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State policy on educational work in average professional educational institutions of Russia of the end of the XIX beginning of the 20th century.



t. A. Magsumov

STATE POLICY on EDUCATIONAL WORK IN AVERAGE PROFESSIONAL EDUCATIONAL INSTITUTIONS of RUSSIA of the END XIX - the BEGINNINGS of the 20th CENTURY.

Work is presented by department of museology of the Kazan state university.

The research supervisor - the doctor of historical sciences, professor A.A. Litvin

In article the purposes and the main directions of educational policy of the state in the field of average vocational training at the end of XIX - the beginning of the 20th century, achievement and a contradiction are opened at its realization on places on the example of typical educational institution - Kazan Industrial School.

The article is devoted to the basic trends in the state educational policy in the field of secondary vocational training at the turn of the 20th century. The author considers the achievements and contradictions of its local realization basing on the example of a typical educational institution - the Kazan industrial school.

At a boundary of the 20th and 21st centuries the educational system in Russia appeared in a condition of many-sided system crisis, than drew to itself attention of a domestic historical thought. It was caused by the fact that the accumulated experience of education of younger generations by various educational institutions of a professionalnotekhnichesky profile contains a lot of instructive for judgment of new forms and methods of education, processes of adaptation of youth to conditions of the modern market relations.

Educational work in industrial schools a little in what differed from educational work in other types of educational institutions and developed considerably under the influence of already developed experience of comprehensive school. The power considered education of faithful feelings of youth as one of the major tasks. In the second half of the 19th century the attention of the state to this problem amplifies that was connected with consequences of reforms of a system obrazova-

a niya which led to significant increase in both the total number of pupils, and a share of pupils in them from unprivileged estates. At that time actively took root into life of the idea of N.I. Ilminsky who believed that "let at first the good person is formed: honest, benevolent, devout... then on this basis there will be a good expert" 1.

In 1894 the Ministry of National Education (MNE) approved the "Rules for pupils of industrial schools" which became, in fact, the state program of education of pupils of the lowest and average professional educational institutions. A main objective and feature of "Rules" the aspiration was limit to regulate life of pupils, not to allow their joint activity and the organization of student collective. Draconian measures caused resistance not only studying, but also their parents and the pedagogical public that poured out on pages of a democratic press. As a result in 1896 MNP in spetsi-

the alny circular to trustees of educational districts noted that "rules for pupils of industrial schools contain the provisions, general for all institutions, which into practice have to be put not with a literal accuracy in all schools, and in compliance with their type, the main image of pupils with age" 2. However these reservations of the ministry which had advisory nature, in fact, did not change a situation in technical schools.

One of the defining conditions of success of an educational system of "Rule" meant strict observance of discipline by pupils. Each pupil was obliged to have at himself the special ticket with rules of conduct for which violation it was withdrawn by any member of a faculty meeting that automatically forbade the guilty pupil further visit of classes. The ticket was the main document of the pupil, some kind of passport in which marks of parents or trustees about departure time of the pupil from the house after vacation or the holiday which is especially resolved by the administration were also included. The ticket and these measures allowed to control pastime of young men outside school.

For the purpose of maintenance of the most strict discipline of "Rule" detailed behavior of pupils both during educational process, and out of walls of educational institution. Pupils had to be on classes with all educational accessories, in advance take the places and without the permission of the teacher could not change the place. During lessons the pupils had to sit directly, it was forbidden to talk, be engaged in foreign affairs, to make noise, to prompt each other, to interrupt the teacher; pupils had to answer standing, they could get up from the places upon termination of a lesson only with permission prepodavatelya3. For simplification of supervision of pupils out of walls of school the obligatory carrying was entered

uniform. Carrying long hair, jewelry and also canes, switches and sticks was forbidden. Pupils could not leave from the apartment after ten o'clock in the evening.

A specific place in "Rules" was held by regulation of relationship of pupils and the relations between pupils and teachers. Pupils had to submit implicitly educational on - to a chalstvo and teachers, to treat them yours faithfully, full confidence and frankness. In communication, especially with the administration and teachers, "pupils are obliged to be quite truthful. avoiding any hypocrisy, pretense, a lie and deception" 4. However, in the conditions of a certain closeness of the Kazan Industrial School (KIS) and rigid dependence of pupils on educational personnel it was simply impossible to have other relations. The section "Governed", concerning relationship in the student environment, focused attention on moral education of pupils. It had also the far-reaching perspective purposes - to teach pupils to ways and the system of communication, ideal for the power, in society. In the attitude towards companions the pupils had to be polite, benevolent and friendly; quarrels, abuse, fights and games on money were strictly prohibited. In general, pupils, valuing honor of the school and the class, were obliged to abstain and to vozderzhivat the companions from "any acts not joint with honor of well-educated young men, and have to warn in every possible way such acts which can cast a shadow on educational institution" 5.

"Rules" most strictly forbade self-organization of pupils, attempts to association of pupils and their communication with various parties, circles and societies. Attempts to protect pupils from the influence surrounding them the world caused by fear of political education of pupils, aspiration to anticipate attempts public dvi-

zheniye and parties to recruit pupils in the ranks and even to protect them from temptations of a free social life, resulted in a certain closeness of the KPU. "Pupils, - it was said in "Rules", - at all should not make between themselves and with strangers of any societies or join those societies under fear of an exception of school" 6. "Rules" banned pupils populous meetings on their apartments, to have unlawful the administration of the edition and also gunpowder, fire and cold weapon.

Art and esthetic needs of pupils were almost not satisfied. Visit of the public and pleasure places recognized as the educational administration harmful or indecent was most strictly forbidden to pupils of the KPU namely: The Panayevsky garden, the Hermitage and a garden at Russian Switzerland restaurant and also the Black lake in summertime after six hours vechera7. To pupils was not permitted to visit halls of court sessions among public. With special every time of permission of the administration pupils could attend public meetings of scientific societies, public libraries, reading rooms and also theater. Visit of city theater by pupils of the KPU was regulated by a number of conditions. In particular, theater productions could be looked only in festive and Sundays on special permission of the inspector. On weekdays visit of theater was allowed in special cases, at the discretion of inspection, for quite in time pupils and with the consent of the manager of a teaching department. However, at the same time pupils had no right to buy tickets in orchestra, in the first four rows of seats, on gallery and in boxes, to visit buffets and kurilny a lump - Nata. Dressed accurately and in the established form, they had to behave extremely quietly and decently, even without applauding, and after the end of a performance immediately to leave home. Moreover, even texts of literary readings and vocal proiz-

images which were included into programs of the evenings which were getting a job in school except for the spiritual chants and literary works which are in curricula or MNP of the anthology recommended by Educational committee and literary collections had to be delivered previously to the Trustee Kazan educational okruga8.

A specific place in "Rules" was held by issues of religious education of pupils. Each pupil in Sunday and holidays and also on the eve of these days was obliged to attend a public church service. The pupils living near the Church of the Intercession of the Most Holy Mother of God were obliged to visit mainly this church, and the others - the parish churches, nearest to their apartments. Annually, on the Holy Week, pupils had to confess and take communion. According to "Rules", before studies all pupils had to, gathering by 7 hours 35 minutes mornings, to be present at the general prayer, and after the termination of the last lesson the prayer had to be said in a class. Moreover, it is possible how the aspiration "to be done a favour" before the higher administration, in the form of a local initiative to each graduate of the KPU at examination in the Scripture was given on Sacred Evangeliyu9.

However the real situation on religious education of pupils, perhaps, differed from the program of the government markedly. Materials of audit of the KPU by the district inspector Solovyov in March, 1904 on March 19 demonstrate to it, having arrived to 8 o'clock in the morning to a prayer, the inspector found in the assembly hall small group of 20-25 pupils standing near school desks and the supervisor. Having seen separately standing four choristers, the supervisor waved to them a hand that they joined the general group as four pupils could not make chorus. The pupil who came to the middle of the hall according to the prayer book hasty

read the words of a prayer at which beginning also the inspector approached. Next day the situation cardinally changed: at a prayer there were twice more pupils, apart from 10-12 choristers. But in both cases teachers on a prayer not prisutstvovali10.

All requirements specified in "Rules" were so typical and characteristic of life of any average educational institution, as they were broken with the same typicality, frequency and constancy. The main offenses of pupils of the KPU were absolutely student's: non-compliance with a form, smoking, admissions of classes, binges, circulation without the permission in theater, change of apartments without the permission of the administration, delay at return with kanikul11.

The legislation allocated the big place in an educational system to punishments. Along with "Rules" for pupils also special "Rules were approved

about the collectings imposed on pupils of technical schools" 12. Along with such punishments as record in the disciplinary magazine, a reprimand, standing at a school desk or a wall, also draconian measures were provided: the conclusion in a punishment cell for the period from 1 to 24 hours or an exception of school. The faculty meeting within school was final instance and possessed decision functions in purpose of collectings: from reduction of a mark for behavior and a reprimand before a class or all school to the pupil's exception of school with

the right of receipt in other educational institution of the city, with deprivation of this right, but with granting an opportunity to study in other cities or with deprivation of the right of receipt in all educational institutions of the country. Some of the most widespread types of the punishments practicing in the KPU were: entering into the penal magazine, a reprimand, arrest within several hours, including in festive vremya13. As a rule, business did not reach severe punishments. Even during the revolution of 1905-1907 the excluded pupils after apologies and promises of good behavior were restored in school.

Supervisors were the chief conductors of educational policy of the state, besides the teacher of the Scripture. Exempted from other types of activity, they performed the general management of education of pupils and continuous supervision of pupils in school and out of it. Supervisors kept order during the classes, on changes, during food of pupils, exercised supervision of student apartments, accompanied pupils during visit of theaters, the museums, exhibitions, etc. by them

Thus, the educational policy pursued at professional school was thought well over and rather productive. Socialization of pupils in society according to requirements and problems of the state was its purpose, and religioznonravstvenny education was a basis.

1 N.I. Iljminsky. Curricula of school for baptized foreigners of East Russia. Kazan, 1896. Page 32.
2 Collection of materials on technical and professional education. Issue I. Part II. SPb., 1895. Page 164.
3 Rules for pupils of the lowest technical schools//Average technical schools. The lowest technical schools. SPb., 1909. Page 257.
4 Rules concerning observance of an order and decency by pupils of the lowest technical schools of the connected Kazan Industrial School. Kazan, 1905. Page 12.
5 Rules for pupils. Page 260; Rules concerning observance. Page 13.
6 Rules for pupils. Page 261; Rules concerning observance. Page 15-16.
7 Rules concerning observance. Page 18-19.
8 SLEDGE. T. 121. It. 1. 210. L. 4.
9 In the same place. 623. L. 16.
10 In the same place. 21. L. 101.
11 In the same place. 607. L. 29.
12 Rules about the collectings imposed on pupils of technical schools//Average technical schools. Page 271-273.
13 SLEDGE. T. 121. Op. 1. 37. L. 12, 17, 19, 21, 23, 25, 26, 28, 32.
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