation to own body as to an empty cover? What world human? The computer reality is an opening of the New World?

1. Kutyrev, BA Culture and technology: fight of the worlds [Text] of the I BA Kutyrev. - M.: Progress - Tradition, 2001.
2. Nikitina, И^. Interaction of art and ordinary consciousness as sociocultural system [Text] I KB. Nikitina. - Biysk:

Research Center BPGU to them B^. Shukshina, 2004.

3. Homer. Illiad. Odyssey. [Text] the I Homer. - M.: Education, 1987.
4. A tourist's rank, B.^ On labyrinths of vanguard [Text] I B.S.Turchin. - M.: MSU publishing house, 1993.
5. Simonov, П^. Origin of spirituality [Text] I B^ Simonov, P.M.

Yershov, Yu.P. Vyazemsky. - M.: Science, 1989.

6. Kuznetsova, O.N. The archaic nature of alienation of the person from the world and modern ecological crisis [Text] of the I O.N. Kuznetsov. - Biysk: BPGU to them BM. Shukshina, 2006.

Article came to edition 5.03.09

UDC 7. 01; 7: 001. 8

L.Yu. Alekseeva, graduate student of AltGU, Biysk

FEATURES of the ALTAI GLASSBLOWING IN the SECOND HALF of XVIII - the FIRST HALF of the 19th CENTURIES

Article is devoted to the history of development of the Barnaul glass plant. It is the first glass plant in Siberia which existed nearly hundred years. The author comes to a conclusion that activity of glass plant affected appearance of the city of Barnaul as in the 18th century the Barnaul citizens began to insert into windows glass instead of mica, and became polzo-

to vatsya by glasswares.

Since the beginning of the 18th century art of the household objects which were still differing only on quality, richness of material and finishing was divided into two extensive areas by art criteria: official art, "scientific", capital, being guided by classical samples, and art national, provincial, in many respects traditional, serving life of country people.

Products from glass cost much and were bought, generally by representatives of the propertied classes. By tradition of country culture the glass products were given the names correlated to the name of country utensils: cups, bratina, sule, kadochka, etc.

In this article we will consider the history of emergence and development of the first glass plant in Siberia which activity affected appearance of the city of Barnaul of Altai Krai in the second half of the 18th century. Now in Barnaul there is a small street called "The glass log". Inhabitants of these places do not remember any more from where such name undertook and what here was in the beginning of the 19th century. In the early seventies the XX century the local historian T. Polukhin published article where the museum exposition of glass products from various grades of glass was mentioned, and crystal including [1], however in the Altai museum of local lore we did not manage to find products of the Barnaul glass plant.

Altai.

The history of the Barnaul glass plant fragmentary, but is presented in not numerous publications of local historians and historians. The local historian dealt with this problem

N.Ya. Savelyev. He wrote an essay of history of the Barnaul glass plant "Altai Masters of Crystal Business" in which in detail described life and activity of employees of this plant. M.A. Bezborodov in "Essays on the history of the Russian glassblowing" in article "K.G. Laxman and His Work on Glassmaking" mentioned activity of the Russian scientist K.G. Laks-man (E.G.) at the Barnaul glass plant. The modern glass industry by much is obliged to a scientific initiative of Laxman who, contrary to existing in his time of views about unfitness of salts of "kuporosny acid" for production of glass, conducted experiments on use of natural sulfate of sodium for glassmaking and achieved progress. In 1739 on the river Barnaul the salesmen of the Ural mining operator A.N. Demidov began construction of the plant on copper smelting. Soon, the small village which was nearby Ust-Barnaulsky merged with the factory settlement, and it began to be called the Barnaul plant. After A. Demidov's death in 1745 under the will all mining and metallurgical enterprises, including the Barnaul plant, passed to the younger son of Demidov Nikita. However according to the complaint of eldest sons Prokopy and Grigory the empress Elizabeth repealed the will of the father and enjoined to the head Berg stake

Legia to A.F. Tomilov to make the detailed inventory of inheritance that then to divide it between all children. But on May 1, 1747 the Altai plants and mines were taken in maintaining an imperial Office and the chief of Kolyvano-Vos-kresenskikh of the plants A. Beer is appointed [2]. On huge space of headwaters of Ob all lands, subsoil, the woods and other riches were announced by royal property. The people inhabiting these places became the serfs obliged to work in mines at factory furnaces, to carry ore, to make and deliver the wood, coal, a rubble stone.

In 1752 the Barnaul plant was converted in serebroochistitelny [3, page 7]. At the plant the pharmacy, hospital, school appeared. Merchants constructed Gostiny Dvor for trade, barns for storage of goods. For factory and miner laboratories, for pharmaceutical ware and medical needs in factory hospital of glass it was required more and more. Besides for filling of window covers instead of expensive mica glass was more often used. The glass brought on horses from Moscow and St. Petersburg often broke in way in significant amounts that led to heavy losses.

These circumstances were the cause for Office of the Kolyvano-Voskresensky plants in 1753 to handle in E.I. V. Office a request for permission to build the new glass plant. The new enterprise subordinated to Ko-lyvano-Voskresenskogo department of the mountain administration, management of which was performed by a shikhtmeyster I.I. Trunilov. From the capital from the state plants of profit of the master of "glass and crystal business". Tests of local sand in factory laboratory began spring of 1954. Check showed that it is better, than in the log in pond top on the right river bank Barnaul, there is no sand for glassblowing anywhere. Here also began construction of the new enterprise. While put furnaces and put up walls of future "glass factory", to laboratories of the Barnaul serebroochistitelny plant there was a training gathered in "glass pupils". In January, 1755, business of glass from this ware and protchy" began ". Cooked glass of three grades: green because it is cheap, white and crystal - for needs of misters officers and chiefs. Production of glass was begun with the most expensive - crystal. 47.8% of quartz, 32% of saltpeter, 19% of minium, the rest - manganese and arsenic were its part. Further assistants to the master started drawing up mix for cooking of white glass. This mix was more plain, it consisted of potash (48%) and quartz or sand, watching what grade it was required; after that started formation of mix for cooking of the cheapest green glass. Sand (50%), potash (33%) and ashes of birch firewood (17%) - here all composition of green or "cindery" glass.

In April, 1756 the new managing director of the Barnaul serebroplavilny plant I.S. Hristiani ordered to paint quartz (white) glass in azure color blue krukh-small, delivered from St. Petersburg. From now on the Barnaul glass plant began to produce glass of three flowers: green (from ashes with sand), azure (quartz) and white transparent (crystal). Ware turned out various shades: dark and light green, blue and dark blue, and only crystal gave transparent glass.

The quality of ware was low. It burst even randomly, being in a quiet state in a crockery case or on a table. The clear water poured in it gained unpleasant smack. It was caused by the fact that salt ("eye-gal"), scherpyvayemy from a surface of the melted mass of glass used as potash again. Gradually the manufacturing techniques of glass improved. Removal of a glazgal made glasswares stronger and hygienic.

At the Glass plant the bench in which all glass products were on sale on weight was open. In the same bench the residents of the settlement could exchange on weight splinters of the broken ware for the whole product. At first ware from green and quartz glass was sold at 5 kopeks for pound, and crystal - at 12 kopeks. After the price raised to the prices of the capital plants. At the end of December, 1755, "tafelny" glass began to be sold at 8 kopeks for pound, and crystal ware for 20 kopeks.

In 1758 the Barnaul glass plant began to produce the grinding and polished glass. It was made of all grades of glass and was on sale 2.5 kopeks more expensively for pound. Production was uneven. In 1758 more than 200 poods of glass in products were produced, it was the highest rate. After a year of a maximum of development of ware two-three years of recession when the plant reduced release of products to 150-100 poods followed. Then the products grew again and again decreased. Such fluctuations can be explained with casing by products. The administration artificially reduced release of glass products by the plant until in warehouses there was almost no ware left. The exception was made by release of a windowpane which number increased every year.

"Products of the Barnaul "glass plant" were heavy. The large flask weighed up to 11 pounds (4.4 kg), a retort - up to 10.5 pounds (4.2 kg), funnels - up to 470 g, hourglasses from two bottles weighed 660 g. But also these products found demand even outside Altai. In 1760 sent by request to Nerchinsk 3 big, 4 averages, 5 small and 10 small flasks, 3 cups, 6 funnels, 5 hourglasses, 8 retorts and 15 cans of a different form" [3, page 26].

Activity of glass plant affected appearance of the Barnaul plant and the settlements adjoining to it. From now on public and houses had glass windows instead of mica or tightened a bull bubble. Glasswares became usual for factory inhabitants. But glass was bought generally by Barnaul citizens. On the Zmeinogorsky mine or the Kolyvansky plant neither the windowpane, nor ware arrived. It limited sales market of products of "the glass plant".

In 1763 the Office of the Kolyvano-Voskresensky mountain administration requested from the Office of permission to close glass plant and to transfer production of glass to business owners. The office did not object, but demanded the answer, where exactly private manufacturers can construct the glass plant.

Merchants hesitated to do glass as did not expect that peasants and workmen will buy it. The mountain administration and officials, the plants and mines not of a distance would arrive because under the terms the merchant had to receive workmen and tools, but to deliver glass to the plants at the former price.

The merit of continuation of glass business in Altai belongs to the mechanic I.I. Polzunov and the scientist K.G. Laxman whose meeting took place in the fall of 1764. K.G. Laxman who arrived to the Barnaul plant as the pastor was fond of mining and studied literally everything that saw in this remote region a little familiar for scientists. In Barnaul he for the first time got acquainted with technology of glass. "Here, - Laxman wrote, - there is quite fair glass plant in which decent white glass, also stone pharmacy and wooden gofshpital becomes. The foundry is built among the settlement, on the small river Barnaul; beside it the great Ob River flows from the South to the North" [4, page 57]. The Barnaul serebroplavilny plant was the largest in Siberia and was the place of training of many people of metallurgy. K.G. Laxman studied mining business at I.I. Polzunov. Polzunov

at this time built the building for the "fiery car" near the glass plant and Laxman watched "glass business". "Outstanding achievement of the Russian chemical applied science of the 18th century is sodium sulfate introduction to glassblowing. It is connected with a name of the Russian academician K.G. Laksma-na who for the first time conducted experiments of cooking of glass with sodium sulfate in 1864 in Barnaul" [4, page 54]. At the Barnaul glass plant Laxman K.G. checked by practical consideration the idea of replacement of potash with natural glauberovy salt.

Archival documents for 1767 demonstrate that glass cooked according to the same recipes which were recorded by I.I. Polzunov in 1755 and K.G. Laxman's recipes were not applied any more. The plant began to develop cut ware: small decanters, sugar bowls, bottles and glasses [5].

In 1771. The Barnaul serebroplavilny plant received the status of the mountain city of "Barnaul". The people working at glass plant were called "masters of crystal business" now. Only crystal ware went on sale to the population from the plant, green and blue glass was done only for factory needs.

Activity Barnaul honey - the serebroplavilny plant and the glass plant led to exhaustion of a relic sosnonovy mountain pine forest. In 1792. The office ordered to the Barnaul mountain office to construct for glass cooking the small plant on the right coast of Ob in the Bobrovsky cutting area. Was planned to prepare mixes and to cook "glass matter" at the bobrovsky plant, then to carry it on the Barnaul glass plant, where to be engaged exclusively in manufacture of ware and a windowpane.

Having spent 14700 pieces of a brick, 1000 poods of refractory kaltansky clay, 4 grid-irons, 250 nails and 13 poods of iron, the administration achieved implementation of the plan. Builders described the new enterprise so: "it the plant consists at the Bobrovsky cutting area, nearby state barracks, on a current of the Bobrovki River on the right side, distance from Barnaul in 30 versts. The factory the basis in 7, length 7, width - 6 S sazhen is taken away in columns from small logs and then is strengthened by thick wooden communications and covered with a lathing" [6]. The imported, welded at the bobrovsky plant glass weight, was very expensive. It was cheaper to carry firewood from the Bobrovsky cutting area. Sand was worse than Barnaul. Having existed five years, the bobrovsky glass plant in 1798 was closed.

Bibliography

The products of the Barnaul plant which worked already half-century were the same, only ceased to do ware of quartz glass, having replaced it with crystal transparent and blue, ceased to hand over splinters of beaten ware in perevar. Now production of a windowpane was the main appointment of the plant. However, during 1817-1830 "the masters of crystal affairs" began to prepare also products from porcelain, but in small amounts. Apparently, it were products by request of the chief of the Kolyvano-Voskresensky plants P.K. Frolov.

Soon the Barnaul glass plant got under closing threat again. In 1837 the Barnaul architect Ya.N. Popov made the design drawing entitled: "The plan and a facade to the plant for making of glass and assumed to construct at the Salairsky mine" [7]. Why this plant was not constructed, it was not succeeded to find out.

The last thirteen years of the history the Barnaul plant released two grades of glass products: crystal and low-grade, from "green matter". Providing with the products laboratories of the serebroplavilny plants and mines, state buildings and medical institutions, the Barnaul glass blowers developed ware on the market limited to needs of the population of the city of Barnaul. Backward technology of cooking flew down, almost not changed for the whole century, put the enterprise of the silicate industry, the first in Altai, in a disadvantage. The private merchant plants in Siberia gave more high-quality and less expensive products. Glass to Barnaul was carried from Irkutsk, the plants also had Tomsk, Omsk and other Siberian cities.

The stagnation which captured all enterprises of the royal estate to the middle of the 19th century was not passed also by glassblowing. Without wishing to convert and expand the glass plant in Barnaul, tenants of the Altai mountain plants - the Ministry of Finance did not see need for further existence of this "subsidiary" enterprise and in the early fifties of the nineteenth century the glass plant was closed. History and activity of the Barnaul glass plant is the interesting page of industrial and art development of Altai Krai.

Now reminds of the Barnaul glass plant only the name — "Glass Log", the designating place in the neighborhood of Barnaul where once took sand for cooking of "glass matter".

1. Polukhin, T. Barnaul crystal. - Altai truth. - 1975. - April 13.
2. Barnaul: Encyclopedia. - Barnaul, 2000.
3. Savelyev, N.Ya. Altai Masters of Crystal Business: Essay of history of the Barnaul glass plant / N.Ya. Savelyev. - Barnaul: Altai book publishing house, 1958.
4. Bezborodov, M.A. Essays on the history of the Russian glassblowing / M.A. Bezborodov. - M.: Promstroyizdat, 1952.
5. CHAF of joint stock company. - T. 1. - Op. 1. - 474. - L. 36.
6. CHAF of joint stock company. - T. 1. - Op. 1. - 474. - L. 131.
7. CHAF of joint stock company. - T. 50. - Op. 18. - 4423.

Article came to edition 20.02.09

Bobby Anderson
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