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Structure and organizational activity of the Bashkir revolutionary-military committee (1919)



UDK 94 (470.57)

BBK 63.3 (2 Dews. Bash)

STRUCTURE AND ORGANIZATIONAL ACTIVITY of the BASHKIR REVOLUTIONARY-MILITARY COMMITTEE (1919)

R.B. Zaytunov

In this article some questions of activity Bashvoyenrevkom on the way of administrative-territorial formation Bash are considered by ASR. Special attention is paid to the organization of the government and its various departments, activity of the government in evacuation and on return to Bashkiria. Some aspects of negotiations with the center, military matters and establishment of a law-enforcement system are also presented.

1919 the political situation in the Urals still remained extremely difficult and uncertain. Bashkortostan appears in a combat zone, to become the battlefield and base for pumping out of human and material resources from warring forces. In the circumstances preservation of military force and management became a main objective of heads of the Bashkir national movement. This circumstance was an essential argument for self-defense from infringement of the Bashkir self-determination, in terms of the relations of Bashkirs to the White and Red movement.

February 8, 1919. The Bashkir government issued the resolution on transition to the party of the Soviet power, the announcement of Small Bashkiria by a component of the Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic. The Bashkir revolutionary-military committee (RMC) was created.

On February 22-23, 1919 at Bashrevko-m's meeting in the village of Temyasovo it was decided to organize structure of the government and its departments. After the short debate decided to create 15 commissariats. A. Yagafarov, work - I. Alkin, finance and health care - O. Kuvatov, justices - Yu. Bikbov, information and propaganda and organizational - S. Magazov, agriculture - G. Aitbayev, military science - A. Validov, internal affairs and nationalities - F. Tukhvatullin, the chairman of economic council - G. Karamyshev, the commissioner of food - A. Adie dins, the deputy commander troops and the military commissioner - I. Alkin became the commissioner of national education. Business of a commissariat of foreign affairs was entrusted to presidium of revolutionary-military committee [1].

It should be noted that during an initial stage of work of the government the chairman's post, according to the decision of presidium, was combined by A. Validov, G. Ka-ramyshevym, M. Kulayev. In some cases Bashrevkom's chairman the power appointed people to responsible positions. So, for example, M. Adigamov was charged to be become the commissioner on Tubin-sky and Baymaksky mountain mines, G. Davletsha - well - the manager of an economic part of printing house of Bashrevkom. Proofreaders Bashkir and rus-

the sky press at the government was become Sh. Babich and

O. Alkyne, and the second commissioner of an information and propaganda and organizing commissariat - V. Maystrakh [2].

During conclusion of agreement about the Bashkir Autonomous Socialist republic for the final decision of a military matter the delegation of the Bashkir government as a part of A. Validov and I. Alkin was once again sent to Moscow. They in a conversation on a direct line with A. Adigamov and F. Tukhvatullin reported the following: "Arrived on March 21. We are busy with clarification of a military matter now - development of states of management of separate Bashkir army" [3].

As a result of these negotiations it was also published by Revolutionary Military Council of RSFSR "Provision on the Bashkir military commissariat" of April 5, 1919. It consisted of 11 points. Bodies of voyennoadministrativny management were the Bashkir military commissariat and kantonny military commissariats. To a military commissariat of Bashkiria the right of a district military commissariat with direct submission was granted to its center by RSFSR; formation of separate Bashkir army according to the special schedule was assigned to a commissariat; so the military commissioner of Bashkiria was granted the rights of the commander of Separate army, and to the military head - the rights of the chief of staff of Separate army [4].

Despite these achievements, the All-Russian general staff at once followed a way of reduction of the rights of the Bashkir military commissariat. Contents "Provisions..." began to be modified in the sense of reduction of the rights of a military commissariat and its head - the military commissioner. So, returning the staff of management of separate Bashkir army submitted by the Bashkir commissariat for approval without consideration, Vserosglav-shtab reported that Council of defense recognized as undesirable in general formation of national armies.

The Bashkir commissariat subordinated at first to East front, then the Southern group of East front, the Turkestan front, the Zavolzhye military district and, at last, the Cisural military district. In this regard were reduced

functions of the Military commissariat. Behind it there were only rights of a provincial commissariat. The rights of the commander of Separate army and the chief of staff of army are taken away from the military commissioner and the military head [5].

At the regular meeting of Bashrevkom the report of the deputy of internal affairs and nationalities T. Imakov where there was a speech about the organization of sections of a commissariat of internal affairs was heard. The commissariat of internal affairs was subdivided into sections: military militia, organizational and section of fight against a counterrevolution, speculation and sabotage [6]. Later the Presidium also considered a number of questions, in particular, the project of the organization of a commissariat of justice, the statement of members of board and the state of a commissariat of justice. On March 3, 1919 the government of the autonomous republic the resolution on establishment among its divisions of "extraordinary commission of inquiry" was accepted: "As the chairman of extraordinary commission of inquiry to approve t. A. Biisheva, and the assistant - t. Faygelya. To consider extraordinary commission of inquiry the organization independent, submitting only revky" [7].

Process of formation of BashChK continued all next months, at the same time there were changes in its legal status concerning Bash-revkom.

Thus, after military and political transition to the party of the Soviet power, the Bashkir government immediately started the organization of a control system. Now the problem of strengthening of achievements of autonomy was coming commissioners of the Bashkir VRK.

Due to the repeated annexation of territory of Small Bashkiria by white troops Bashrevkom's activity continued in Saransk where it arrived on May 2, 1919. The greatest concern in the members of the government who are torn off from Bashkiria was caused by position of the Bashkir people which appeared in a difficult situation of civil war. Somehow to protect Bashkirs from an arbitrariness of belligerent parties and also to organize mobilization of the Bashkir soldiers in the national parts of the Red Army which are formed in Saransk, Bashrevkom decided to form so-called Council of representatives [8]. Council of representatives acted on behalf of Bashrevkom in the territory of the republic which is gradually won and occupied by the Red Army (spring-summer of 1919). On July 16, 1919 Council of representatives published order No. 27 on administrative division of the Bashkir republic on cantons, volosts and auls. Appeared according to the first paragraph that in the Bashkir Soviet republic of counties and provinces is not present. Therefore in official correspondence in the territory of the republic not to call counties and the province. In all

institutions after volosts to specify the canton and the republic in blank stamps and the seals [9].

17 May at a meeting of the Government under the chairmanship of M. Kulayev A. Validov's report on Bashrevkom's reorganization was heard. After exchange of views decided:
1. To increase the list of members of a revkom up to 15 people;
2. To co-opt the member of a revkom of the representative from the central power of comrade I. Zaretsky;
3. All departments of Bashrevkom united in seven main following commissariats (internal affairs, justice, external relations, the national economy, the military, on national affairs, control);
4. To increase the structure of presidium up to 7 people;
5. Members of presidium operate Bashrevkom's commissariats;
6. To re-elect the structure of presidium;
7. To leave to a discretion of presidium distribution of powers of commissariats between members of presidium who on distribution of commissariats between themselves will submit the conclusions for approval of a revkom [10].

H. Yumagulov, M. Kulayev, F. Tukhvatullin, A. Validov, I. Zaretsky, A. Yagafarov were new members of Presidium. A. Adigamov and T. Imakov are elected deputies of members of Presidium (the last is also elected temporarily taking up a position of the commissioner of justice). There was a replacement of the leadership of Bashrevkom. Its chairman elected H. Yumagulov, the deputy - M. Kulayeva, and the space of the second deputy remained temporarily free.

The question of the external relations of Bashrevkom for the present remained "irrelevant" because contacts were broken up with the management of white movements, and with the Soviet republics were not established yet. Communications with the Kazakh government of "Alash-Orda" remained.

on April 21, 1919 Bashrevkom's chairman H. Yumagulov sends the telegram to Moscow to the All-Russian Central Executive Committee, the copy to V. Lenin, I. Stalin and also presidium of the Highest economic council. In it it is told about narrowness of the economic rights of the autonomous republic and need of their expansion, change of the fifth article of agreement about autonomy. In particular, the head of the government writes: "We ask to declare urgently officially submission of all plants, mines and all branches of the national economy to economic council of Bashkiria". The Supreme Soviet of the National Economy about it reports that "and the plants are withdrawn by the decree of VTsIK of factory from maintaining Bashkiria", "the economic council in Bashkiria follows from here not to organize at all" [11].

But soon there was its decision on the approval of the draft of the provision on the Bashkir SNH on

to the agreement with representatives of the Bashkir revkom: "in the field of the organization of local economy and production, the Bashkir council of the national economy is independent", and "withdrawal of the plants, factories, etc., from maintaining the Bashsovnarkhoz is made in accordance with general practice from special every time of the resolution of presidium of VSNKh" [12].

Bashrevkom's work during his stay in Saransk was directed to the organization of narcomats, in preparation of their organizatsionnosozidatelny work in all areas of country government that on return to Bashkiria they could get to the work. Along with it Bashrevkom through the Representation at VTsIK conducted work on settlement of relationship between Narkomatami BSSR i RSFSR and in general for the Bashkir republic [13].

On July 31, 1919 the decision on departure of institutions of the Bashkir republic from Saransk "in connection with release of the territory of Bashkortostan from white troops" was made. On pages of publication of Bashrevkom a number of articles with statement of plans of its actions appeared. As the main objectives moved forward:

1. Creation of the office of the power;
2. Adjustment of economic life;
3. Formation of strong army for protection against enemies;
4. Broad development cultural

educational work [14].

On August 20, 1919 the government of Small Bashkiria arrived in Sterlitamak, entering in

Ufa province. The order No. 1 Bashrevkom announced the accession to direct management of the created autonomous republic, the beginning of reception of the counties and volosts departing to it from Orenburg, Ufa and other provinces [15]. In spite of the fact that transfer of administrative territories was assumed from a position of practical implementation of the bilateral agreement of the Center with the Bashkir government, the neighboring provinces did not hurry to recognize it.

In this regard on September 15, 1919. The presidium of VTsIK adopted the official resolution "About Transfer of All Management Personnel to the Bashkir Revolutionary Committee and about the Organization of Management in the territory of the Bashkir Soviet Republic". This document was directed to settlement of controversial issues, defined an order of transfer of affairs and the device with property and staff. Also VTsIK "ordered Orenburg, Ufa, Perm, Ekaterinburg, Chelyabinsk and Samara to the provincial authorities not to extend further the actions in the territory of the Soviet Bashkir republic" [16].

In Sterlitamak the formation of governing bodies continued. Bashrevkom's presidium executed functions of Council of People's Commissars and presidium of the CEC, and a plenum of the Bashkir revkom - a plenum of the CEC. Instead of former commissariats the following national commissariats were created: food, finance, agriculture, work, internal affairs, education, health care, social security, a military commissariat, the state control, mails and telegraphs, justice, i.e. 12 instead of 7 being available earlier. Besides, it was planned to create department of external relations under the authority of the chairman Bashrevkom, department of national affairs at a narcomat of internal affairs, the Bashkir Extraordinary Commission (BEC), central office for affairs of statistics [17].

After exile of Kolchak soldiers the party Bolshevist organizations in Small Bashkiria remained only at the separate plants. The Beloretsk organization was one of the strongest. However the total number of Communist Party organizations was small, they had no uniform leading center in the republic.

Creation of the communistic organization operating under the direction of the Ufa and Orenburg regional committees contradicted political goals of Bashrevkom. Therefore in the summer of 1919 Bashrevkom created Temporary central bureau of communists of Bashkiria under the leadership of H. Yumagulov. The bureau included also non-parties. The Central Committee of RCP(b) did not approve such bureau. Nevertheless H. Yumagulov and his supporters, working with a name of Temporary central bureau, tried "to direct" the party organizations [18]. Further the given aspect will gain sharp conflict character, creating thereby a political crisis in the republic.

Council of the national economy was called "Vsebash-kirsky Council of the national economy" (VBSNH).

> December, 1919 the provision on the Bashkir cable agency (BASHTA) which responsible head approved K. Rakay, the member of RCP(b) [19] was claimed 18.

Measures for the organization of management in cantons began to be carried out at once after Bashrevkom's return from temporary evacuation. The territory of Bashkortostan was divided into 11 cantons. In all cantons, except Tok-Churansky, kantonny revkoma as the temporary authorities consisting of three persons were created: the sent by Bashrev-komom, local worker and the kantonny military commissar.

The organizational structure and work of a kantrev-lump is visually visible on the example of the Yurmatynsky canton. Yurmatynsky kantonny revky it was created by Bashrevkom's decision on August 24, 1919 as a part of Z. Gazizov, G. Ilyasov, G. Validov, and on September 1 started the activity. Departments and sections were organized: managements,

health care, food, economic council,

national education, social security and flour-grinding. In them 31 employees worked. There were not enough shots, material supplies, the situation with transport, communication badly was. There was no experience. 16 volosts and 208 villages were under supervision of the canton.

Kantrevkoma were the supreme authority in the canton and submitted directly to Bashrevkom. They directed the current life in the canton: organized elections of volost and village councils, established connection with the neighboring cantons. Each two weeks they submitted to Bashrevkom information reports about the of activity [20].

Summing up the results, one may say, that the Bashkir revolutionary committee made for establishing activity of state authorities in the republic much. Its activity pozvo-

poured to receive a certain independence in the economic sector. Especially it is necessary to emphasize that at the critical moments of chaos in Russia which is torn apart red and white in protection of the people there were heads of the Bashkir revolutionary committee. Despite the rigid line of centralization of the power, members of the Bashkir government tolerantly treated the Soviet power and skillfully made concessions. After re-evacuation of commissariats to Sterlitamak saturated work on return of territories, the solution of an administrative and personnel question, receiving from the Center of financial subsidies for restoration of economic life in the autonomous republic began. During an initial stage (February - October, 1919) Bashrevkom's activity development and strengthening of its government, maintaining its political stability was observed.

LITERATURE

1. CGIA RB. F.1107. Op.1. 25. L.2.
2. The national-state device of Bashkortostan (1917-1925) / the Bus - sost. B.H.T. Yuldashbayev. 2. Ch.2. Ufa: Kitap, 2003. Page 430.
3. CGIA RB. F.1107. Op.1. 78. L.17.
4. TSGAOO RB. T. 1832. Op.2. 100. Ll.3-5.
5. 5 National-state device of Bashkortostan (1917-1925) / the Bus - sost. B.H.T. Yuldashbayev. 2. Ch.2. Ufa: Kitap, 2003. Page 243-245.
6. CGIA RB. F.1107. Op.1. 87. L.5.
7. HECTARE of the Russian Federation. F.1318. Op.3. 1. Ll.7-8.
8. CGIA RB. F.1107. Op.1. 87. L.45.
9. The national-state device of Bashkortostan (1917-1925) / the Bus - sost. B.H.T. Yuldashbayev. 2. Ch.2. Ufa: Kitap, 2003. Page 612.
10. CGIA RB. F.1107. Op.1. 87. L.47.
11. The national-state device of Bashkortostan (1917-1925) / the Bus - sost. B.H.T. Yuldashbayev. 2. Ch.2. Ufa: Kitap, 2003. Page 619.
12. In the same place. Page 621.
13. A.A. Validov is the organizer of the Autonomy of Bashkortostan. At federalism sources in Russia (1917-1920): Documents and materials. Ch.1/of Sost. N.M. Hismatullina, R.N. Bikmetova, A.M. Galeyeva, Yu.R. Sayra - it is new. Ufa: Kitap, 2005. Page 36.
14. Kasimov S.F. Avtonomiya of Bashkortostan: formation of national statehood of the Bashkir people. (1917-1925) Ufa: Kitap, 1997. Page 231.
15. M.M. Kulsharipov. Bashkir national movement (1917-1921). Ufa: Kitap, 2000. Page 232.
16. Kasimov S.F. Decree. soch. Page 149-150.
17. In the same place. Page 150.
18. F.N. Samoylov. Small Bashkiria in 1918-1922. From the history of the first experience of the Soviet national policy. M, 1933. Page 32.
19. M.M. Kulsharipov. Decree. soch. Page 238-239.
20. Kasimov S.F. Decree. soch. Page 151.

Came to edition of 08.12.2006

Fredriksen Randi
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