The Science Work
Site is for sale:
Category: History

Hull novel Borisovich (1896 1986)


The writer Roman Gul was born on August 1 18 96 g in Kiev, in noble family. In the early childhood and in gymnasia years lived in Penza. Often happened in the district city of Kerensk, in the estate of the grandfather Sergey Petrovich, chairman of the Kerensky district territorial justice and the leader of the nobility; there felt how he wrote in an essay "Adolescence", "charm and joy of the whole world... where all are resolutely happy". His father - Boris Sergeyevich - was engaged in legal activity, had the house in Penza and estate Caulk in the Insarsky County (died in 1913). Roman visited with parents Germany, Austria, Switzerland and Italy. In 1914, after the termination of the 1st men's gymnasium in Penza, arrived on Law department of the Moscow university. Was fond of philosophy, took the course "Introduction to Philosophy" at the famous culturologist and the scientist-jurist Ivan Ilyin.

Summer of 1916 when it passed to the 3rd course, its year was mobilized. Upon termination of 4-month Moscow school of ensigns it was made in officers and the zapasny infantry regiment standing in Penza is released in 14 0. In the spring of 1917 it was directed with replenishment to the Southwest front where got to 4 67th infantry Kinburnsky regiment. Was involved in fighting, consistently holding positions of the junior officer, commander of a company, the field aide-de-camp of the commander of a regiment. After seizure of power by Bolsheviks, having received news that peasants burned the estate, left army and returned to Penza.

In December, 1917, having received the proposal of the commander colonel V.L. Simanovsky to arrive to Don and to take part in armed struggle with Bolsheviks, together with the elder brother Sergey (was born in 1895 - died in 1945 in France) went to Novocherkassk. In January, 1918 in a rank of the ensign joined Volunteer army. At first served in officer guerrilla group of the colonel Simanovsky, then when at a reogranization of army in the village of Olginskaya the group was poured in the Kornilovsky shock regiment, - the private of this regiment as a part of which took part in the 1st Kuban ("Ice") campaign. It was wounded and upon return of army to Don was on treatment in Novocherkassk. After recovery, in an early autumn of 1918, having submitted the official report about dismissal, together with the brother left Volunteer army and went to Kiev to the family. In October entered officer team for protection of Kiev against the coming Ukrainian parts of S.V. Petliura. On December 14, when petlyurovets occupied the city, together with team was given in captivity. In the last dates of December, in connection with offensive at Kiev of troops of the Soviet government of Ukraine, in

the structure of group in several hundreds of officers it was taken out by the evacuated Germans to Germany. Since January, 1919 Gul lived in the camp for displaced persons Gelmshtadt, worked at a tree felling. "A thought to write down everything that I endured and saw in civil war — Gul in memoirs "Tells I carried away Russia" — sat down at me. So I also wrote the first book & #34; Ice поход"". She was written on the basis of the remained diary entries. In 192 0 g the fragments from the book were published in the emigrant magazine "Zhizn" issued in Berlin.

After their publication, in the same 192 0 g, he moved to residence to Berlin where he was employed in the editorial office of the Zhizn magazine. In Berlin - at that time to the capital of the Russian abroad - Gul meets the writers, poets, critics from the Soviet Russia coming to Germany at the beginning of the 20th — with B. Pasternak, S. Yesenin, E. Zamyatin, K. Fedin, B.

Pilnyak, Yu. Tynyanov. Meetings with writers emigrants — V. Khodasevich, A. Remizov, M. Osorgin, F. Stepun, B. Vysheslavtsev, A. Bely, Yu. Aykhenvald, N. Otsup, Sasha Cherny, G. Ivanov (with whom is much later, in the 50th, Gul continued to keep actively in contact and published the with him "Correspondence across the ocean"), M. Tsvetaeva were even more numerous (14 of her letters to Gul are printed in "the New Magazine",

1959, No. 58). Gul regularly stayed at meetings Berlin At home arts, and thus the circle of literary acquaintances extremely extended. The same was promoted by its work since 1922 as the secretary of editorial office of the famous kritiko-bibliographic magazine "Novaya Russkaya Kniga". In it its literaturnokritichesky articles and reviews of works of V. Bryusov, Z. Gippius, M. Zoshchenko, B. Pilnyak, V. Shklovsky, A. Tolstoy, A. Vetlugin and other modern writers were printed. At the same time he cooperated in the Nakanune newspaper founded in March, 1922. From the middle 192 3 to the middle of 192 4 Gul was an editor of "Literary supplement" of this newspaper. He was published and in other Berlin periodicals - "Voice of Russia", "Russian Emigrant", "Time".

Result of acquaintance to A. Bely was the book by Gul "A floor in creativity" (1923). The same year there was the separate edition a story about life in emigrants "In dispersion real". Emigrant experience became maintenance and other his book — "Life on Fuchs"

(1927). The book "White on Black" which appeared next year represents essays about the Russian refugees in Africa; she was written according to stories by the Russian emigrant who came back from Africa to Europe. At the end of 2 0 Gul addresses istorikobiografichesky art prose and at once gains recognition as the master of this genre. The novel published in 192 9 g about the Social Revolutionary terrorist B.V. Savinkov "the General of BO" was translated on

German, French, Spanish, English, Polish, Lithuanian and Latvian languages. Many years later, when Gul lived in America, he processed this novel and let out him in 1959 under the name "Azef". "On the first place in the novel not Azef, but Savinkov. — the poetess Ekaterina Tauber wrote in a response on this book. — The new person who stopped being the person came. Azef — just the car, ideally and prudently working in own favor. More terrible picture of underground life it is difficult to think up" (the New Magazine. 1959. No. 58). Plots from life of historic figures interested Gul as the novelist and further. Roman "Scythian" is devoted to the fate of the famous anarchist M.A. Bakunin and covers years of reign of Nicholas I. To this novel published in 1931 Gul as well as to the "General of BO", returned in the 50th, thoroughly processed it and republished under the name "The Scythian in Europe".

Three books of the documentary and art essays written and published in the 30th represent a series of portraits of the famous Bolsheviks (military and security officers): M.N. Tukhachevsky, K.E. Voroshilov, S.M. Budenny, V.K. Blyukher, G.I. Kotovsky, F.E. Dzerzhinsky, V.R. Menzhinsky, Ya.H. Peters, M.I. Latsis, G.G. Berries. In the book "Dzerzhinsky" the writer traces emergence and revelry of red terror. Did not allow to publish it in fascist Germany to Gul (it left in Paris in 1936). "I could not live in Hitlerite totalitarian Germany psychologically and sincerely. — he writes in the book "I Carried Away Russia". - All being I wanted to break from this brown totalitarianism loose". When he was already ready to leave Germany, in the summer of 1933 he was unexpectedly arrested. Having charged it with the German edition of the novel "General of BO", Nazis imprisoned him in a concentration camp Oraniyenburg. In a month it was released with an explanation that he was arrested "due to a misunderstanding". Soon, in September, it managed to leave together with family to France. The stay in the Gul camp was in detail described in the book "by Oraniyenburg. What I saw in the Hitlerite concentration camp" (1937).

Since September, 1933 Gul lived in Paris, cooperated in "Latest news", "Modern notes", "The illustrated life" and other emigrant editions. Spent more than half a year in London, participating in production of the movie on the novel "General of BO". According to the same novel the play "Azef" was put by the Russian theater in Paris. At the beginning of World War II Gul went from Paris to the south of France, department of Lot-e-Garonn, in a free zone. There he rented small farms, together with family earning a living by country work. "We with the wife decided to turn into the most real peasants" — he tells in the autobiography (the New Magazine. 1986. No. 164).

To Paris returned in two months after the end of war. Here it finishes the autobiographical book "Red horse". In

194 6 g it are printed from number in number by the New York "New Magazine" with which, since time of the first publication, forty years of his life will be closely connected. In the review of the separate edition of "A red horse" G. Ivanov defined character and features of the book: "It is the life story of the author weaved with history of "fatal minutes" of Russia and the world. This conscious judgment of the world, of, of the past demanding bifurcation, dialogue with the soul. And dialogue of soul with the world" (G. Ivanov. The third Rome. Tenaflay (USA), 1987. Page 321). In 1948 Gul created the political anti-totalitarian group "Russian People's Movement" issuing the Narodnaya Pravda magazine in Paris (itself was his editor). Having moved in 1950 to the USA and having lodged in New York, it continued to edit this magazine. Some time worked for radio "Svoboda".

In 1951 Gul became the responsible secretary of "the New Magazine" which he considered "the best Russian magazine not only abroad, but also around the world". The concept of freedom, in particular freedoms creative was the basis for so resolute statement. "Soviet magazines — he wrote to autobiographies, confirming the conclusion — continue to remain not free". In 1959, after M.M. Karpovich's death, many years heading "the New Magazine", Gul was a part of editorial "triumvirate" (together with Yu. Denike and N. Timashev). Since 1966 became the editor-in-chief. This work was continued 27 years, and under its redaktorstvo (mostly individual, and during some periods - with coeditors) 105 volumes left joint. To sum up the results of this work — means, to speak about a half of history of "the New Magazine", about 3 thousand publications on 30 thousand pages. At the same time the set of works outgrew value of just next journal publication and became long-term property of the Russian literature, historiography, philosophy, journalism. He understood editing the most prestigious magazine in the Abroad as "the All-Russian business" and at the end of life said: "The culture of old Russia always was with me and continues to live in me. Therefore the chuvstvovaniye of is probably based by the Russian emigrant first of all on it" (A new Russian word. 1985. On Aug. 13).

Gul was one of the most active authors of the magazine. We find its articles, the essay, reviews and other publications in 130 numbers, since 1946. The best essays are collected in books "Odvukon" (1973) and "by Odvukon 2" (1982). The meaning of this name Gul explains in the preface: "After the bolshevitsky revolution the Russian literature went odvukon. Its part remained in the country, and a part was thrown out on the West, the free countries, having become the Russian emigrant literature. So — odvukon — the Russian literature lived half a century". Here essays and notes about B. Pasternak, A. Akhmatova, N. Klyuev, I. Ehrenburg are presented,

M. Bulgakov, B. Okudzhava and at the same time about writers and poets of the abroad — about G. Ivanov, M. Tsvetaeva, V. Veydle, G. Adamovich, I. Odoyevtseva, I. Chinnov, A. Sedykh, N. Berberova, L. Rzhevsky, N. Narokov. In response to the essay the last wrote about G. Ivanov to Gul: "Your article is brilliant and deafeningly talented. Nobody so is able to write about poetry and very seldom who in general was able. And I as the reader read and counted, having enjoyed, forgetting that Georgy Ivanov whom I, m., mistakenly understand in own way — seeing and accepting entirely that G. Ivanov who is presented by Gul".

Were published in "the New Magazine" as well its memoirs "I carried away Russia". The separate edition the 1st volume with a subtitle "Russia in Germany" left in 1981, the 2nd ("Russia in France") — in 1984, the 3rd ("Russia in America") was published posthumously — in 1989. In the interview given to the Novoye Russkoye Slovo newspaper (1985. On Aug. 13), Gul defined a task which set for himself, working on the memoirs trilogy: "I wanted to give an art and historical sketch of all emigration. I wanted to imprint what it was big cultural force". Critics fairly called him "the chronicler of the Russian abroad". "Gul always was irrepressibly inquisitive: he terribly is interested in any person met on his course of life; he notices and strong remembers any phenomenon which he witnessed. The Soviet and emigrant writers and actors, "splinters smashed" Russian intelligentsia, theaters and the press of the Russian abroad, night taxi drivers are the former colonels and generals. All this lyud lives in its art memoirs prose and in its annalistic chronicles" (B. Filippov. R.B. Gul's memories//New Magazine. 1986. No. 164. Page 10).

Roman Borisovich Gul 3 of 198 6 g in New York died on June 0.


R. Gul. Ice campaign//White business. Elected of the work to 16 books by the Prince 2. Ice campaign. M, 1993.

R. Gul. Kiev epic//White business. Elected of the work to 16 books by the Prince 2. Ice campaign. M, 1993.

R.Ya Gul carried away Russia: Apology of emigration. In 3 t. T. 1. Russia in Germany. New York, 1981; T. 2. Russia in France. New York, 1984; T. 3. Russia in America. New York, 1989.


Crate B. The first emigration in "the New Magazine"//Foreign Russia. SPb., 2000.

V. Pirozhkova. R.B. Gul's memories//New Magazine. 1986. No. 164.

G. Struva. The Russian literature in exile. Paris; M, 1996.

Ruby? Lynne
Other scientific works: