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Usual and legal aspects of pre-Christian beliefs at a mordva.

yu. N. Sushkova


In article usual and legal aspects of the Mordovian paganism are considered. Mechanisms of realization of traditional norms by means of prayers, oath assurances by "a name of the Mordovian gods and the died ancestors", plots, draw, sacral natural objects, other religious customs and ceremonies are analyzed. The author on the basis of historical, ethnographic, archive, folklore and field materials gives the concrete examples from usual and legal practice of a mordva confirming the importance of religious views in regulation of the public relations.

Yu. Sushkova


Traditional legal aspects of Mordovian heathenism are observed in the article. The author analyses mechanisms of customary norms usage through collective praying, swearing & #34; in the name of God and dead ancestors" incantations, casting of lots, sacred objects of nature, other religious customs and rituals. Basing on historical, ethnographical, archival, folklore and field materials, author gives concrete examples from the traditional legal practice of the Mordvins, which confirm the tremendous role of religion in regulation of social relations.

Religious beliefs since the most ancient times are an important component of a way of life of the people, including, their sense of justice, promoting realization of a system of common law, efficiency of its regulatory and guarding functions. The most considerable phenomena of ethnostandard regulation of the public relations were exposed to religious or sacral authorization. Violation of the developed stereotypes of behavior was considered as godless, offending belief and surely attracted punishment.

The paganism which was expressed in the special mechanism of protection of the rights by means of prayers, oath assurances by "a name of the Mordovian gods and the died ancestors", plots, draw, sacral natural objects, other religious customs and ceremonies was an important factor of formation and development of unique model of the Mordovian justice. Religious bases of usual legal relations at a mordva before adoption of Christianity were defined by faith of the people in the deities which were carrying out protection over is defined -

ny spheres of the nature, economic activity, public and family and patrimonial relations. So, wood deities (vir) were Vir-Ava (Ava — the woman, mother) and Vir-atya (atya — the man, the old man), lands (fashion) — Fashion Ava and Moda-atya, waters — - Ava and Ved-atya, winds (Varma) — Varma Ava and Varma-atya, fire (tolite) — Tol-Ava and Tol-atya, houses (where) — Kudo-Ava and Kudo-atya or Yurtas Ava, Yurt-atya (erz.), Yurkht-Ava, Yurkht-atya (moksh.), the yard (kardaz) — Kardaz-Ava and Kardaz-atya, the center (furnace) (erz. money, moksh. pya-nakud) — Kashtom-Ava and Kashtom-atya, Pya-nakud-Ava and Pyanakud-atya, cellars (bokha-ryam) — Bokharyam-Ava and Bokharyam-atya, baths — the Bath Ava and Ban-atya, the sun (erz. chi, moksh. shi) — Chi-paz or Shi-bavas, the moon (erz., moksh. k) — Kov-Ava, etc. The Supreme god, the chief divine judge, at a mordva Nishke was considered (erz.), Shkay (moksh.). Mordva-erzya called him also teonimy Nishke-paz (a groove — god), Belief groove (belief — top, top), and mordva-Moksha — Vyarde Shkay (a vyarda — top, top), Shka-bavas, Otsyu shkaybas1.

According to spheres of protection by deities the behavior of the specific personality and collective in general was controlled. Religious views accompanied formation of usual precepts of law, mainly, regarding the realization mechanism, acting as the sacral guarantor of execution of the made decisions as was considered that their violation attracted punishment not only from terrestrial (wordly) legal institutes, but also divine.

On the Mordovian pre-Christian beliefs of the deity had competence both to help people, and to punish them for any given inadmissible acts. For achievement of desirable result the people tried to propitiate, cajole them. In the people the idea of absolute justice of will of gods and the died ancestors which was considered as one of the main reference points in perception prevailed

relations between the person and god. The victim offended begged gods to find and punish the guilty person, and that, as a rule, did not ask to avoid punishment, and, having regretted, begged about indulgence to it. Mordva asked from gods of assistance in affairs, an opportunity to live in good and consent, to avoid disputes, the conflicts, evil acts.

In honor of deities on alleged places of their dwelling (in forests, on fields, at the rivers, in dwellings, in the yards and baths, at springs and lakes) molyana, prayers were arranged (ozkst) on which any given sacrifices were made, prayers were rendered (moksh. ozondomat, erz. oznomat). Generally Mordovian ozksa were public, settling all village for protection of collective affairs, and family — for the benefit of separate family. The unique usual legal mechanism of national justice expressed in a special form of protection, representation of interests, fight for the rights, wellbeing as from the specific personality, and group in general is reflected in prayers.

Public prayers were held by all village from the sanction of a wordly descent. The important usual and legal value among public prayers represented a wordly prayer (vel ozks) which subject was a protection of the soldiers taken by the state on military service. The community obligation for a rekrutstvo of soldiers was considered in the opinion of the people of the heaviest in this connection this prayer was the most solemn and populous. It proceeded three days, starting with Petrov day. In the first day pricked a bull, in the second — a heifer, cooked beer. The first two days prayed to Verda Shkayu for health of villagers and a harvest of bread, and in the last — about health of the soldiers who were at this time serve in the forces that Shkay's Beliefs "gave them easy service" that "chiefs did not offend them" and they "came back home healthy". For this day left a barrel of beer and cooked porridge. Men, women participated in a prayer and

the children who were not going home till late evening. Seniors drank public beer, and the youth organized igry2.

Other public prayer — on the verge (a side ozks) was made on the boundary separating fields from the neighboring villages, which, as a rule, along with signs of property (erz., moksh. teshkst), acted as a legal symbol of the rights for the land plots. The part of the earth and a grain sporina which intended or unintentional transfer on foreign fields could lead to loss of the earth or a harvest were considered as the markers which had religious and magic character. In order to avoid it the prayer in honor of the goddess of fertility the Habit Ava was held.

In a prayer for horses (Alashan ozks) the importance of elders and officials of community, in particular the rural head is traced. For example, in the prayer which was taking place in the village of Kardafley of the Gorodishchen-sky County of the Penza province a day before its beginning the rural head bought on public money pood or two honeys for Pura, and transferred enough pork and a goose to the prepared three owners organizing carrying out a ceremony. It was chosen three old men who said a prayer about preservation of horses of the village from "any evil and it is dashing". Upon termination of a prayer the chosen old men bypassed three times around specially baked bread, having touched everyone. At a round for the third time the old man who was going ahead of all picked up a knife and a cup, cut out on a small piece and put in a cup. The cut-out pieces carried further under a bush and buried in zemlyu3.

Besides specified, the mordva held plow prayers (Keret ozks), chickens (sa-time ozks), meadows (a lime ozks) and others in which it asked about health, the birth of children, reproduction of the cattle. The fertility, increase in posterity was considered by the people as God's favoring, approval about -

time of his life, behavior. In case of emergency, when in the village there were mass epidemics or a murrain, made extraordinary prayers, for example, a heavy prayer (a staka ozks) and a prayer for a locust (tastoozks). Mordva large disasters, epidemics, an epizooty, a drought, tornadoes, etc.) often connected with divine punishment. Five-six people led by the rural head who asked gods to take pity and remove from the village the proklyatiya4 participated in a prayer of a stak ozks.

For providing a family order and wellbeing the family prayers made by the senior family members were held. Molyan was carried out by separate family on the occasion of "some important event in family or relationship in the presence of members of family or relationship". Were among the most important: prayer to the goddess of the house (erz. Kud-avan ozks), a prayer in the subfield (erz. sed alks ozks), yard prayer (erz. kardaz ozks), drying house prayer (erz. avnya ozks) 5.

In materials of folklore the prayers said for protection of the house from criminals and offenders were reflected: "Kardosyarko, mother, keeper of the yard!... Towards to the angry person get up. Who will come to steal, deprive of him mind, protect with an iron fence, confuse the direction, in a fist squeeze"; "Stand, Yurtava, the mother, for the family living in the house store from mujaheddins and harmful, from all angry and bad, the house and the yard spoiling"; "Kardo-syarko, the mother, keep from the bad, wicked man, keep from the opponent, keep from planning bad, keep from an evil eye, keep from evil thoughts, keep from the thief, from the sorcerer, give us, the mother, discretion, do not let the thief, do not let the fortune-teller." 6.

The Mordovian molyana with a complex of various attributes reflected dependence of the person by nature and his religious and mythological outlook. In contents and the nature of prayers were before -

stavlena of norm of national ethics and right. In them idea, characteristic of traditional mentality, of the world functioning within a cyclic chronological constant one year long with four constant making (seasons) consistently revealed. This cycle was a support of reproduction and strengthening of moral and legal views of the people.

The most essential aspects of sotsionormativny regulation of the public relations were exposed to sacral authorization. It concerned such institutes and the principles as, for example, observance of the world and an order in community and family, implementation of competences within the available conditions of property, various obligations and contracts, formation of the interpersonal relations, legal status of each member of collective, national justice, etc. Violation of the developed standards of behavior, usual legal requirements to maintenance of consent in community, contractual obligations and also other responsibility following from the relations between members of collective traditionally was considered as godless, offending belief and surely attracted punishment. Was considered that gods turned away from people who the behavior profaned their honor. "The pass gives up on the people offending it by the lawlessness" — N. Smirnov wrote. According to K. Milkovich, relating by 18th century, the mordva considered that only honest people "richly" live in a next world, and "disgracefully lived" burn on fire — "piksit a smolas" 7.

In the usual and legal scheme "crime punishment" the essential value had the repentance impossible without divine forgiveness. So, at a mordva the lindens called "forgiven" because of their special sacral force used big honoring to avert anger of gods from people, to forgive their injust postup-

ki. "Mordva believes that any disease comes to the person to punishment from the angered deities, and to get rid of diseases, it is necessary to propitiate god who sent them" — M.E. Evsevyev who described lindens near the unimportant town of Troitsk to which on worship there came the mordva from Krasnoslo-bodsky, Insarsky and Narovchatsky uyezdov8 noted.

Traditionally the mordva considered that frail children, or in general childlessness were the most serious punishment sent by god to family. To the "forgiven" lindens often there came infertile women, bringing different treats. Having spread out them under lindens, they began to pray, creeping with tears around lindens on a lap, asking for forgiveness and the help. On lindens hanged out the brought gifts (canvases, scarfs, new shirts, etc.). Took off from sick children hats, shirts, belts, leaving them under lindens in hope that together with them there will be also diseases. According to the Mordvinian peasant from the village of Samodurovki Vasily Kartsiganov, on the raised money and donations it would be possible to construct stone cathedral. "Young women quite often leave the best dresses, sometimes cost to ten rubles. It and is not surprising as infertility of the woman and the death of juvenile children is considered at a mordva the heaviest misfortune". Many stories about how lindens helped people remained, cured them of serious illnesses, cruel proklyatiy9.

Close connection of common law with religion caused wide circulation of such most ancient practice known at various people of the world as "God's court" when the guilt of the person was established by results of test to which this person was exposed. Forms of "God's court" were various, pronouncing oath assurances (oath), a lot, a judicial duel are most known among them.

In traditional justice of a mordva on business the oral certificate because the lie said publicly could draw anger not only from laymen, but also deities was considered as very powerful argument. Klevetnichestvo, perjury qualified both heavy antisocial offenses, and sinful acts. The unique guarantor of truthfulness of the said certificate, being expressed in fear to anger gods, belief in inevitability of their punishment, oath assurances were (moksh. wave of a maksom, erz. shaft maksomo). The majority of the oath assurances practicing at a mordva had ancient pagan roots. Judging by the remained historical and legal acts of the Russian office-work of HU1 — HU11 of centuries if Russians at disputes with mordvy gave to judges in "the God's truth" an oath on "God kissing", then a mordva — "on the belief on Mordovian", "on the belief on shert" 10.

During the interrogations made by the alatyr-sky voivode concerning a congress of a mordva and cheremis of September 25, 1629 in the village of Chukalekh the Mordvins of the village of Ignatova Andryushk Ignatov and the village Old Chukal Sustat Sekshenev before the steward and the voivode Dmitry Nikiforovich Tolocha-novym, the scribe Grigory Rukavov demonstrated "on the belief on shert for themselves and for the companions for all village" that last year "later order-kodnya for a Semik, there was it in the village in New Chukalekh at the Mordvin at Sovaik Mecha-sov, and in that day the mordva had villages Old and New Chukal entreaty over their parents, on belief showered with the earth — Mar; and were on that entreaty the Arzamas and Nizhny Novgorod mordva with wives and with children..." 11.

The mordva oath "on the belief" was considered as one of the proofs confirming the validity of the challenged fact or an event on trial. At trial of business of brotherhood of Pechersky Voznesensky of the Polyansky monastery with

Mordvin Ivanta Ramsteev Uchevata and Ivana and Uzvetya asked Ivantiny sorcerers of a mordva about possession of forest lands behind the Pyana River of the judge "": "Tell you in the God's truth, on the belief on Mordovian, someone's wood where we stand". And Uche-vat answered: "mister, the God's truth, on the belief on the Mordovian — yaz was, mister it is young, and got rid of esm, mister, with the father in those places, and my father, mister, used to say about that loess so: "those voto places comely to the sovereign to the grand duke" 12.

In the text of interrogation of the yasashny Mordvin Mamleyki Atyuryev concerning payment of the quitrent which took place in the Saransk voyevodsky office not earlier than July and no later than September 28, 1704 it says: "... The same number ty the village of Kochkurova Mordvin Mamleyka Atyushev, on the belief and on shert told: the old resident I ty villages., and lands at me that village in three fields on two tithes, total tyaglo, and taxes in treasury of the great sovereign with ty the earth and grounds paid I ty villages with a mordva according to census books by Martyn Suvorov from 17 yards, and for a tithe arable land and for posopny bread money on ten a three-copecks piece with semi-hryvnia; yamsky and polonenich-ny on ten money; for mill a hand-made article on shta of money, for streletsky bread on thirteen a three-copecks piece on two money for a year; to military people on salaries on osm a three-copecks piece on two money 3 yards, and on Semenovsky offices and from yny orders of any requisitions on me, Mamleyka, are not necessary, and did not plachivat, and kunichny and yasashny and riding medical wine to a quitrent for me is not present and did not happen and I do not trade in the auction and I do not trade in any crafts, and I have no bees. And awaking with I, Mamleyka, told in a false manner, and for my false skaska the great sovereign would specify and under the decree of the great sovereign to make to me the death penalty. Podjya-whose Matvei Shchedrin on command of Mordvin Mamleyki Atyushev (banner) applied its banner to this skaska of Saranskaya Square" 13.

the rolled value of the agreement is confirmed by etymology of the Mordovian designation of the word "contract" — altavks that means "vow" 17.

According to religious and mythological views of a mordva, god of a thunder (Purgin-Paz) was considered as close to god of a lightning (Han-dale-PAZ), in common allocated with the powerful punishing force. Purgin-Paz, for example, it was represented armed with stones (moksh. atyam kev, erz. to the purgena kev that means a thunder stone) with which he killed people and the cattle. For less considerable offenses, especially teenage, he punished a nettle (the purgena palaks) 18.

Since the most ancient times there was a practice of signing of the contracts in special days which were considered devoted to any given deities. At a mordva days at the end of June when the populous summer communal prayer of Velle ozks (erz., moksh was usually held were recognized those. Velle is the village) and a holiday of god of a thunder Purgin-Paz. At execution of terms of agreement usually addressed god of a thunder with words: "Purgin-Paz keryak!" ("God of a thunder, cut!") or to god of the sun: "Chi-paz, pultyk!" ("God of the sun, burn!"). At the conclusion of agreements said an oath: "We communicated belts — connect us, My God, by chains; who will split that chain — that blood from us flowed", or "as our hair are tied, and we are connected; who will untie hair — will shed someone else's blood". Development of arrangements at a mordva surely was followed by a special ceremony: participants of the agreement cut off top crusts from a bread loaf, divided it with each other and ate, on a small piece everyone earthed. Was considered that eating of a symbol of the contract as which the bread piece acted, pronouncing an oath guaranteed performance of conditions. Otherwise believed that if "who belts communicated — the inside will leave (hernia) who hair — blood a throat will go, blood izoydt or fire will burn down (fever) and if all this does not happen, then an inside zip

(blow) will kill", and for punishment by god of a lightning the division of a top crust hleba19 is sufficient.

Meta's designation as means of marking of a boundary was followed by a religious practice. In particular, on each turn of a boundary quite often put a stone under which put ashes from the centers of both neighbors and cut out on their Meta's bricks (erz. teshkst, moksh. tyashks) which were designed to protect property from capture as they were cut out with a prayer: "Shkay, supporter! Ineshke-PAZ, father! Black Mastyr-PAZ! As you preserve the apiaries, in others do not stand up, so keep also my good!". Was considered that tried to plow up a boundary after pronouncing a prayer charm, according to a mordva, "would deal with all three main deities Mordovian, and they are not ones to be trifled with" 20.

Certain observers of legal life of a mordva noted original ways of "God's court" as proofs in establishment of the truth. For example, according to K. Mitropolsky, the mordva which was annually gathering somewhere near the big lake for legal proceedings over suspects of any crimes committed within a year for knowledge of the truthful facts performed the next ritual: "Judges, to learn the truth, administered "God's justice": ordered to tie up the middle of a bicheva a neck of the defendant and with speed to move him through the lake from the end in the end by all means three times; survived recognized as the innocent". At suspicions someone in theft the Mordovian judges allowed alleged responsible to drink mix of the earth taken from the cemetery and water. In case of the validity of suspicion the guilty person, as a rule, hesitated to lie for fear that ancestors will punish him for it death. The anger of ancestors was attracted on himself at mordvy-Moksha by the one who wished to approve the truth of the words: "Let the dead will punish me if I tell a lie" 21.

Widely applied way of "God's court" was a lot. It was considered as one of the most ancient traditional proofs in settlement of disputes and other affairs. Loss of a lot on the particular person marked for a mordva will of her Supreme god Shkaya whose violation according to religious beliefs of the people attracted punishment. About divine authorization of draw when dismantling important questions the legend confirms election of the Mordovian tsar. The old men who gathered for a meeting cast lots which fell on the peasant by the name of Tyushtyan. Testing the solution of a descent and, respectively, will Shkaya, he set a condition before old men: if thrust to the earth it "old and dry as the bone" will sprout a whip handle and becomes an apple-tree during an opakhivaniye to them a circular furrow, then he will agree to reign. Tyushtyan did not manage to return on the old place as saw the blossoming young apple-tree. During an ulcer on people or the cattle several maidens ordinary at midnight went beyond the village, having taken a plow and black color of a kitten, a puppy and a rooster. Cast lots, a coma there to be the head in the enterprise. Specified by a lot put to a plow and helped it to opakhivat a furrow around everything se-leniya22.

The special relation to the earth expressed in the concept "God's Earth" was a spiritual core of the people. In understanding of a mordva the earth is created by gods for all people. The reverential relation to the nature of the agricultural people transferred from generation to generation what the mordva is rooted in this concept. Its ideas of the earth are closely connected with the view about sacral protection of natural objects which was not excluding development of institutes of property. At the end of XIX — the beginning of the 20th century allotments were assigned to community which distributed it among families on number of men's souls. Some grounds and other objects in certain cases remained generally

use and in this value were also called "God's". Mordva-Moksha, complaining to V.N. Maynov about a lack of the earth, said: "Where be not stuck — either a polesovshchik, or entrusted at us God's is not present: all or royal, or lordly, and ours four tithes and from them one and one third walks therefore a neudobitsa". Besides, the find as one of ways of acquisition of property, was designated at a mordva of Pazyn-yavovks, i.e. a God's part or doley23.

Spoke about God's will and when on the earth of any given person the water source was formed. As the person is not able to cram the river a leak in one or other party, people considered that this owner the behavior, with acts pleased god. In this regard the rule was established: the border lying down the river remains on its current. Explained existing of this rule of a mordv with the fact that the person has no right to argue with will of gods, besides the rivers are changeable and can change the course at any time. In use of the lake only coast were divided, and it remained "God's", all coastal owners could fish in it. The road and a boundary were also considered as God's, all had the right to use them. Driving and pass through roads and boundaries was considered as available to everyone, and the duty on turns was assigned to owners of lands and in bottlenecks to dig small holes to avoid arrivals on bread. Had the right of use also in public forests, however the rule of reasonable consumption was defined by custom in order that was enough for all from "A God's piece" 24.

A significant component of religious bases of national justice the mordva had a cult of ancestors. It took all public disasters (hunger and diseases) as punishment or revenge from ancestors for non-execution of ancient ceremonies. Ancestors acted as keepers of traditions and punished the descendants for violation slo-

the being foundations. At them looked for protection against malicious intent. For example, during a wedding ceremony the parents and the groom's relatives before following the bride, said the following prayer: "Ancestors, bless us, you are Saint people, in the fructifying earth your bodies, before god your souls! Keep us from bad acts" 25.

As was considered that the dead strictly monitored respect for customs and punished their violators, at permission of the family questions arising between "live" also addressed the died ancestors. K. Milkovich noted: "Often it happens that they (family members. — Yu.S.), razmolvyas between themselves, go to the dead to a grave to complain and imagine as if the dead, having investigated their business, guilty punish". In case in family of the Mordvin after the death of one of her members there was a dispute, then the victim appealed to the dead to protect ego26.

Due to the increasing value of the dead also the honor to it increased. Everything that anyway adjoined to it, was highly esteemed at a mordva. The grave of the dead, the place where the chips which remained after production of a coffin were thrown out had to be inviolable. The person who disturbed the sepulchral earth paid for it in either life, or welfare. "On this vindictiveness of the dead people who wish to salt to the enemy or his lime speculate" — I.N. Smirnov noted. Like cheremisa (to Maris. — Yu.S.), a mordva believed what was to take lands from a grave enough and to put on the yard to the enemy that it was comprehended by some disaster. The wife who wished to exhaust the husband addressed anger of dead men. In the village of Shadym Insars-kogo of the county there was such case. "The guy a roll-up married the girl who was more senior than him. Family disagreement went soon, and the wife decided to get off the husband. Neighbors were with councils:

"Take a wedding ring of the husband, go into the cemetery through gate to a shaft and drive a ring on an aspen peg in the earth". The woman did everything that to her was advised. Later children, playing, really found a ring on an aspen peg, but she mixed rings and died itself". Places where the killed people are buried were considered as especially terrible. The cattle which got on such place died. Karoly for free or involuntary insult of a grave could be led to a sudden illness (pritka), and sometimes and by the death of responsible: the woman was most often punished besplo-diyem27.

Ordinary addressed the late ancestors and in case any of family members committed offense or a crime, but did not confess to it though the victim also was ready it is oath to confirm the validity of the words. As it was not always possible to establish authentically correctness any of the parties, the head of the family asked for the help house spirits: "Late ancestors, father and mother! We pray to you, we bow to you, check our business. The daughter-in-law Tyazay it is oath claims that the daughter-in-law Mazay wanted to bewitch it, but the daughter-in-law Mazay it is oath too assures that Tyazay lies. Which of them is right and who is guilty? Establish who is right and who is guilty and punish guilty!" 28.

The mordva had a custom to swear a name of the dead. According to N.P. Orlov, under these circumstances brought the earth from a grave, stirred it water and allowed to drink to the witness or the defendant. Drinking said: "Take me to yourself, the late ancestors, I will die (for it) and this year I will be buried". "Gods of protection of the house, as well as the dead, urged to punish those who dared to swear a perjury and that blackened honest, innocent people. The guilty person who indulges in court of gods or soon dies, or to it there is big misfortune" — N. noted Item Orlov29.

In a stump of ancestors the usual and legal model of relationship between community members, family members in many respects revealed, the principles of honoring of seniors, mutual responsibility, care of relatives and other family members, mutual aid and also the organizational beginnings of holding village assemblies, meetings of elders, family councils, etc. were reflected

Thus, religious beliefs significantly influenced formation and realization of a system of national justice. Having considerable impact on formation of sense of justice of people, they promoted rooting of moral beliefs, understanding neizbezh-

Nosta of the report for perfect offenses not only before community members fellows villager, but also before gods, ancestors. The competency of sacral oaths, usual and legal registration of an order of holding public and family prayers, a certain list of their participants, forms of "God's court", a cult of ancestors, other religious views strengthened the developed principles of family and communal ways, demanded strict following to traditions, fidelity to the died order, increased the importance and authority of elders priests, thereby put the fundamental beginnings of norms customs in various spheres of traditional law.

1 N.F. Mokshin. Religious beliefs of a mordva. the 2nd prod., additional and the lane — Saransk: Mordov. prince publishing house, 1998. - Page 40, 71-73, 96.
2 M.E. Evsevyev. Chosen works: In 5 t. Historical and ethnographic researches. — Saransk: Mordov. prince publishing house, 1966. — T. 5. — Page 399 — 400.
3 In the same place. — Page 374.
4 In the same place. — Page 401 — 402.
5 In the same place. — Page 402 — 403.
6 Oral and poetic creativity of the Mordovian people: In 12 t. — Saransk: Mordovian book publishing house, 1981. — T. 7. — Part 3. — Page 170 — 177.
7 K. Milkovich. Life and beliefs of a mordva at the end of the XVIII century//the Tambov diocesan sheets. H not office — 1905. — No. 18. — Page 823; N. Smirnov. Mordovian population of the Penza province//Penza diocesan sheets. — 1874. — Page 98.
8 GU "Research Institute of the Humanities at the Government of the Republic of Mordovia" hand-written fund. I-658. M.E. Evsevyev's report. L. 180.
9 In the same place. L. 180 — 181.
10 Documents and materials on stories Mordovian the ASSR: In 4 t. — Saransk, 1940. — T. 1. — Page 141, 170.
11 Documents and materials on stories Mordovian the ASSR: In 4 t. — Saransk, 1939. — T. 3. — Part 1. — Page 280 — 281.
12 Documents and materials on stories Mordovian the ASSR: In 4 t. — Saransk, 1940. — T. 1. — Page 141.
13 Documents and materials on stories Mordovian the ASSR: In 4 t. — Saransk, 1953. — T. 1. — Part 2. — Page 27.
14 Documents and materials on stories Mordovian the ASSR: In 4 t. — Saransk, 1940. — T. 1. — Page 184 — 185; N.M. Maliyev. General information about a mordva of the Samara province; their anthropological character; late marriages and their influence on the fortress of addition of the people. National peculiarities of a skull//Minutes of meetings of society of scientists at the Kazan university. 1977 — 1978 — Kazan, 1978. — Page 4.
15 Harva U. Die Religiösen Vorstellungen der Mordwinen. — Helsinki: Academia Scientiarum Fennica, 1952. — S. 174; Hamalainen A. Das Kultische Wasserfeuer der Mordwinen und Tscheremissen//Journal de la Societe Finno-ougrinne. — T. XLVIII. — Helsinki, 1936 — 1937. — S. 13 — 14; Oral and poetic tvor-

chestvo of the Mordovian people: In 12 t. T. 7. Part 3. Calendar and ceremonial songs and plots. — Saransk: Mordovian book publishing house, 1981. — Page 185 — 186; Field materials of the author: N.F. Belyaeva, 1950 Moksha is the Mordovian village Polish Tsibayevo of Temnikovsky district of the Republic of Mordovia; V.N. Maynov. Essay of legal life of a mordva. — SPb., 1885. — Page 199.

16 Field materials of the author: M.P. Uchuvatova, 1927, I.I. Gornostayeva, 1932, Erzyans - the Mordovian village of Shoksha of Tengushevsky district; G.N. Kedyarova, 1934, Erzyans - the Mordovian village of the Morgue of Dubenskii of the area of the Republic of Mordovia.
17 V.N. Maynov. Decree. soch. - SPb., 1885. - Page 211-212.
18 N.F. Mokshin. Decree. soch. - Saransk, 1998. - Page 75.
19 V.N. Maynov. Decree. soch. - SPb., 1885. - Page 212-214.
20 In the same place. - Page 197.
21 MitropolskiyK. Mordva. Their outlook, customs and customs//Wordly word, 1877. - Page 74; Smirnov I.N. Mordva. Historical and ethnographic essay. - Saransk: Red October, 2002. - Page 172.
22 Legends and legends of a mordva. - Saransk: Mordov. prince publishing house, 1982. - Page 51-52; V.A. Aunovsky. An ethnographic essay of mordvy-Moksha//the Memorable book of the Simbirsk province for 1869 - Simbirsk, 1869. - Page 14.
23 V. Maynov of N Decree. soch. - SPb., 1885. - Page 198.
24 In the same place. - Page 205-207.
25 Central state archive of the Republic of Mordovia. F. R-267. 91. L. 12-24; Harva U. Op. cit. - S. 123.
26 K. Milkovich. Decree. soch. - Page 825; Harva U. Op. cit. - S. 123.
27 I.N. Smirnov. Decree. soch. - Page 172-174.
28 In the same place. - Page 123-125.
29 In the same place. - Page 286.
Michelle Cunningham
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