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Development of border and customs control on borders of the Russian Empire in the 19th century.


Alexander ULYANICH


In work the activities of public authorities of the Russian Empire for development of control of crossing of border of the state reveal. Influence of such factors as strengthening of military and political threat, emergence of railway transport on the organization and implementation of border and customs control is shown.

The paper is dedicated to the activity of the state authorities of the Russian Empire on the development of control of the state border crossing. The influence of such factors as strengthening of the military and political threat and appearing of the railroad transport on the organization and exercise of border and customs control is shown.

border and customs control, gendarme border check-points; border and customs control, gendarme border check point.

Alexander Mikhaylovich ULYANICH is an applicant of an academic degree of the candidate

The strategy of national security of the Russian Federation and the Concept of formation of a system of ensuring interests of the Russian Federation in boundary sfere1 defined threats to interests and safety of the Russian Federation in boundary space which have not military character in the majority: distribution of the international terrorism; activization of cross-border criminal groups on illegal movement through frontier of the Russian Federation of drugs, psychotropic substances, goods and cargoes, water biological resources, other material and cultural values, the organizations of channels of illegal migration, etc.

In this regard the state undertakes the active measures designed to provide adequate response to new threats on the ways of the international message and contributing to the development of international relations of Russia with the states of the FSU and beyond. It is possible to carry to these measures:

— improvement of the regulatory legal base regulating admission questions through frontier of persons, vehicles, goods and cargoes;

— creation within EurAsEC of the Customs union and carrying out of customs control on external customs borders of the states entering into the Customs union;

— reduction of number of the public control authorities in check points, perspective implementation of the state control in automobile check points by the principle "one stop — one window" that will allow to reduce significantly the time spent of vehicles at check points;

— optimization of a system of check points through frontier: introduction of their specialization, reduction of quantity; relocation of automobile and railway check points to frontier; definition and designation of borders of the territory of check points (automobile, railway and air), the borders of the territory and water area of the sea check points including opened or established earlier; return

historical sciences of

1 The concept of formation of a system of ensuring interests of the Russian Federation in the boundary sphere. — M, 2005, page 5.

buildings, constructions and the equipment of check points in state ownership;

— introduction uniform mezhvedomstven - ache the integrated automated information system of the federal executive authorities (MIAIS) exercising control at check points through frontier of the Russian Federation, etc.

Besides, structures, forms and modalities of action, interaction of two main public control authorities at check points — boundary and customs are improved. At the state level it is made and the decision on formation of boundary bodies, reduction of internal customs authorities and on their carrying out to border areas is implemented.

It is interesting that the similar decision was made in our state even more than 250 years ago when in the middle of the 18th century internal customs was reduced and the number of boundary customs is sharply increased that led to activization of participation of customs authorities in the admission of faces and goods through border.

The beginning of the 19th century was marked by radical restructurings in the sphere of public administration. According to the Imperial proclamation on establishment of the ministries of September 8, 1802, customs offices remained as a part of the Ministry of commerce, but short time. Since June 25, 1811 the customs offices and also customs boundary guards were subordinated to Department of foreign trade of the Ministry of Finance.

In the same time the start of centralization of protection of border and control of its crossing was given, there is a reorganization of customs authorities, the district control system is introduced (11 customs districts consisting of customs and outposts are created). All customs and outposts and also customs guards "in the district being" submitted to the chief of the customs district. There is a division of customs into main and other. Besides, manifesto of June 24, 1811. "Establishment of Customs office on the European trade" "for checking of customs and audit of the goods taken through Customs on overland border" control customs is founded.

In anticipation of war with Napoleon the Minister of War Barclay-de-Tolly carried out survey of a condition of protection of the western border and control of its crossing. Conclusions were unfavourable: "Customs supervision in three points on space of versts one and a half thousand is supervision invalid how soon the space between customs will not be connected by incessant and faithful guards" 1.

Understanding that and in the established places not to achieve high efficiency of control of passing of goods and persons on the established roads without reliable protection of border between them, the Minister of War suggested to protect border between three customs, more than 1,600 versts long, the Cossack regiments to which to allocate for protection sites on 150 versts. On the western border the Cossack regiments appear. From now on border and customs control was exercised by the Cossack traveling serving on the first line, the customs guards which are on the second line, boundary customs and outposts and also control customs.

For the organization and implementation of border and customs control Most highly approved customs charters had great value: On May 30, 1817 — "The customs Charter on Asian trade", on December 14, 1819 — "The customs Charter on the European trade". The customs charter of 1819 for the first time legislatively assigned to customs authorities verification of passports of all categories of persons at the admission them through border. In it was defined that customs officers "at the admission through border of people of an ordinary rank are obliged to observe that they had the specified pashporta" 2. Customs was divided into 4 classes, 12 customs districts are founded.

Due to the assignment of a duty of verification of documents in full on customs authorities, customs officers on border also police functions began to be performed. Say circulars on customs department about it: about identification of foreign and Russian citizens and

1 RGVIA, t. 26, op. 1/152, 519, l. 251.
2 Set of charters of state management. Part second. Institutions and charters customs. — SPb.: in Printing house of the Second Office of Own Office of its Imperial Majesty, 1832, page 86.

not their admission through border, about not the admission through border of political smuggling, some systems of firearms, objects with explosive, etc.

Significantly activities of customs authorities for the admission of faces, goods and vehicles with the advent of railway and sea steam transport in the middle of the 19th century became complicated. There was a sharp increase in the movement through border of people and cargoes.

The current legislation did not correspond to the changed conditions on border, slowed down implementation of border and customs control in new conditions. Acceptance of the appropriate legislative measures for improvement of control in sea and railway points of check and structure of the public control authorities was assigned to Department of customs fees of the Ministry of Finance which was created on the basis of Department of foreign trade in 1864. The department prepared offers for the Minister of Finance who was granted the right to make temporary changes to technology of control of the increased flows of persons and goods. These changes after approbation in customs were included into customs charters 1892,


the New factor which had significant effect on border and customs control on border of the Russian Empire in the second half of the 19th century strengthening of political threats to its state system became 1904, 1910. Communications between the Russian and foreign revolutionaries became more active. Sharply streams through border of political literature, means of terror and diversions, revolutionaries increased. As it was specified in the report of the Minister of Internal Affairs, "journey to that and other party (borders) of revolutionary elements" 1 became absolutely free. The western site of border reckoned as the most difficult for protection — with Prussia and Austria-Hungary where there passed the main illicit ways from Europe to Russia.

The serious problem for the power was made by the organization of illicit delivery blasting revolutionary a letter -

1 M.M. Borodkin. From the contemporary history of Finland. Time of management of N.I. Bobrikov. — SPb., 1905, page 68.

tours to the country. Various methods including distribution of revolutionary literature in the parts of the Russian army which were returning home after the end of the Russo-Turkish war were for this purpose used. Border provincial gendarme managements through the 3rd office constantly informed the emperor on a dangerous situation. In this regard in 1878 Alexander II personally reproached the commander of the Danube army of the general E.I. Totleben.: "Once again I pay your attention to revolutionary promotion of our foreign emigrants. I hope that all measures will be taken... that foreign editions could not get into Russia with the coming-back troops" 2.

The complex of actions was developed for counteraction to new threat of the government. On border, in places of its crossing, the new subject — the Certain building of gendarmes appeared.

Since 1871 at 12 border railway stations and in 2 river ports there were established gendarme points. In these points passport control was exercised by both the staff of customs department, and gendarme ranks. Gendarme border check-points were under authority of one of assistants to the chief of provincial management. Viewing passports by gendarmes was made on the basis of the "Provisional passport rules" established in June, 1871 on personal command of Alexander II and under the agreement of Ministers of Finance, internal affairs and the chief of the 3rd office for the purpose of identification of the wanted persons, prevention of entry into the empire of the persons able to do it harm and also not the admission in borders of the country of political smuggling, other forbidden objects.

By 1881 the number of gendarme border check-points at customs increased to 19 — it were all railway stations on the western border and 3 ports on the Danube River — Ismail, Rennie, Kiliya. In 1881 after murder by Alexander II's narodovolets in Russia police actions amplified. There is a reorganization of police force. On secret and persons under surveillance

2 N.N. Volynkin. New archive materials about the Russian-Romanian revolutionary communications in 1875-1878//Questions of history, No. 12, 1958, page 176.

persons alphabetic lists were formed: the general (in country scales) and private (on provinces). Such alphabetic lists were available on all gendarme frontier points and managements of customs where there was no gendarme supervision. On frontier points the control of such list was the main objective of gendarmes. In 1901 the number of the cards including data on the wanted persons made 55 thousand, the forbidden revolutionary editions — 5 thousand names. Thus, the foundation was laid for conducting special account on frontier points.

Gendarme frontier points worked in 1914 together with customs authorities in 55 check points, in other nearly 200 — only customs department and boundary guards. Places of dislocation of gendarme frontier points for a public inspection were not published. In Customs charters 1886, 1892, 1904, 1910 under articles where it was specified that the customs knows passport control, in the note it was told about examination of passports in some places and ports by ranks of the Certain building of gendarmes.

In 1887 "The management for gendarme officers on frontier points" which defined a procedure of passport control was approved. At the beginning of the 20th century the gendarme frontier points began to appear on border and out of check points. They were called observation posts and were located where most often the border was crossed by illegal elements. Their activity had generally counterprospecting character. The gendarmerie conducted vigorous intelligence activities through the agency in the adjacent territory. Gendarmes also acted for boundary provinces for the benefits of investigation of military districts and the General Staff.

At the beginning of the century in in-house documents the term "gendarme customs appeared

ny examination", the reflecting control fact at check points. Thus, by the beginning of the 20th century there was a certain practice - technology of border and customs control which is practically applied at check points and now.

On October 15, 1893 the boundary guards were allocated to the Certain building subordinated to the Ministry of Finance. The commander of the Certain Building of Boundary Guards (CBBG) acquired the rights which were earlier available for the director of the department of customs fees and the inspector of boundary guards of the same Department. This organizational change concerned only management of parts and divisions of boundary guards. Functioning of a system of protection of border was carried out in a former order. Crews of boundary guards were finally allocated from submission of customs districts only in 1899

Thus, the analysis of history of formation of the bodies exercising border and customs control on borders of Russia allows not only to track dynamics of their development, but also to reveal top trends. First of all, it is dependence of organizational structure and the carried-out tasks of control authorities at boundaries of the state from the nature of threats to national interests. While there was a military threat, forces providing its protection and protection took part in control of crossing of border: guards, outposts, regular and irregular military formations of the Defense Ministry. With the advent of economic threat, smuggling on the trade ways on border there were customs authorities which began to carry out the main objectives according to the admission of persons, goods and vehicles up to 1917 over time. With emergence of political threat to the state on border gendarme bodies appeared.

Mary Emily
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