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Foreign policy situation of the State of Israel in 1948-1951



v. L. Koltovsky the FOREIGN POLICY SITUATION of the STATE OF ISRAEL In 1948-1951

Work is presented by department of general history of the Ryazan state university of S.A. Yesenin.

The research supervisor — the doctor of historical sciences, professor Yu.I. Losev

The picture of a foreign policy situation in which there was the State of Israel during 1948 — 1951 is given in article

V. Koltovsky

FOREIGN POLITICAL SITUATION OF THE STATE OF ISRAEL IN 1948-1951

The paper depicts the foreign political situation of the State of Israel during 1948 — 1951.

14 May, 1948. The State of Israel transportation- day are at war with Jews"

said the independence. [1, p. 114].

15 May, 1948. The league of the Arab countries accepted On the same day the second stage of War began

the statement that "all Arab countries from it for independence: armies five Arab gosu-

darstvo — Egypt, Transjordan, Lebanon, Syria and Iraq — intruded on the territory of the State of Israel which was proclaimed a day before it. This war was ended by a victory of Israel and the conclusion of armistice agreements: in February, 1949 with Egypt, in March, 1949 with Lebanon, in April, 1949 — with Jordan, in July, 1949 — with Syria.

On May 11, 1949 Israel was admitted to the United Nations (resolution of the UN General Assembly of L/KB8/273 (Sh)) on the basis of UN Security Council resolution 8/KB8/69 of March 4, 1949. According to UNSC, "Israel is the peaceful state which is capable and intends to fulfill the obligations which are contained in the Charter of the UN and, respectively, recommend to the United Nations General Assembly to accept Israel in members of the United Nations" [3]. The United Nations General Assembly, "taking into consideration... The declaration of the State of Israel that it "unconditionally assumes liabilities provided by the Charter of the United Nations and undertakes to carry out them from that day as it will become the member of the United Nations", remembering the resolutions of November 29, 1947 and of December 11, 1948 and taking into consideration statements and explanations with which the representative of the government of Israel performed in Special committee on political affairs concerning implementation of the specified resolutions... decides to accept Israel in number of members of the United Nations" [3].

In November, 1949 the United Nations General Assembly considered the plan of transformation of Jerusalem into the international zone. Israel categorically rejected this plan which was not taking into account a demographic situation in the city the place of Jerusalem in historical consciousness of the Jewish people and desire of the Jewish majority in Jerusalem to be an integral part of the State of Israel. Having demanded to recognize Jerusalem as the capital, Israel guaranteed inviolability of the holy sites of all religions. Nevertheless by a majority vote the United Nations General Assembly decided to continue consideration of the plan in-

city ternatsionalization. At the next session the draft version of the charter of the international zone of Jerusalem was submitted. Israel and Jordan acted against; other offers did not receive the necessary majority in two thirds of votes too, and the question remained unresolved.

On December 5, 1949 against the background of discussion of a subject of Jerusalem in the UN the head of the government of Israel David Ben Gurion said that Jerusalem is heart of Israel and its eternal capital. On December 26, 1949 the decision on the transfer of meetings of the Knesset to the building of the Jewish Agency in Jerusalem was made.

24 May, 1950 the king of Transjordan Abdalla ibn Hussein declared annexation of the territories of the former mandated Palestine, including east part of Jerusalem occupied by the Arab legion with the Old city. In response to it Israel stated that it considers a question of future status of the territories occupied by Jordan open. Great Britain recognized the Jordanian annexation and also de facto the Israeli sovereignty over the western part of Jerusalem.
25 May, 1950 the USA, Great Britain and France signed the Declaration on the Middle East, having declared in it the determination to take necessary actions for prevention of any violations of borders or lines of truce by any state of this area. In the declaration it was said that arms supplies to the countries of the Middle East will be defined by need of these countries in internal security and lawful self-defense and also their role in defense of the region. However for a number of years before publication of the declaration the western weapon was received mainly by Arabs while Israel had to be content with that weapon and equipment, often outdated which it managed to get from various sources (during the war for independence — from Czechoslovakia).

For the years which passed after the War of independence there were no signs of advance to the lasting peace with the Arab countries provided soglasheni-

a hole about truce. In June, 1950 the members of the Arab league concluded the agreement on collective security directed against "Zionist danger" and "the Jewish expansionist aspirations" [2, river 47]. The Arab states continued to consider themselves being at war with Israel, refused to recognize it or to conduct negotiations on peaceful settlement of controversial issues. At the same time they demanded unconditional repatriation of all Arab refugees and return of Israel to borders, the drawn-up plan of the Special commission of the UN about the partition of Palestine of 1947. Existence of Israel was considered by them as "aggression". Its destruction became one of main goals of policy of the Arab states. Egypt closed the Suez Canal for the Israeli navigation and forbade transportation via the channel of any goods intended to Israel.

In UN Security Council resolution 8/YaB8/89 of November 17, 1950 it was said that controversial issues between Israel and the Arab countries have to be solved according to the procedure established by armistice agreements. The Israeli-Egyptian Mediation Commission was offered to pay attention to the complaint of Egypt concerning eviction of thousands of Palestinian Arabs and to establish the right for repatriation of some of them. Concerning movement of Arab nomads Israel and the Arab countries was recommended to apply a necessary, according to UNSC, measures for supervision of their transition through borders under the agreement of both parties. To Egypt, Jordan and Israel as to members of the UN, it was reminded that it is necessary to take all possible measures which will lead to settlement of the questions which are not resolved between them peacefully.

UN Security Council resolution 8/YaB8/95 of September 1, 1951 urged Egypt to cancel all restrictions for operation by Israel of the Suez Canal as it violated the rights not only Israel, but also and the countries which do not have any relation to the Palestinian conflict.

The economic boycott of Israel organized by the countries of the Arab league continued. After formation of Israel for coordination of actions for implementation of boycott the special body of the Arab league — Bureau on boycott of Israel which headquarters is located in Damascus was created. The bureau carried out active work on boycott toughening, on extension of the list of the countries and the organizations which are exposed to boycott for the economic relations with Israel, including outside the Arab world.

In March, 1951 Israel started drainage of the lake Abuse in the north of the country. Syria, having characterized the begun works as truce violation, on several sites sent the troops in the demilitarized zone. The Syrian divisions opened fire at the Israeli workers near the lake and at the military personnel protecting them. Besides, Syrians began shelling of the Israeli settlements of the area. Tension reached peak when on April 5, 1951 the division of the Syrian troops intruded in the demilitarized zone, made an ambush on the way of the movement of the Israeli field officer of group. It was killed seven police officers. In reply the Israeli planes attacked the Syrian positions, but this measure did not result in success. In several days two Israeli soldiers were killed.

In May, 1951 the Syrian division intruded on the Israeli territory north of the lake Kineret and after four-day fights was rejected. As a result from the Israeli side there were 40 killed and about 70 wounded.

UN Security Council resolution 8/YaB8/92 of May 8, 1951 urged all parties of the conflict to the termination of collisions in the demilitarized zone on the basis of their obligations to the UN.

Thus, and the first years of independence did not bring the concluded armistice agreements with the Arab countries to Israel of the long-awaited world, and the contradictions which collected these and next years led to emergence of the Sinai crisis.

1. Arab League: British Documentary Sources 1943 — 1963. Editor: A. Burdett, London: Archive Editions, 1995. Vol. 6. 621 p.
2. Flores A. The Palestinians in the Israeli-Arab Conflict: Social Conditions and Political attitudes of the Palestinians in Israel, Occupied Territories and the Diaspora. Bonn. 1984, 346 p.
3. Electronic resource. Access mode: http://www.un.org/russian
Andrea Barnett
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