The Science Work
Site is for sale:
Category: History

History of aviation and pedagogical university of A.I. Herzen

e. N. Gruzdeva, photo editor of publishing house E.M. Kolosova, director of the museum of history of the university


Different documents are stored in funds of the museum of history of the Herzen State Pedagogical University of Russia, among them a specific place is held by memoirs of teachers and pets of higher education institution. The fragments of memoirs which are selected for the present publication are united, apparently, by a subject, unexpected for pedagogical higher education institution — aircraft.

The beginning of the 20th century was marked by rapid development of the Russian aircraft. Enthusiasts of flight business, having got an education in France, sought to open in the homeland flight clubs, to create new devices, to organize demonstration performances and competitions, to prepare the first echelons of professional pilots. On flights not only men, but also women were keen. Names of the first female-aviatris as they were called by contemporaries, "air Tamar" — Lydia by Zverevoy1, Eudoxia Anatra2, Lyubov Golanchikovoy3, Evgeny Shakhovskoy4, Sofya Dolgorukoy5 are entered in the history of the Russian aircraft...

The graduate of Women's Pedagogical Institute of 1915, Tatyana Leonidovna Ru-dykovskaya — Grigorova (1892-1981) was keen on flights too and for the rest of life kept in memory bright pictures of flight holidays, competitions of designers and pilots, that rise which was endured it and her friends, visiting airfields and hangars.

"From the pilots coming to us I saw Leganye6 in 1909. It flew to Gatchino in the field, but could fly by is very low and nearby. I lit up at once — & #34; I want летать"! Read now and then literature, watched progress of foreign aircraft, attended the corresponding lectures and exhibitions and on question Miti7 & #34; what to indulge me with? & #34; steadily

1 Lidiya Vissarionovna (1890-15.05.1916) Zvereva, general's daughter, graduate of Mariinsky institution for young ladies. Graduated from aviation school of the First Russian association of aeronautics of Gamayun. August 23, 1911. The All-Russian aero club handed it the diploma of the pilot-pilot No. 31. Thus, L. Zvereva became the first Russian woman-pilot.
2 Anatra Eudoxia (?-?), woman-pilot-sportswoman, relative of the large Odessa industrialist, pioneer of aircraft A.A. Anatra. Gained at the Gatchina flight school the diploma of the pilot-pilot No. 54 (on October 3, 1911).
3 Golanchikova (Galanchikova) Lyubov Aleksandrovna (1889-1961), the professional singer (on the stage — to Millie Mora). Graduated from aviation school Gamayun. On October 22, 1911 gained the diploma of the pilot-pilot No. 56.
4 Evgenia Mikhaelovna (1889-1920) Shakhovskaya, princess. Studied flight business and gained the diploma of the pilot in Iogannestala (Germany) on August 16, 1911
5 Sofya Alekseevna Dolgorukaya (1888-?). In 1911 had initial flight training in France at Blerio school. Having returned to Russia, ended the High female courses. Then was admitted to school of pilots of the All-Russian aero club. The princess Dolgorukaya gained the pilot's diploma in June, 1914
6 The French pilot Georges Leganye in the fall of 1909 showed in Gatchina the flights on a biplane of Vuazen.
7 Dmitry Grigoryevich Tuchin, "the general favourite of the circle, the merry fellow liking to drink and take a walk a kupchik" who was connected with T.L. Rudykovska by long-term friendship.

answered: & #34; I Want летать". In 1910 in St. Petersburg the aviation holiday was organized from September 8 to September 24 by Society of aeronautics. Devices were shown, flights in Commandant's airfield were made. It was the field around Kolomyag where educational flights of our aircraft were carried out. During the holiday many devices were shown (& #34; Блерио" & #34; Вуазен" & #34; Райт" & #34; Фарман") and our domestic & #34; Россия". It was longer required to hold on in a competition in air, to rise above, to land more precisely. Flight with the passenger was allowed. Flights were paid, as well as an entrance for a holiday, but there were many persons interested — all were attracted by risk. Our pilots — Yefimov and Matsiyevich8 — were winners, the public was enraptured with technology of their pilotage.

But in the last day on September 24 there was misfortune. What occurred precisely, I do not know, only saw how literally in the eyes in air the plane was scattered (Matsiyevich flew on & #34; Фармане"): at first the motor fell, then the pilot and separate parts fell down. Most of people rushed to the place of falling, and I left rather — I do not like to look at misfortune where my help is already useless. A funeral was grandiose, and the inscription on one wreath was remembered: & #34; To Madness of brave — we will eat славу".

Here these years — 1910-1911 — Dmitry Grigoryevich to us comes somehow and says: & #34; You will have an airplane! & #34; When as well as where Dmitry Grigoryevich got acquainted with Kasyanenko's brothers — I do not know, but once he presented me three: the engineer Ivan Ivanovich Kasyanenko and his two brothers, students of the Kiev polytechnical institute Andrey and Evgeny — konstruktorov9. On what conditions they agreed — did not take an interest. They designed and built, putting the work all three, and Mitya financed them. Everything had to end with presentation of the device to the Defense Ministry, and if the commission accepts, then the device will go to mass production and then all expenses will pay off.

On B. Bolotna (region of Sands) built a hangar where all works were performed, and I daily almost, directly from Pedagogical Institute went there. Work was humming, adjusted competition term. Also Gleb Kotelnikov's cousin (inventor of a parachute) Alyosha Kotelnikov who invented some special lubricant for a covering of wings participated in work. Someone invented automatic stability of wings, everyone contributed, than could help.

At the same time the engineer of Gakkel10 prepared on a competition the device.

When everything was ready, the airplane transported on Case airfield which was equipped with the Defense Ministry since 1911 for military aircraft. Later, in 1913, our four-motor giant & #34 gathered and rose here; Ilya Muromets" a game -

8 Mikhail Nikiforovich (1881-1919) Yefimov, the first the Russian diplomaed military pilot. Graduated from military school A. Farmona (1910). The first carried out abrupt bends, dive, etc. aerobatic maneuvres. Lev Makarovich (1877-1910) Matsiyevich, Russian test pilot, officer. Studied flight business in France. The first flew at night, set records of height, speed and duration of flight.
9 Kasyanenko's brothers are aircraft designers self-educated persons, natives of country family. The most vigorous of brothers, Evgeny, organized at the Kiev polytechnical institute kind of design office (aviaworkshops) which was directed by Ivan Kasyanenko. In these workshops the brothers also built cars — during 1910 — 1921 they created six planes of the design, a part original according to the scheme and a plan, showing quite good results, but remained almost unknown. In 1913 the light airplane of Kasyanenko, the so-called "aviette" intended for sports flights and differing in the engine of low power (in only 15 horsepowers), were tested by Pyotr Nikolaevich Nesterov. Air screws which production was arranged by Kasyanenko's brothers during World War I were much better than import.
10 Gakkel Yakov Modestovich (1874-1945), engineer and designer. Designed and constructed several planes (1909-1912), a locomotive (1924).

struktion of Sikorskogo11. Now this territory is converted to the park of pilots.

On the eve of day of a competition the plane was tested by the pilot of Alekhnovich12. Mom was not told that I will rise on our biplane also I. On the occasion of successful completion of works and happy flight drank champagne, congratulating each other. Alekhnovich suggested to double-check the plane in air and one rose, but when landing it was pushed with a nose to the earth. The device was damaged: cables are torn off, the chassis is broken and to repair it in a night to a game -


it was to a course impossible. The engineer Gakkel had no competitor at the time of competitive test. Evil tongues said that Alekhnovich made it deliberately. I do not know, I did not see him any more, he went somewhere to Volga. The device was restored after a while by Zhenya, it changed it in a monoplane, but commercially Mitya won nothing, this toy presented to me cost it 12 thousand rubles. But I had not to fly on it more. Kasyanenko went to Kiev, the key from a hangar remained with me, technical supervision was made by the employed mechanic. & lt;...>

Correspondence at us continued before the most World war. The last letter received by me from Ivan Ivanovich reported that he writes on & #34; tail & #34; Морана" & #34; before sending for a task. Apparently, he died in it boyu14, I from anybody of them did not receive any data and my references were left without result.

As Ivan Ivanovich served in group of the pilot of Nesterova15, I in war was written off at once with it (P.N. Nesterov) and suggested it to use our airplane. By this time already sent me the notice that I have to release a hangar in Case airfield. What was to do? Dimensions did not allow to move this & #34 somewhere; игрушку". Then we dismounted it, left a skeleton so, and the motor, a radiator, propellers transported to my room to full indignation of mom as the similar stock did not approach a maiden boudoir at all. The pilot Nesterov sent the pilot of t. Petrov who took away this property in the 11th group of the Southwest front.

So my flying career came to an end".

the event, Interesting and considerable for the time, took place in the summer of 1911: flight of the Russian pilots from St. Petersburg to Moscow. It drew great attention of public. The press wrote that on Saturday 23 on July (10) in airfield of association "Kry-

11 Igor Ivanovich (1889-1972) Sikorsky, aircraft designer. Since 1908 built planes, including the first-ever four-motor aircraft "Russian Hero" and "Ilya Muromets".
12 Gleb Vasilyevich (1886-1918) Alekhnovich, the test pilot, gained the diploma of the pilot-pilot No. 30 in July, 1911. Made the first long-distance flights in Russia (Gatchina — Tsarskoye Selo — Krasnoye Selo). Tested Ya. Gakkel and I. Sikorsky's planes.
13 In the monograph by V.B. Shavrov "History of designs of planes in the USSR till 1938" (the 3rd prod. The m, 1985) is noted this fact too: Kasyanenko's brothers in St. Petersburg worked on an original design of a biplane which was shown on a competition of 1912. But during tests on October 28 the plane crashed and was not restored any more.
14 T.L. Rudykovskaya-Grigorov was mistaken, including I.I. Kasyanenko the dead. He after war lived in Kiev and Kharkiv, was in the early twenties the vice rector of the Kiev polytechnical institute, and headed Hydrometeorological committee of Ukraine and Research hydrometeorological institute later. Many years he was the permanent head of Aviation scientific and technical association and participated in works on new designs of planes. It was connected by the friendly relations with the large Kharkiv aircraft designer K.A. Kalinin shot in 1938. I.I. Kasyanenko was arrested on October 15, 1939 and sentenced too to 25 years of camps which he did not leave any more.
15 Pyotr Nikolaevich (1887-1914) Nesterov, test pilot, founder of aerobatics. The first entered lists on a bend, executed "loop", applied a ram in fight.
16 FMI RGPU. R-29. Page 56-59.

lya" (Commandant's airfield) the prayer at which there were many figures of aircraft was served. The route of flight was chosen very unsuccessfully, but got the state support of 100 thousand rubles. Route maps to pilots were issued only in two days prior to a departure, and they were made not too carefully. Preparation was carried out hastily: hangars did not manage to construct in time, runways were opened by peasants and it was necessary to create new urgently... Many experienced pilots refused flight. But nine airplanes after all took part in flight.

Today the facts of this flight which was followed by a number of accidents are well-known

and failures. The first device M. G. a background of Lerkhe17 fell, the pilot by miracle survived. Plane


S.I. Utochkina at first made emergency landing, after debugging of the car it was succeeded to fly up again, however several hours later the plane after all crashed. Utochkin with concussion, a bruise of a breast and fractures was brought on the car to the city. The pilot V.V. of Slyusarenko19 together with the passenger (pilot K.N. Shimansky) fell from height of 80 km near Tsarskoye Selo. V.V. Slyusarenko broke a leg, and K.N. Shiman-sky broke to death. However there was also a winner: the pilot A.A. of Vasilyev20 by Blerio-X1 aircraft overcame 725 km in 24 hours 41 minutes and set a range record per day — the first world record of the Russian pilot. Thanks to it Russia became known as the great aviation power.

Due to the history of flight St. Petersburg — Moscow memoirs of professor of RGPU (L 11 PI) of A.I. David Vladimirovich Herzen Feldberg (1873-1942), the doctor of medicine, the expert in the field of a surdopedagogika, more than ten years of the Pedagogical university heading defektologichesky faculty are interesting. Here what was written about it by the graduate of 1926 A. Babichev:

"The interest it carried away also students. In appearance David Vladimirovich was quite strict and exacting professor, but gradually relationship between students and professor became closer and closer. Once he opened the heart and told very interesting episode from the life.

It happened in 1911. Then still the young doctor was called by board of the St. Petersburg aero club to participate in the organization of flight from St. Petersburg to Moscow. Ensuring medical care on all route of flight was entrusted to it. The young specialist with great feeling was accepted to his performance.

At all eleven stages it opened medical centers of ambulance for victims. Together with the vice-chairman of club A. Kaulbarsom21 went by the car along all route, controlled readiness of points and itself, as required, rendered medical assistance at bruises during emergency landing of the plane. And there is a lot of such cases.

The fact is that the route and time of flight were chosen unsuccessfully. For pilots it was pernicious; unstable osennyaya22 weather with strong wind complicated

17 Max (Maxim) Germanovich von Lerche (?-?), second lieutenant, one of the first Russian pilots. Participated in creation of new aircraft (for example, "MILLION").
18 Sergey Isayevich (1876-1916) Utochkin, one of the first Russian pilots-athletes. Made public flights in many cities of Russia.
19 Vladimir Viktorovich Slyusarenko (?-1969), pilot-instructor, pilot-athlete. Participated in many demonstration flights across all Russia. Together with the wife L.V. Zvereva organized school of pilots and aviation workshops where tested planes in Riga.
20 Alexander Alekseyevich Vasilyev (?-1914(?), the test pilot, gained the diploma of the pilot in 1910 in France. Showed aerobatics.
21 Kaulbars And. (1844-1925), baron, general, geographer, president of the Odessa club of pilots. Many accused him of the unsuccessful choice and unpreparedness of the route.
22 Author mistake: flight was carried out in July, i.e. in the summer, but weather, really, was rainy and changeable.

flight. The route abounded with swamps and ravines, was extremely inconvenient at emergency landings. All this was described later by the Vasilyev only from eleven participants who reached Moscow, but though with big delay.

There were enough accidents both small, and very serious, there was a case even with a lethal outcome, however, not with the pilot, and with the passenger. At this flight also the pilot S.I. Utochkin famous at that time suffered. It was flight soul, and his jokes were handed down. Medical care was necessary to much, there was enough work. Long even after flight all St. Petersburg this event concerned. For a long time it was remembered also to the young doctor" 23.

The subject of aircraft sounds also in Olga Erazmovna Orekhova's memoirs — graduates of pedagogical faculty of LGPI of A.I. Herzen of 1925, the wife of famous pilot V.P. Chkalov.

Upon termination of the Moscow school of aerobatics, and then the Serpukhov school of firing and bombing in July, 1924 Valery Pavlovich Chkalov was given assignment in the Leningrad 1st squadron Decorated with the Order of the Red Banner created from group of the pilot P.N. Nesterov. In this part it served nearly four years, and then after a small break, in 1929-1930 was a pilot-instructor in the Leningrad office OSOAVIAKHIMA.

In the 20th the Gertsenovsky institute was a patron of a squadron where Chkalov served that promoted acquaintance of the student of institute, the participant of high school amateur performances Olga Orekhova with the brave pilot. "We carried out cultural and educational work among Red Army men — Olga Erazmovna remembered — rehearsed them in different objects and, of course, actively participated in their public life — were engaged in choral, drama and other circles. I sang. Classes in a choral circle usually were very interestingly, vividly. But here for quite some time now I began to notice how quite often during the classes the door was slightly opened, and the thickset, strong put person in a flight working suit carefully entered the hall. Usually he stopped at a fireplace and listened to our singing. & lt;...>

In rapprochement of two people there is at times something like that that does not depend on them. Absolutely different in character, by the profession chosen as everyone, pulled us to each other. In the soul full of contradictions, the great, deep feeling" 24 arose. Their joint life began in February, 1927 when Valery Pavlovich moved to family Nut, living on Teryaevaya Street of the Petrograd Side. Olga worked at one of schools of Vasileostrovsky district, and it served in Gatchina. Chkalov came to Leningrad one or two times a week and always his arrivals were joy for all. At the very beginning of family life Valery Pavlovich asked Olga to keep never him from difficult flights and, the main thing, not to worry for it. "I made such promise though, it was hard to admit, make it. I tried to cultivate in myself endurance which is so necessary for the wife of the pilot" 25.


In fund of the museum of history of the university store several books by O.E. Orekhova -

Chkalova in which she tells about Chkalove-letchike and Chkalove-cheloveke.

A lot of work on assistance of the Red Army and training of youth for military service was rendered by the military department of Gertsenovsky institute created in 1926. Since 1936 at department the new type of extra army preparation — aviation was developed,

23 FMI RGPU. V. Babichev F-15; M-4.
24 FMI RGPU. O-10, S. 4-5.
25 In the same place. Page 6.

on a profile of military pilots observers (letnab) — navigators. The major Platon Sergeyevich Sergeyev, the former ensign of royal army headed office of the military and air preparation (MAP). He demanded the highest self-discipline and responsibility from young pilots. After war P.S. Sergeyev taught tactics of the Air Force in one of the Soviet military academies. The figure of the laboratory assistant Boris Petrovich Lazarev also was distinguished from employees. The hereditary nobleman, after the termination of the Pazhesky case he studied in Academy of the General Staff, served in royal army to the major general, is awarded with all awards, including gold weapon (that it is possible to equate to a rank of the Hero of the Soviet Union). After the revolution he was the commander of Zakaspiysky army of Denikin, the commandant of the Constantinople garrison, but on a personal call of M of V. Frunze in 1924 returned to Russia. N.P. Nesterov's friend, B.P. Lazarev flew with him in one crew.

The youthful romanticism and thirst of a feat helped to master flight business to students. So in a march of one of the GDP groups words sounded:

"Wings in a buttonhole, And stars over pair of eyes are spread. Ourselves are reasonable birds, And wings from a birth at us.

We a word fight on the land, And a bomb we rattle in heaven. Nobody will extinguish our rush, Nobody will arouse in us fear.

Road, road to letnaba! We are eight, but with us the whole world. On dark interstellar potholes We to the sun are conducted by the commander" 26.

26 FMI RGPU. KVP. Page 14. The words of a march are published completely in book: Pedagogical university of A.I. Herzen. From the Imperial educational house to the Russian state pedagogical university / Under the editorship of G.A. Bordovsky, S.A. Goncharov. the 2nd prod., ispr. and additional SPb.: Faces of Russia, 2007. Page 120-121.
Jean Freeman
Other scientific works: