The Science Work
Site is for sale:
Category: History

Climatic and socio-economic factors in development of agrotechnical policy of the Ufa zemstvo of the end of the XIX beginning of the XX century

p. N. Alyoshin


The UFA ZEMSTVO of the END of XIX - the BEGINNINGS of the 20th CENTURY

Work is presented by department of history of the Fatherland and a technique of teaching history of the Sterlitamak state pedagogical academy.

The research supervisor - the doctor of historical sciences, professor D.P. Samorodov

In article the history of development of agrotechnical policy of zemstvoes of the Ufa province of the end of XIX-of the beginning of the 20th century is considered. On the basis of contemporary records and the published materials, major factors of development of agrotechnical policy of zemstvoes are allocated.

P. Aleshin


The article deals with the history of the agrotechnical policy development in the Ufa guberniya at the late 19th - early 20th centuries. The basic factors of the agrotechnical policy development in zemstvos are determined on the basis of the archives and published materials.

The Orenburg province was divided by the royal decree of May 5, 1865 for improvement of the administrative device and a situation in management "across Ural Ridge" into two: Ufa and Orenburg provinces [1]. "the city of Ufa is appointed the provincial city of the Ufa province" [3, page 6]. By 70th of the 19th century the area of the Ufa province was 104,296 sq. versts, or 10,864,167 tithes. The province was divided into 168 volosts in the territory of which there were 1623 rural societies [2, page 3]. But the Tsar's administration did not hurry with introduction at all in the region of territorial institutions which under "The provision on Territorial Institutions and temporary for nikh Governed", signed by Alexander I of January 1, 1864 began to be entered actually everywhere. In the Ufa province the zemstvo begins to function more than in ten years - only since February 25, 1875 [3, page 15]. The competence of zemstvoes of the Ufa province was limited to economic questions of local value. For conducting economic affairs and the maintenance of own institutions to zemstvoes the rights to destination were granted, to an apportion, collecting and expenditure of local taxes - territorial collecting.

The new administrative unit of Russia consisting of six counties: Belebey, Birsk, Zlatoust, Menzelin-sky, Sterlitamak and Ufa - in the agrarian relation develops quite unevenly: it was promoted by a number of the factors characteristic of this province. It set certain tasks for zemstvo that contributed to the development of special agrotechnical policy of zemstvo of this region [4].

Climatic conditions. The Ufa province about 104,062.7 quarter of versts is divided by the Beloy River into two half considerably differing from each other on a land relief, woodiness and the direction of a slope [7]. East half of the province of mainly mountainous character. The western part of the province - the steppe space towering in Bie -

lebeevsky county. From the Menzelinsky County towards Kama they go down, and to the left bank of Kama lowlands and meadows are already observed. The northeast of the province (Zlatoust County) in east part represents strongly mountainous surface which is going down towards the Ufa County which differs in moderately hilly relief. Continuation of mountainous areas of the Zlatoust and Ufa Counties is the mountainous area of the Sterlitamak County which stretched rather narrow strip along all eastern frontier of the county. This area is filled with the high abrupt ridges covered with the wood. Further along the Beloy River the transition from purely steppe to the mountain area is planned, but mountains do not reach such height here as in the previous area, and have more gentle slopes. The southern part of the province is presented by the hilly steppe which is cut up by the small rivers. Climate of the province continental with damp, warm summer and in moderately severe winter. For rather small terms the zemstvo carried out huge work on data collection and processing about the sizes of acreage and the general raspakhannost of lands. So, thanks to territorial data is defined that as of 1896-1897, arable grounds make 3,622,547 tithes, or about 35% of total area of the Ufa province; from them about 3,285,292 tithes constantly in a crop rotation and 337,255 tithes in deposits [4]. The Raspakhannost of lands is reduced in process of removal to the East of the province significantly; Menze-linsky and Belebey Counties, least - counties Ufa and Zlatoust are most opened. Deposits of the Menzelinsky County and also the most part of deposits of the Birsk and Ufa Counties, belong to accidental, formed because of changes in economic activity of privately owned manors, for example, use of an arable land under pasture of the cattle. At other three counties in a significant amount there are deposits constants that there is a result of a zalezhny system of agriculture. Further the zemstvo carried out work of a research of position of peasants about

size of the land plots. It was established that the most chief owners of arable grounds are country societies and associations: in their use about 85% of all cropland of the province are concentrated. The privately owned arable land is partially processed by own means of owners, partially leased. The main tenants of both privately owned, and state and specific lands are peasants. In country use over 90% of all area of these lands consist. The prevailing system of economy is trekhpolny. Unsystematic use of an arable land prevails only in one county - Zlatoust in which of all arable land which is in a crop rotation about 15% fall to the share correct trekhpolya [4]. Fertilizer of fields is insignificant. The Ufa statisticians began the publication of specialized editions - economic and statistical reviews of the Ufa province. The obtained data allowed to make a complete "arable" picture of the region.

National factor. The role of a national factor in agrotechnical development of this region was rather big. The edge was inhabited by representatives of various ethnic and confessional groups: Slavs and Turkic peoples, finno-Ugra and Latvians, Orthodox Christians, Sunni Muslims, pagans, Protestants and Catholics [8, page 306]. The vast majority of the country population of the province was made by Russians, Tatars, Bashkirs, Ukrainians, Belarusians, a mordva, Chuvashs. A little the Balts and Germans conducting economy of the highest productivity which factors of development were excellent from Russian a mentality and more courageous introduction and wide circulation of the advanced agricultural machinery dropped out of an overall picture of an agrotechnical condition of edge. Separately researchers allocated the southern, steppe Bashkirs still keeping nomadic cattle breeding.

Having faced this factor, the zemstvo as definition of a condition of possession of land grounds tries at -

to menit a peculiar method of calculation - group depending on the size of crops, the number of the working cattle that is introduced for scientific use by the modern historian M.I. Rodnov [8]. It created also certain difficulties: other Bashkir owned a large number of tithes of the earth, and often lived in extreme poverty, leasing it which is not corresponding to actual cost [8, page 119]. This statistics is an integral part of the overall agrotechnical picture of edge.

The Ufa province, especially in the second half of the 19th century remained one of the main areas of resettlement of internal Russia, the provinces of Ukraine, Belarus and the Baltics. In the second half of the 19th century to the province about 190 thousand people were installed [8, page 75]. The zemstvo had a magnificent opportunity of mixture of various agrotechnical stereotypes and also a possibility of development of the agrarian sphere by an experimental-demonstrative way, and carried out this work. It took great pain to popularize experience of the come "Europeans". About their farms various newspaper articles were published, the brochures reflecting experience of these people in agriculture were published [8, page 279]. Zemtsa considered that implementation of the best practices of these people in the agrotechnical culture of the population of the Ufa province is possible, and will allow to reorient economy of other residents of the province on modern rails as soon as possible... but came across conservatism.

Conservatism in farming and in general extensive land use, doubt, and often at all rejection of innovations - were not characteristic only of the Ufa province - the problem was the all-Russian scale, in the considered region it was shown rather strongly. For example, the neighboring Orenburg province with introduction of pilot fields, stations, rolling points of agricultural machinery lagged behind across Russia on average for 8 years: if in territorially close Samara province rolling points began to function since 1908, then in Orenburg Oblast -

only since 1915-1916, besides modernization processes actually stopped because of World War I [9, page 82].

The Ufa zemstvo took great pain to adjust work on introduction of various innovations in the agrotechnical sphere, but first of all the ignorance of wide mass of peasants and also some kind of fear of acceptance something new affected: the principle "God will help" worked implicitly. To it there were reasons: without having a grain stock, it was impossible to decide on something new in such conditions. Partially kept influence and the community cherishing as the apple of the eye firmness of "antiquated" traditions. It was and it is clear: the only purpose is to survive collective, to avoid hunger in the conditions of rather poor harvests [6]. Time went, the population grew, the earth became a little, besides the opened grounds were exhausted. The community as the fates decree by the beginning of the 20th century becomes a peculiar skilled unit on introduction of new samples of agricultural machinery. Separate communities quickly realized advantages of the new agricultural equipment yielding more good results at expenses of forces, smaller in comparison with old stock. By the beginning of the 20th century the village of edge was sated with factory tools and difficult cars the accelerated rates [8, page 141]. But in general all innovations were accepted by rather small number of grain-growers - it was necessary to master an innovation, "to get the hand", it took away time that for the country environment was unattainable luxury. Often innovations of neighbors caused hostility and even diversionary acts from other communities. The zemstvo in every possible way encouraged and stimulated application of the advanced receptions, methods and agrotechnical inven-

tarya. It carried out work on education of the population in questions of fertilizer of lands - peasants with pleasure participated in experiments with artificial fertilizers - superphosphate, potash salt [8, page 139]. The situation was much better than the neighboring Orenburg province where manure was taken out on fields once in 9-12 years, and mineral fertilizers did not find application, except for privately owned farms at all [9, page 108]. And here with introduction of new crops - the same conservatism worked. Efforts of the Ufa zemstvo on introduction of a number of new crops were not crowned with success. Quite good development was gained by a kleveroseyaniye, but it is not necessary to speak about considerable results unfortunately [8, page 140]. Development in certain areas often went enough rapidly, but nevertheless had local character. A similar situation and at neighbors: remained the leading cultures wheat - 64.01% to total area under crops, and oats - 24.57% respectively. Travoseyany - 0.44% to total area under crops, potatoes - 0.59%, other garden cultures - 0.25% [9, page 89].

In all provinces and counties of the Russian Empire the zemstvoes conducted development of the complex of agrotechnical actions adapted for local conditions. This experience allows to study processes of respect for balance of interests between various on national structure, economic capacity and conditions of agriculture by counties of the province. Provincial and district zemstvoes in joint activity tried to develop ways and methods of mutually acceptable actions for the solution of various economic problems. In this plan, experience of agrotechnical policy of zemstvoes of the Ufa province is unique.


1. GAOO. T. 6. Op. 6. 1407/1. L. 6-11.
2. Historical and statistical tables of activity of the Ufa zemstvoes. to the fortieth anniversary of existence zemst the Ufa province of 1875-1914 Ufa, 1915.
3. N.S. Myslyaeva. Legal oposredovaniye of institute of zemstvo of the Ufa province: studies. grant. Ufa.: RIO BASHGU, 2004. 104 pages
4. RGIA. T. 1282. Op. 3. 319. L. 8.
5. RGIA, T. 573. Op. 1. D. 730. L. 57.
6. RGIA. T. 573. Op. 1. D. 740. L. 2.
7. RGIA. T. 573. Op. 1. D. 751. L. 91.
8. RodnovM. I. Krestyanstvo of the Ufa province at the beginning of the 20th age (1900-1917): social structure, social relations. Ufa.: LLC DizaynPoligrafServis, 2002. 314 pages
9. O.S. Smotrina. The peasantry of the Orenburg province at the beginning of the 20th century (1900 - October, 1917). Orenburg: OGPU publishing house, 2008. 288 pages


1. GAOO. F. 6. Op. 6. D. 1407/1. L. 6-11.
2. Istoriko-statisticheskiye tablitsy deyatel&nosti ufimskikh zemstv. k sorokaletiyu sushchest-vovaniya zemst Ufimskoy gubernii 1875-1914 gg. Ufa, 1915.
3. Myslyayeva N. S. Pravovoye oposredovaniye instituía zemstva Ufimskoy gubernii: ucheb. poso-biye. Ufa.: RIO BashGU, 2004. 104 s.
4. RGIA. F. 1282. Op. 3. D. 319. L. 8.
5. RGIA, F. 573. Op. 1. D. 730. L. 57.
6. RGIA. F. 573. Op. 1. D. 740. L. 2.
7. RGIA. F. 573. Op. 1. D. 751. L. 91.
8. RodnovM. I. Krest&yanstvo Ufimskoy gubernii v nachale XX veka (1900-1917 gg.): sotsial&naya struktura, sotsial&nye otnosheniya. Ufa.: OOO DizaynPoligrafServis, 2002. 314 s.
9. Smotrina O. S. Krest&yanstvo Orenburgskoy gubernii v nachale XX veka (1900 - oktyabr& 1917 g.). Orenburg: Izd-vo OGPU, 2008. 288 s.
Mary Ella
Other scientific works: