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Ethnic processes and economy at indigenous people of the Nadym region of Yamalo-Nenets Autonomous Area



etnichesky processes and economy at indigenous people of the Nadym district of Yamal-Nenets Autonomous Okruga1

Yu.N. Kvashnin

The article describes details regarding ethnical processes and economic activities among the indigenous population of Nadym District, Yamal-Nenets National Region. The latter represents an inter-ethnical contact zone between the Nenets and Komi-Izhemtsi people. In the XXth with., under the influence of the Komi, the Nadym Nenets people lost many features of their national culture. Besides, in the 1970s-1990s, region became subject to industrial development of oil-and-gas fields. These processes have led to cultural unification of the Nenets and Komi people in this region, which in its turn might later result in formation of marginal group of reindeer breeders and fishermen.

The Nadym district is one of the most slaboizuchenny Areas of Yamalo-Nenets Autonomous Area in the ethnographic relation (further YaNAO). In the 60-70th of the 20th century the famous experts in ethnography of Nenets L.V. Homich and V.I. Vasilyev worked here. However in the works they almost did not mention features of ethnic, economic and cultural processes in this region and the related problems. Perhaps, in the 1960-1970th the cultural and economic differences at Nenets of different areas were not so noticeable, as at the beginning of HH1 of century therefore the opinion was created that in all Nenets territory these processes take place in general equally. For example, L.V. Homich [1966] wrote that "all groups of tundra Nenets, starting with living on the peninsula of Kanin and finishing living on coast of Yenisei (behind small exceptions), are uniform in type of economy in which the leading industry is reindeer breeding, and to basic elements of culture" [Page 327].

In August, 2002 the staff of Institute of problems of development of the North of the Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Science in the Nadym region of YaNAO conducted ethnographic researches. During field works, materials on ethnodemography, family patrimonial structure, reindeer breeding and fishery of indigenous people of the area were collected, features of interethnic and cultural interaction of indigenous Nenets and alien Komi - the Izhma reindeer breeders are revealed.

Researches showed that the Nadym Nenets have differences in the economic, cultural and household relations (sometimes essential) from the neighbors — the Yamal and gydansky Nenets (Yamal and Tazovsky the Areas of YaNAO).

First of all it is connected with cultural influence of the Komi-izhemtsev and industrial development of the area.

The Nadym district is located in the southern part of YaNAO in the basin of the river Nadym and on the most part of Tazovsky of the peninsula (the small site in the northeast belongs to Antipayutinsky rural administration of Tazovsky district of YaNAO). The territory of the area entirely is on the West Siberian Plain and represents alternation of low sites with heights. It is washed by waters of the Ob and Tazovsky lips. The northern part of the area lies in a tundra zone. To the south listvennichny light forests grow. The southern part is in a forest-tundra zone. Still to the south the forest-tundra gradually is replaced by a taiga. The total area of the area is 110 thousand sq.km. Here about 70 thousand people live. From them approximately

3 thousand are Nenets, the Komi and the Khanty. The most part of inhabitants is made by the gas workers and geological prospectors who arrived to the area from different regions of the country. They live in the cities of Nadym and Yamburg and also in several field camps. In the territory of the area in the 1970-1990th, main gas pipelines and the railroads were paved, compressor stations are constructed.

Nenets live in these places of more than four centuries. They are mentioned in the Russian documents here from 17th century, and according to some scientists they occupied this territory by 16th century [Vershinin, 2000]. In the 18-19th centuries the Nadym Nenets assimilated the Khanty who came from lower reaches of Ob. In the first half of the 20th century several families of the Komi - the Izhma reindeer breeders from Cisural area removed to lower reaches of Nadym.

Today in the area there are only three national settlements — Nyda, Nori and Kutopyegan. The largest of them is the village of Nyda, from 1936 to 1972 it was the center of the area. The settlements of Vatangi, Yartsangi, He, Syadeykharvutta, Numgi were liquidated in the 1960-1980th as "unpromising", and their inhabitants were settled on the next settlements or moved to relatives to the tundra.

National settlements of the area have almost identical history of emergence and formation. The village of Nyda is located in the mouth of the river with the same name. It was founded in 1896 by the Komi - the Izhma merchant Anufriyev. At the beginning of the 20th century other merchants and fishery managers lodged here, the trading station was formed. Olenevody-izhemtsy bought the land at Nenets. They hunted, fished and gave a half of production to the owner of land. Working off could continue up to 15 years (hereinafter field materials of the author).

Nyda began to develop gradually after Civil war. In the 1920-1930th constructed mail, elementary school, the first medical institution here. Now here are available: high comprehensive school, hospital, communication center, boiler houses, bath-and-laundry plant, bakery and so forth. The local community works in CJSC Nydinskoye (successor to state farm Nydinsky), at a fur farm (grow up silver foxes), on dairy - a commodity farm, in a mekhposhivochny workshop, in shops on processing of meat and fish, at construction of houses.

The settlement of Nori was founded in the mouth of the Sadyyakha River on the place of yurtas of Nare at the end of the 19th century of the Komi - the Izhma merchant Filippov.

To the 1960th the settlement was transferred below on a watercourse as on the old place there was very high coast creating inconvenience for mooring of vessels — boats and barges. Till this time all Nenets lived in the tundra, and to Nori (Old Nori) came only behind products. In the new settlement the Nenets began to settle, receiving housing and work. In Nori there was a boarding school, a fur farm (it was transferred to Nyda). The special microclimate allows to grow up in these parts potatoes and other vegetables. Prior to the beginning of the 1960th all settlement was provided with the potatoes. Until recently rybkoop accepted from the population of berry (bilberry, cloudberries, cowberry, blueberry, a cranberry) and dried mushrooms. Was here and dairy - a commodity farm. Now in the settlement there is elementary school, mail, office raypo Nydinskoye, a mekhposhivochny workshop, office of CJSC Nydinskoye and the private repair and operational enterprise. Nori's population is engaged in reindeer breeding, catches fish (a muksun, a pyzhyan, a ruff) and hunts (generally a squirrel).

We have no exact data on foundation of the settlement of Kutopyegan. Most likely, the settlement was also founded by the Komi - the Izhma industrialists at the end of the 19th century in the mouth of the river of the same name. It is known that at the beginning of the 20th century the locals were engaged in brick production [Dunin-Gorkavich, 1996. Page 337]. In the 1930-1950th in Kutopyegana there was a collective farm where there were a dairy and commodity farm and a fur farm. The dairy and commodity farm stopped existence in 1958 when during a storm water carried away the forages prepared for cows. In 1961 the silver foxes were transferred to a fur farm the village of Nyda, and the rybouchastok of state farm Nydinsky was formed here. Today in the settlement there is an average boarding school, club, out-patient clinic, mail, office of CJSC Nydinskoye, the private repair and operational enterprise, employment center. The local community grazes deer, catches fish, prepares hay for a nydinsky dairy and commodity farm.

According to household books, in 2002 in the territory of three national village councils only 3151 persons live (Nyda — 1884 people, Nori — 423 people, Kutopyegan — 844 people). Most of the population is made by Nenets (in Kutopyegana — 90.6%). Komi-izhemtsev most of all in Norinsky s/s (26.0%). There is not a lot of representatives of other peoples of the North (Khanty, Mansi, Selkups). From not indigenous people most of all Russians (in Nydinsky s/s — 26.3%) and also are available the Siberian Tatars, Ukrainians and Maris. Two percent of inhabitants are made by representatives of the former federal and autonomous republics of the Soviet Union (tab. 1).

Table 1

Demographic characteristics of indigenous people of the Nadym region of YaNAO (01.01.2002)

Indicator Nydinsky s/s Norinsky s/s Kutopyegansky s/s

Total number (people) 1884 423 844

Including (%):

Nenets 53.1 66.6 90.6

Komi 13.1 26.0 2.4

Khanty 0.8 0.4 2.2

Russian 26.3 3.5 2.0

Ukrainians 1.6 1.0 0.3

Tatars 2.1 - 0.1

Maris 0.5 - 0.1

other 2.0 - -

the nationality is not specified

0.5 2.5 2.3

Age structure of the population

Population with exact date of birth

(people)

Faces of the younger/senior generation, both floors (%)

0-14 years
0-19 years
60 years are also more senior
80 years are also more senior

Persons at working-age (%)

Men (18-55 years)

Women (18-50 years)

Both floors

Persons at reproductive age (%)

Men (18-50 years)

Women (18-45 years)

Both floors

Ratio of number of floors (%)

Cohorts where women there are more men

Reproduction of the population: last cohort of younger age

1359
403
841
30.4 40.9 36.8
43.9 50.3 49.3
4.6 7.4 6.6
0.2 0.7 0.4
49.7 43.7 45.8
45.6 38.3 40.9
47.6 40.9 43.4
21.1
23
44.1
71.3
67.3 69.2
39.4
33.6
36.6
48.5
51.5
47.6
52.4
50.9
49.1
0-14 years 20-24 years 30-39 years 50-59 years 65-74 years 80-84 years
5-14 years 25-29 years 45-59 years 65-84 years
25-39 years 45-59 years 66-74 years 85-94 years

with expanded reproduction

narrowed

reproduction

Indicator

Education level (%) Illiterate Initial Incomplete average Average

Average special

The highest, including unfinished

Studying

Do not study

Education is not specified

Professional employment (%)

Shepherds and chumrabotnitsa

Fishermen and hunters

Livestock specialists and fur farmers

Seamstresses and shoemakers

Workers and employees

Experts

Studying

Pensioners and disabled people

The serving RA

The specialty is not specified

10-14 years 5-9 years 0-4 years
5-9 years 0-4 years
10-14 years 5-9 years 0-4 years

Nydinsky s/s

Norinsky s/s

Continuation of tab. 1

Kutopyegansky s/s

7.1 7,9 2,8
42.1 5.8
6.1
5.8
24.3
14.4 4.3
11.9
12.2
1.7
31.9
5.6
0.9
20.2
6.1
6.9
4.6 27,7 1,2
16.6
0.5
28.9 0.1
6.9
13.7 6.3 5.8
1.5 - 0.5
1.6 - 0.2
3.1 0.9 0.5
16.3 19.1 17.9
5.5 3.5 6.4
24.5 2.6 29.9
9.7 14.7 14.7

>- - 0.4

3.8 18.2 3.4
20.4 10.0 19.6

The unemployed in % of persons of working-age

Structure of a brachnost

Total number of families

One-national

families (%)

Nenets

Khanty

Russian

Ukrainians

Tatars

The other National mixed families (%)

Nenets are Komi

Komi are Nenets

Nenets are Khanty

Khanty are Nenets

Nenets are Russian

Russians are Nenets

Komi are Russian

Russians are Komi

Year of birth of the most senior/young national mixed married couple

Husband

2.0
29.8
638
77.1
39.2 6,4 0,3 25,5 0,8 1,9 1,0
22.9
2.3
2.9 0,5 0,3 1,2
2.9
1.7
3.4
7.7
18.4 97
78.2
58.7
18.5
1.0
21.8
4.2
9.3 2.1
2.1
2.1
1.0
1.0
35.9
193
86.0
82.3
2.6
1.0
14.0 0.5
2.1
2.6
2.1
1.0 2.6
3.1
1937 / 1979
1947 / 1981
1951 / 1975 1940
1953 / 1972 1944
1976
1980

Termination of tab. 1

An indicator the Age difference in one-national families (only Nenets and the Komi)

the Husband is more senior than the wife on average (years) scope a share in

one-national marriages (%)

also more years (%) are 10 more senior

The wife is more senior than the husband

on average (years)

a share in

one-national marriages (%)

also more years (%) are 5 more senior

Age of women in marriages of the last type

Number of children in the mixed families (Nenets and the Komi) (people) with radical nationality

on the father

on mother

The structure of one-national families on number

(only Nenets and the Komi)

Singles (people)

Nydinsky s/s Norinsky s/s Kutopyegansky s/s

15 10.5 10
1 year — 29 years 1 year — 20 years 1 year — 19 years
90
65.9
72.4
11.1
9.1
10.3
8.5 6 4.5
1 year — 16 years 1 year — 11 years 1 year — 8 years
20
25
18.1
5.5
9.1
6.0
26-68 years
32-68 years 24-84 years
206 56 31
126 54 29
80 2 2

all (%)

Families of 2 members

from 3-5 members with children

from 6-9 and more members with children

All families with children (%)

Including with 1 child

with 2 children

with 3-6 children

with the 7th and more

One-national families of three generations (only Nenets and the Komi) (%)

49 3 9
33 5 4
29 8.5 6.7
16.3 11.7 13.4
39.7 46.8 54.4
14.9
65.2
17.0 18,4 28,7
1.0
32.9
85.1
13.8 23.4
46.8 1.0
25.3
78.7
22.8 20.7
32.6
2.6
0.7

Note. The form of the table is offered G.A. Aksyanova.

8.5
11.9

Apparently from tab. 1, the gender and age structure of Nenets and Komi of the Nadym district does not differ from gender and age structures of other groups of indigenous people of YaNAO [Kvashnin, 1996; 2000]. This group can be carried to type of the extending populations. Here the population aged from 0 up to 14 years prevails on number, and elderly people are not enough. The oldest aboriginal of the area is the Nenets woman born in 1911. A ratio of men and women in general identical though in many age categories there are more women.

More than 40% of the population in three Village Councils are made by people of working-age (men of 18-55 years, women of 18-50 years). The situation with natural reproduction of the population is most safe in the settlement of Nori as there the reproductive generation (men of 18-50 years, women of 18-45 years) makes 69.2%.

Education at indigenous people generally average (in Nyda — 42.1%) and an incomplete average (in Nori — 24.3%). It quite is enough for work as shepherds, fishermen, fur farmers, workers, etc. Experts work with secondary vocational and higher education as livestock specialists, doctors, teachers and so forth

In all Village Councils families prevail one-national, generally Nenets (in Kutopyegana 86%). The age difference at spouses in such marriages makes from 1 year to 29 years. Marriages when the husband is traditionally more senior than the wife, are noted generally at the senior generation.

The quantity of mixed marriages is quite high too (in Nyda 22.9%). International marriages are concluded by most of all Nenets and the Komi-izhemtsy. In settlements, marriages between Russians and the Komi, Russians and Nenets are not rare. The nationality of children in mixed marriages is considered differently. In Russian-Nenets, Nenets-Russians and the Russian-Komi marriages in most cases children are written down by Russians. In the Nenets Komi marriages most of children is registered as Nenets, and in the Komi - Nenets — a ratio of records of nationality almost equal. In nenetsko - the Khanty marriages children are written down only by Nenets.

To write down children Russians it is not characteristic of most of the Siberian tundra Nenets consisting in mixed marriages. For example, in Tazovsky and Yamal the areas of YaNAO of children in the Russian-Nenets and Nenets-Russian marriages write down Nenets for receiving the privileges and grants put to indigenous people of the North. Nenets and the Komi do not see a special difference in what nationality to appropriate to children from mixed marriages as most of representatives of both people in the Nadym district lead an identical nomadic life. As for Khanty, they in the Ob North always were in a dependency from Nenets. To write down Nenets they consider children from mixed marriages more prestigious.

Unlike the Nenets families on Yamal and Gydana in the Nadym district very few big families. If, for example, in the gydansky and antipayutinsky tundra the average family makes 1Q-13, and in some cases 15-2Q people [Kvashnin,

199b. Page 155, 175], in the Nadym district the biggest families are 3 families of Kutopyegan consisting of 11 people. The number of children in these families does not exceed eight people.

In the tundra of the Nadym district more than 35 thousand deer vypasatsya (about 23 thousand are closed joint stock company & lt; & lt; Nydinskoye", about 12 thousand — & lt; & lt; private"). Industrial fishing is conducted by forces of employees of closed joint stock company generally on the rivers. On Gulf of Ob the fishing is officially forbidden. Annually fishermen catch up to 3Q of t of a muksun, process it and hand over to the state under the contract for 12Q QQQ of rub. Closed joint stock company realizes other fish through retail trade.

On Q1.Q8.2QQ2 of in closed joint stock company of l Nydinskoye" was 1b reindeer-breeding crews, officially were registered as reindeer breeders (shepherds and chumrabotnitsa) 21Q of people. Nydinsky shepherds, unlike reindeer breeders of Tazovsky and Yamal areas, wander with herds of deer separately from the families in the summer. Usually during the spring and summer period the 2, 4 and 5 reindeer-breeding crews vypasat deer to the north of Yamburg (at m. Sailing, m. Round and on the lowland Nenyang-Lapte), to the south (at m. Island and on the rivers the Top and Average Hadyta) the 1st and 8th crews wander, and is closer to

the village of Nyda is the 3rd crew. Stationary settlements of these crews with women and children are located along the coast of Gulf of Ob, and male shepherds wander on the tundra with the small, facilitated plagues. In total in a northern part of Tazovsky of the peninsula it vypasatsya about 1QQQQ of deer. In each herd is from 15QQ to 25QQ of deer.

In the winter on pastures of nydinsky reindeer breeders shepherds of state farm of lantipayutinskiya remove with the herds"

(settlement of Antipayuta of Tazovsky district of YaNAO). From m. Round they wander to Yamburg where they sell to gas workers fish and cervine meat.

Norinsky and kutopyegansky reindeer breeders wander closer to the coast of Gulf of Ob in the summer, and in the winter in a North taiga zone. The livestock of deer in their herds is much less, than in northern, tundra crews — from 1QQ to 14QQ of the heads. It is difficult to vypasat big herds in a taiga. In winter time for pastures of kutopyegansky reindeer breeders through the Nadym Ob shepherds of state farm of lyarsalinskiya" the Yamal district overtake the herds.

Stationary settlements of nydinsky reindeer breeders are, as a rule, near water, in low places or under hills. Plagues usually cost separately from each other at distance 1QQ and more meters. The exception is made by close relatives, their plagues stand approximately in 1Q-15 meters. Near everyone small chumik in which dry are established to plagues and smoke the cervine skins intended for tailoring the lad. Skins suspend to poles, and on the earth make fire which then is put a moss and the turf. Prokopchenny skins are warmed up and processed a scraper. Sometimes keep in small chumika and bring up a reindeer lichen of manual olenit.

Reindeer breeders are Nenets and the Komi live in plagues of the Komi of type (the Komi than). In the basis it not strongly differs from plague of the Yamal and tazovsky Nenets. It also consists of two basic poles connected among themselves above by leather thongs or a rope, 4Q of poles on which two tires are imposed (in the summer — from tarpaulin, in the winter — from cervine skins). However unlike Nenets the plague than is much more spacious. In it there are no l superfluous" details, for example, the Nenets sacred pole of a simsa which is installed usually on the side opposite to an entrance.

In the center of a chom and in the winter, and there is an oven potbelly stove in the summer, its pipe comes to light between poles (antipayutinsky Nenets make in the middle plague fire in the summer). Tires are imposed on poles so densely that from above light almost does not get. On the earth, on both parties from the oven, sheets of linoleum are laid (put floorboards in the winter). Behind the oven cost a table for products and one or two low tables for food. Along walls, at the left and to the right of an entrance, beds are located. As well as at Nenets of Tazovsky district, a bed settle from brushwood, mats and cervine skins. On mats sometimes lay cloth covers. At the wall purchased pillows and blankets from cervine skins lie. Over each bed the print bed curtains are suspended. To the right of an entrance, traditional Nenets handbags for sewing accessories and big bags for pieces of skins, preparations for tailoring lie. To the left of an entrance on a pole or near the oven the washstand under which there is a bucket or the enameled basin is strengthened. It is lit than an oil lamp. Some reindeer breeders have diesel power plants of a lyamakh". In warm weather the edge of the tire closing an entrance is constantly cast away, and light gets in what through it. During the mosquito period the entrance is closed a kapron grid.

Fire in the oven does not die away almost round the clock. Preparation of firewood does not make problems: along the coast, larches and various bushes, and to the north, ashore, rather floatable wood grow much.

For comparison, at Nenets of Tazovsky district all bedding is made of skins, bed curtains and washstands almost do not meet, and fire is made in plague only for cooking.

Sledge with things at nydinsky Nenets are placed around plague (as at Nenets of Tazovsky district), near plagues in two-three rows or in a distance, on hills. Sacred sledge where Nenets usually store images of the died ancestors, meet seldom. Often they are replaced by the small wooden boxes (not N hekhe-labtey) wrapped in cloth and standing on wooden supports behind plague.

Some families live in beams and tents. So, on a stationary settlement of the 8th crew we recorded 5 chum and the 4th beam. Only one plagues from five was inhabited, stood near it small smoking chumik, in four others dymokura for smoking of skins were arranged. Other families lived in the wooden beams sheathed from above by sheets of roofing material. In beams plank beds, ovens, tables were established.

The stationary settlement of the 1st crew is divided into two parts. On the bank of Gulf of Ob there is plagues, near it a small wooden construction used under a bath. Farther from the coast, in several kilometers from plague, between low hills, there are two a beam and a big tent. Near the small lake the round shelter for calculation is made

deer (the Komi, not N punished), fitted by networks and ropes.

More difficult coral was at a stationary settlement of the 3rd crew in the mouth of river. Top Hadyta. It consisted of four cameras: big general shelter and preliminary, working and spare cameras, smaller by the size. On a settlement there were 5 chum in two of which there lived relatives. Near one plague stood big beams of industrial production. Owners plague, old men, were going to get over in it with the onset of cold weather for now they used under a bath for all settlement.

Inhabitants of summer stationary settlements are old men, women and children — are engaged in daily affairs.

Men catch fish and repair networks, and women prepare firewood, cook food, manufacture skins and sew clothes. Children pick berries, look after manual olenyata, help parents.

For fishing each family has purchased stavny networks and motor or inflatable boats. Networks put usually in a calm weather, check every other day. Fish eat fresh, boiled and fried. At a great take the fish is salted in big metal barrels which dig in in sand near the coast. There she is stored till fall, prior to removements on winter pastures. Salty fish eat if there is no meat or fresh fish.

Reindeer breeders wander on the tundra on upper courses of the rivers and rivulets, is far from stationary settlements. The nomadic settlement is located usually on the tableland with which it is convenient to watch the movement of herd. On a settlement there are two facilitated plagues and several automobile sledge.

Plagues of reindeer breeders are twice less by the size, than stationary. It consists of 20 wooden poles thrust by the pointed ends to the earth and fitted by tarpaulin nyuka. Along walls 3-4 folding beds are placed or cervine skins are spread out. In the center the plague costs the oven potbelly stove or the fire burns. Sometimes as the oven the ordinary bucket is used. Closer to an exit the curtailed lassos, personal belongings of shepherds and medicines lie.

The system of a pasture of deer at nydinsky shepherds differs from similar at Nenets of Tazovsky district. In the afternoon shepherds guard herd on two persons, going round it from two parties and not allowing deer to run up far. At night deer are grazed without supervision (antipayutinsky shepherds guard herd on one and round the clock). For scaring away of wolves on horns to deer hang up big hand bells-botala. Before herd watched round the clock, frightened off wolves shouts. Nydinsky shepherds, as well as antipayutinsky, practice a quiet pasture at which deer are nervous less and better acquire fat. When deer run much, they will wound hooves about a branch of bushes, lose weight, are ill more often. Usually the shepherd goes behind herd on foot, holding the advanced deer by the bridle. Uses a dog a little. Deer overcome water barriers by swimming a wide stream. Saving deer from mosquitoes, shepherds do dymokura. They make fire from four parties of herd, gradually covering them with earth and putting the turf.

Change, free from watch, is engaged in economic affairs: prepares firewood, cooks food, repairs or makes sledge and a harness. Periodically shepherds come to stationary settlements, to the families. They bring them meat and take away from them fish.

Sometimes nydinsky shepherds catch in the spring from Gulf of Ob a sturgeon, a nelma, a muksun and let them into several tundra lakes. As required they get fish seines from these natural storages. At fish make an incision across skin at a tail and the head and also do three cuts along ink. Then skin big pieces.

Having cut a belly part, take out and throw out interiors. Then cut off a tail and the head. Fish is divided into several parts and give to a table.

In the winter nydinsky Komi and Nenets wear universal Nenets clothes — a malitsa and a goose, and in the summer only the malitsa who is put on purchased clothes. Malitsa both men, and women carry. The female malitsa differs from men's in only lighter color of a hood. At the Komi living in the Nenets Autonomous Okrug of the Arkhangelsk region, the hood of a female malitsa is made of a skin of a white fawn [Homich, 1970. Page 47]. Traditional Nenets yagushka of the wife of nydinsky reindeer breeders carry seldom. They say that they very heavy, press on shoulders, their tailoring requires a lot of time and cervine skins.

As language of international communication between reindeer breeders by Nenets and the Komi-izhemtsami serves Russian. Many Nenets know three languages — Nenets, the Russian and the Komi - Izhma. In some Izhma families speak native and Russian languages. In Komi language - izhemets there are a lot of loans from the Russian and Nenets languages.

Under the influence of the Komi at nydinsky Nenets traditional beliefs changed. In some plagues it is possible to meet ancient and modern icons. Many Nenets execute traditional ceremonies and customs rather by inertia, than on deep religious belief. In the tundra there is no elderly people left who could watch due correction of traditional religious instructions.

The family and patrimonial structure of indigenous people of the Nadym district was formed of representatives of the Nenets childbirth, Khanty and the Komi of surnames with XVII to the middle of the 20th century. At different times and for various reasons to the basin of Nadym and to Tazovsky the peninsula reindeer breeders from Cisural area, the peninsulas of Yamal and Gydansky, from the average current of Nadym, from lower reaches of Taz and Pur moved. Now representatives of the European Nenets — Apitsyn, Vylko, Laptander, Ny, Taybury enter it; the Cisural Nenets — Pinalya, Tyaro (byv. Puts), Yamzina, Yangasova; the Yamal Nenets — Anagurichi, Vanuyto, Vengo, Ezyngi, Lamdo, Nenyang, Nyaruy, Okotetto, Puyko, Susa, Serotetto, Serpivo, Tadibe, Teymi, Horolya, the Hoodie, Yaungad; tazovsky Nenets — Sega, Togo, Haryuchi, Heno; gydansky Nenets — Lapsuy, Yadne, Yaptunay, Jara; forest Nenets — Vello, Pydarkhasovo, Pyak; the Nenets childbirth of the Khanty origin — Nerkagy, Nyadongi, Pando, Poronguy, Salinder, Tibichi; the Nenets childbirth of the Enets origin — Marik, Okova, Rubbed; Khanty — Kondygina, Kubolev, Kuybina, Kurtyamova,

Longortova, Nakhrachyov, Pyrysev, Sevli, Sibarev, Tayshina; the Komi - izhemets — Anufriyev, Arteev, Batmanova, Valeev, Vityazev, Kanev, Konev, Lageev, Popov, Rokina, Rochev, Ruchkolamova, Ryzhova, Sverchkova, Sozykina, Terentyev, Teterlyov, Trushnikova, Filippova, Chuprova, Hatanzeev (tab. 2).

Table 2

Family and patrimonial structure of indigenous people of the Nadym region of YaNAO

payment order No. village of Nyda settlement of Nori settlement of Kutopyegan

Nenets

1 Anagurich - Anagurich
2 Apitsyn - -
3 Vanuyto Vanuyto -
4 Vello Vello -
5 Vengo - -
6 - Vylko -
7 - Ezyng -
8 Esnikova - -
9 - - Lamdo
10 Lapsuy Lapsuy Lapsuy
11 - - Laptander
12 Marik - -
13 Nenyang Nenyang Nenyang
14 - Nerkaga Nerkag
15 - - Leg
16 Nyadong Nyadong Nyadong
17 Nyaruy - Nyaruy
18 Okovy - -
19 Okotetto Okotetto Okotetto
20 Panda Panda Panda
21 Pintles - -
22 Poronguy Poronguy Poronguy
23 - - Puyko
24 Pydarkhasovo - -
25 Pyak Pyak Pyak
26 Salinder - Salinder
27 Sega Sega -
28 - - Sobrin
29 - - Susy
30 - Serotetto Serotetto
31 Serpivo - Serpivo
32 - Syaz -
33 Tadibe - -
34 Tayberry - -
35 Rubbed Rubbed -
36 - - Tobolko
37 - - Tibich
38 Togo Togo -
39 Teymi - Teymi
40 Tyaro Tyaro -
41 Haryuch - —
42 Horolya - -
43 Hoodie - Hoodie
44 Heno - -
45 Yadne - Yadne
46 Yamzina - -
47 - Yangasova -
48 Yaptunay Yaptunay Yaptunay
49 Jara - -

Termination of tab. 2

payment order No. village of Nyda settlement of Nori of Komi settlement of Kutopyegan

1 Anufriyev Anufriyev -
2 Arteev Arteev -
3 Batmanova Batmanova Batmanova
4 Valeev - -
5 Vityazev - -

> Kanev Kanev Kanev

7 Konev - -
8 Lageev Lageev -
9 Popov Popov Popov
1Q Rokina - -
11 Rochev Rochev -
12 Ruchkolamova - -
13 - Ryzhova -
14 - - Sozykina
15 - - Sverchkova
1b Terentyev Terentyev -
17 Teterlyov - -
18 - Trushnikova -
19 Filippova - -
2Q Chuprova - Chuprova
21 Hatanzeev Hatanzeev of the Khanty -
1 - - Kondygina
2 - Cuboleva -
3 - - Kuybina
4 - - Kurtyamova
5 - - Longortova

> Nakhrachyov - -

7 Pyrysev - -
8 Sivley - -
9 - - Sibarev
1Q - - Tayshina

Nenets in household books of village councils for 2002 wrote down also several people Esnikov, Sobrinykh, Syazi and Tobolko though these surnames are Khanty. According to B.O. Dolgikh, in 1926-1927 the family of Khanty Esnikov lived to Entre Rios of Nadym and Nyda, and Sobrina and Tobolko (Tobolchina) arrived from Polar Ural Mountains here [1970. Page 84, 107]. The surname of Syazi happens to the Cisural Synya River [Martynova, 1998. Page 93].

Unlike classical scientific division of all Nenets into fratriya of Haryuchi and Vanuyto, Nenets of Tazovsky district, Nadym and next to it, unite in a fratriya Yadne and Salinder as in this territory this childbirth is the most numerous. For the first time noted it L.V. Homich [1966. Page 301].

The Nenets sort of the Khanty origin Nyadongi is considered primordial owners of lower reaches of the Nyda River. Later Nenets immigrants called it Yasaway — the owner of land. According to stories by nydinsky fishermen, some of the first Nenets Anagurichi came from the Kutopyegan and Vello River from an average current of the river Nadym here. On the Nyda River and its inflows, gydansky and Yamal Nenets long since wandered.

Names of some Nenets childbirth in the Nadym territory changed under the influence of a local dialect a little. So, the sort Maryik began to be called Marik, the sort Okovay — Okova, a sort the Toga — Togo. The name of the Nadym sort Poronguy on Yamal is said by Paranguy, and on Gydana — Purunguy.

Some Nenets and the Khanty changed national identity. For example, Nenets of a sort Pinaly began to realize themselves the Komi. Komi Ruchkolamova, perhaps, Nenets of the Khanty origin of Esnikova are somehow connected with the Surgut Khanty Ruskolamov, and — with the Nenets sort Ezyngi.

In conclusion it is possible to tell that aboriginals of the Nadym region of YaNAO (in comparison with the neighbors — tazovsky and Yamal Nenets) are more civilized. It became result of international contacts

Nenets with the Komi and industrial development of the area in the 70-90th of the 20th century of Komi were always very susceptible to all new, gained from it maximum benefit and then influenced culture and life of the next people. Under the influence of the Komi-izhemtsev the nydinsky Nenets lost many lines of the national culture. They simplified type and internal furniture of the dwelling, clothes. Training and education of children of reindeer breeders at boarding schools led to the fact that Nenets began to forget the traditional customs and beliefs. The number of international marriages increased. As a positive side of a civilization it is possible to note contacts of reindeer breeders with gas workers which allowed them to adjust mutually advantageous exchange of products of traditional crafts for manufactured goods. Besides, nydinsky Komi and Nenets became more open and sociable unlike constraining and reticent Nenets of Tazovsky district.

Predicted development of the ethnic processes in this direction caused by a number of factors of economic and social character in 1970 L.V. Homich [Page 58-61]. If international contacts and industrial development of the Nadym region of YaNAO develop so intensively further, then in the near future Nenets and the Komi in this territory can lose completely the national shape and turn into marginalized group of reindeer breeders and fishermen.

Literature

E.V. Vershinin. The Nadym town in the 17th century and the Russian development of Northwest Siberia (on materials of written sources)//the Russian old residents. Materials of the 3rd Siberian simp. "Cultural heritage of the people of Western Siberia". Tobolsk; Omsk, 2000. Page 28-31.

Long B.O. Essays on ethnic history of Nenets and Enets. M.: Science, 1970. 270 pages

A.A. Dunin-Gorkavich. Tobolsk North. T. 2. M.: Liberia, 1996. 412 pages

Yu.N. Kvashnin. Ethnodemographic characteristics of the population of the national settlements of Tazovsky district of the Yamalo-Nenets Autonomous Area//Current trends of reproductive processes at peoples of the North (social and demographic aspect). M, 1996. Page 100-209.

Yu.N. Kvashnin. Comparative social and demographic characteristics of the people of Western Siberia (Nenets, Khanty, Siberian Tatars)//Ethnodemographic collection. Peoples of the North of Russia. M, 2000. Page 5-75.

E.P. Martynov's

>. Essays of history and culture of Khanty. M, 1998. 236 pages

L.V. Homich. Nenets. Historical and ethnographic essays. M.; L.: Science, 1966. 332 pages

L.V. Homich. Modern ethnic processes in the north of the European part of the USSR and Western Siberia//Transformation in economy and culture and ethnic processes at peoples of the North. M.: Science, 1970. 280 pages

Tobolsk, IPOS Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Science

1 Work is performed within the "Ethnocultural Interaction in Eurasia" program with financial support of the Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Science (grant No. 22.4).
Anita Douglas
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