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Library censorship in Russia: to a question historiography



BIBLIOSFERA, 2010, No. 1, page 61-64

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LIBRARY CENSORSHIP IN RUSSIA: To the HISTORIOGRAPHY of the QUESTION

© N.V. Makhotina, 2010

State Public Scientific Technical Library of the Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences 630200, Novosibirsk, Voskhod St., 15

Characteristic of historiographic researches on a subject of library censorship and spetskhran in Russia and abroad is given.

The characteristics of historiographical studies on the topic of library censorship and special depositories in Russia and abroad is given.

It is known that until the end of the 80th of the 20th century about library spetskhrana neither in professional, nor in the official Soviet seal it was, practically, not mentioned. It was seldom told also about censorship thanks to which they also appeared. But, as their existing is inseparably linked with a phenomenon of censorship which around the world exists from time immemorial, and studying history of library special funds has to rely, from our point of view, on understanding of their determinancy by this interrelation. In Soviet period it was published some works of reference and bibliographic character devoted to studying pre-revolutionary censorship (L.M. Dobrovolsky. The forbidden book in Russia 1825-1904. Archival and bibliographic researches [15]; L.I. Polyanskaya. Archival reference books; Yu.I. Gerasimova. From history of a Russian press in the period of a revolutionary situation of the end of the 1850th - the beginning of the 1860th, etc. [9]).

In 1903 in connection with the 200 anniversary of a Russian press a number of works about a press role in Russia and about censorship appeared. The magazine "Right" published K.K. Arsenyev's article "A Russian press at a turn of the third century of the existence". The same year there were his book "Legislation on the Press" and the collection "In Protection of a Word". In the Russkoye Slovo newspaper about censorship materials of her main publicist and editor Vlas Doroshevich are placed in the seals [33]. In 1905 the questions of censorship were raised, in particular, in V.A. Rosenberg and V.E. Yakushkin's books "A Russian press and censorship in the past and the present" with the application "the List

the periodicals which underwent administrative penalties in 1865-1904" [24].

After according to Glavlit's order the books forbidden earlier began to be contributed to open-end funds, and spetskhrana were declassified and announced by public, also the publications devoted to studying the Soviet censorship and its numerous manifestations began to appear. Their authors are librarians, journalists, historians and publicists. The first articles on the subject closed earlier were printed in social and political periodicals.

In the first small note of the journalist of the Pravda newspaper B. Mironov [23] "Opening a door in spetskhran" (1988), it is told about books only of beginners to come from a spetskhran of Library of V.I. Lenin to open reading rooms, about difficulties which readers met, trying to get in spetskhran, that any reader has the right to know whether there is in library any given book and if it is secret, then whom and why.

In the Novy Mir magazine in 1990 there was S. Dzhimbinov's article "An epitaph to a spetskhran?." [14]. It, according to the author, is "a travel on book GULAG". In it the causes and short history of library spetskhran since the October revolution until the end of the 1980th are given. It is noted that censorship is in all civilized countries. In some it is more strict (Great Britain where it is impossible to criticize the queen and institute of parliament), in others - more liberally (USA), but everywhere is the taboos and there are instances which monitor their observance. The author expresses doubts whether really process cut -

a rechivaniye it is irreversible, or the books forbidden for ideological motives will and hide further from the mass reader.

In the same time V. Krasnogorov's article "Publicity and a bezglasnost" is published in the Neva magazine [20]: notes on the history of domestic censorship since its emergence until the end of the 20th century, i.e. history of a system of suppression of publicity in Russia for almost 200-year period.

In the professional library press articles of staff of libraries, journalists and the interested readers also began to appear. In particular, in the Sovetskaya Bibliografiya magazine in 1988 there was A. Shikman's article "Absolutely unclassified" [32]. It is practically the first publication about the system of repressions of the printed word which developed within many decades, from 30th of the 20th century, i.e. during an era of "the most intensive creation of socialism" in the USSR. In it it is described how spetskhrana of concrete libraries functioned, memoirs of employees are given, and the first results on return of literature from special funds in open are covered.

After the above-mentioned article in the same magazine there was M. Golubovsky's publication "To ways to a daylight" [11], bringing up questions of the causes and sources of library spetskhran, some conclusions are drawn on that, how fast and intensively there is a process of transfer of the declassified literature to free access. But if the fund of a spetskhran gradually grows scanty, then other closed fund - the editions "Dlya Sluzhebnogo Polzovaniya" - not only costs unshakably, but also is regularly replenished. Let's note that after nearly 20 years the condition of this fund remains steady-state.

Article of the employee of department of special storage of the State public library of M.E. Saltykov-Shchedrin (now National Library of Russia) by S. Varlamova "Spetskhran without secrets" was published in the Bibliotekar magazine in 1988 [7]. In it it is told about what purposes and tasks face librarians in connection with transfer of literature to open-end funds. Need of taking measures to preservation of these funds, systematization and cataloguing, expeditious arrangement in open-end funds, the organizations of their fast and effective use is noted. The main objective is providing to readers of the maximum possibility of access to literature.

In 1993 in the Bibliotekovedeniye magazine there was article of the same author "Spetskhran of RNB: the past and the present" [8]. In it the final results of declassification and transfer to open access of literature are summed up. It is noted that in special funds continues to remain huge koliche-

a stvo departmental literature with a mark "For office use". The problem of disclosure of these editions for librarians of special funds is the most relevant now.

Serious study and a research of the Soviet censorship began in the early nineties after liquidation of this institute both in state, and in legal scale.

The first books on the history of the Soviet censorship were monographs by A.V. Blum "Behind the scenes & #34; Ministries правды": Secret history of the Soviet censorship 1917-1929" [6], D.L. Babichen-co "Writers and censors. The Soviet literature of the 1940th years under political control of the Central Committee" [2], the collection of documentary essays "To exclude any mentions..." (originator T.M. Goryaeva) [19].

In 2000 there was a book by A.V. Blum "The Soviet censorship during an era of total terror. 19291953" [4] which in fact became continuation of the first book. In 2003 there was a reference book by A.V. Blum "The forbidden books by the Russian writers and literary critics. 1917-1991: The index of the Soviet censorship with comments" [5]. Here data on 1233 books forbidden after their exit to the public by Glavlit's censorship by the USSR entered.

In 1994 V. Zhirkov for students journalists prepared a training course on the history of censorship in Russia the 19-20th centuries [17]. I.E. Levchenko's thesis. "Censorship as the public phenomenon" [21] is devoted to philosophical judgment of censorship as public phenomenon. T.M. Guo-ryaeva in 2000 the history of the Soviet political censorship defended the dissertation on a subject ". 19171991" [13].

In 2007 the course of lectures of M.N. Glaz-kov "Censorship of public library stocks" was published [10] in which questions of withdrawal of literature from libraries for ideological motives are considered.

If in Russia began to speak about problems of censorship and spetskhran openly only from the beginning of democratic changes, then in foreign countries these questions concerned scientists and researchers long ago. The problem is that with their works there was practically no opportunity to examine in Russia. The first publications about the Russian censorship were published in foreign periodicals in the 1890th. They were prepared by the authors living in Russia. J. Kennan in the The Century Magazine edition described how its articles "zachernyalis" censors. He provided the list of the punitive measures taken against the periodical press during 1881-1891 in articles about Siberia (1891). The history of domestic censorship is widely presented in the book "Russia and Reform" (1905) written by B. Peyrs [34]. Marian Tex's works

were the most considerable publications of the 1980th

N.V. Makhotina, 2010, No. 1, page 61-64

Choldin - the board member of the headquarters of Open Society institute in Budapest, devoted to a problem of access to information in the American libraries [27] and activity of Committee of foreign censorship and D.M. Skip-tona and P.A. Mikhalov's research about post censorship [34]. In 1997 in the USA there was a work of professor Mr. Yermolaev "Censorship in the Soviet literature. 19171991" [16].

In 1999 the first monograph about a library spetskhran of K.V. Lyutova "Spetskhran Biblioteki Akademii nauk" [22] appeared. The history of funds of the forbidden literature in the oldest universal scientific library of Russia from the middle of XVIII until the end of the 20th century is in detail described, Glavlit's documents for withdrawal of literature are submitted, it is told about formation of funds of a spetskhran, about the employees at different times working in it about main types of works and productions, about readers.

- the beginning of the XX century" [31] are presented in the collection of memoirs made by N.G. Patrusheva "Censorship in Russia at the end of XIX the memoirs covering according to the contents the period since the end of the 1850th prior to the beginning of the 20th century. The value of memoirs consists in "abundance of the facts and an originality of portraits and characteristics of characters". The edition contains some episodes from acceptable practice, reminiscence of censors, about the profession and about publishing.

The special coordination and organizational role in studying a phenomenon of world censorship and library spetskhran was played by scientific conferences which took place during the period from 1991 to 2005 in St. Petersburg, Moscow and Yekaterinburg, organized by the largest libraries together with various humanitarian institutes of Russia and foreign countries. The first conference "Freedom of Scientific Information and Protection of the State Secret" [25] took place in 1991 in Leningrad. It was the first attempt of holding an action such in our country. The subject of a spetskhran was the most widespread subject at this conference. One of organizers of a conference M.B. Konashev noted that earlier closed subject was only slightly slightly opened: the sounded performances confirmed that as a result of all changes which happened for several years in society "researchers appeared only on approaches to a spetskhran". Many important documents are inaccessible to this day and cannot be published because of restrictive signature stamps. At a conference it is noted that secrets, not only state, but also office, commercial, medical and others continue to exist, their new versions appear. Therefore, censorship and library spetskhra-

ny as one of forms of manifestation of censorship remains relevant.

In 1993 historians, writers, librarians from Russia and from many other countries took part in Moscow in the "Censorship in Tsarist Russia and the Soviet Union" [29] conference.

In 1995 in St. Petersburg the conference took place: "Censorship in Russia: history and the present" where, as well as on previous the problem of spetskhran is lifted. At last, in 2005 there took place the scientific conference which received the status of international in the same place: "Censorship and access to information: history and present" [30]. Problems of freedom of information, censorship and library spetskhran which, despite everything continue to exist, but in a bit different form were discussed. At the last conference there were new problems concerning the circulation of information in modern society. It was noted that modern society is characterized by the increasing role of the information sphere, there are revolutionary changes of information space that is caused by rapid development of the latest technologies, introduction in information process of the global Internet in this connection there is clear a concern of power structures in the opportunities given for the people.

In the last decade a large number of researches and publications is devoted to legal aspect of a problem of information of limited access. There were new concepts "information security", "information security", "information weapon", etc. The leading domestic scientists-lawyers - I.L. Bachilo [3], A are engaged in special researches of problems of legal regulation of information of limited distribution. And Streltsov [26], A. A. Antopolsky [1], etc. They investigated the principles and mechanisms of legal restrictions for access to information, theoretical and methodological bases of legal support of information security of Russia are developed. A.A. Fatyanov [28] for the first time systematized the main restrictions for dissemination of information in Russia and gave definition to main types of secrets, access to which has to be strictly limited by the Russian legislation.

List of references

1. A.A. Antopolsky. Legal regulation of information of limited access in the sphere of public administration: avtoref. yew.... edging. east. sciences. - M, 2004. - 29 pages
2. D.L. Babichenko. Writers and censors: The Soviet literature of the 40th years under political control of the Central Committee. - M.: Young Russia, 1994. - 172 pages
3. I.L. Bachilo. Right for information//informatization Problems. - 1995. - No. 1. - Page 23-28.
4. A.V. Blum. The Soviet censorship during an era of total terror, 1929-1953. - SPb.: Academician project, 2000.-312 pages
5. A.V. Blum. The forbidden books by the Russian writers and literary critics, 1917-1991: the index of the Soviet censorship about a comment. - SPb.: GUKI, 2003. - 403 pages
6. A.V. Blum. Behind the scenes of "The ministry of the truth": Secret history of the Soviet censorship, 1917-1929. - SPb.: Academician project, 1994. - 320 pages
7. Varlamova S.F. Spetskhran without secrets//the Librarian.-1988. - No. 12. - Page 24-25.
8. Varlamova S.F. Spetskhran RNB: past and present//Library science. - 1993. - No. 2. - Page 74-82.
9. Yu.I. Gerasimova. From history of a Russian press in the period of a revolutionary situation of the end of the 1850th - the beginning of the 1860th - M., 1974. - 260 pages
10. M.N. Glazkov. Censorship of public library stocks in Russia in the 1930th - the beginning of the 1940th: course of lectures / Mosk. state. un-t of culture and arts. - M.: MGUKI, 2007. - 74 pages
11. M.D. Golubovsky. On the way to a daylight//Council. bibliogr. - 1989. - No. 4. - Page 10-16.
12. T.M. Goryaeva. Political censorship in the USSR, 19171991. - M.: ROSSPEN, 2002. - 399 pages
13. T.M. Goryaeva. History of the Soviet political censorship of 1917-1991: avtoref. yew.... Dr.s east. sciences. - M, 2000. - 40 pages
14. S. Dzhimbinov. Epitaph to a spetskhran?.//New world.-1990. - No. 5. - Page 243-252.
15. L.M. Dobrovolsky. The forbidden book in Russia, 1825-1904: arkh. - bibliogr. researches. M.: VKP, 1962. - 254 pages
16. G.S. Yermolaev. Censorship in the Soviet literature of 1917-1991 - M.: IMLI, 2005. - 253 pages
17. G.V. Zhirkov. The history of censorship in Russia X1X-XX of centuries: studies. a grant for higher education institutions. - M.: Aspect press, 2001.-368 pages
18. M.V. Zelenov Office of the Central Committee of the RCP(b)-All-Union Communist Party (bolsheviks): censorship and historical science in the 1920th years / Volga-Vyat. state academician. services. - N. Novgorod, 2000. - 540 pages
19. To exclude any mentions...: history essays council. censorships / sost. T.M. Goryaeva. - Minsk: Old Svet-Print, 1995. - 334 pages
20. V. Krasnogorov. Publicity and bezglasnost//Neva.-1990. - No. 3. - Page 146-165.
21. I.E. Levchenko. Censorship as public phenomenon: avtoref. yew.... edging. filos. sciences. - Yekaterinburg, 1995. - 34 pages
22. Lyutova K.V. Spetskhran of Academies of Sciences Library: from the history of confidential funds. - SPb.: BAN, 1999.-206 pages
23. B. Mironov. Opening a door in spetskhran//the Truth.-1988. - (No. 254). - On Sep. 10
24. V.A. Rosenberg, V.E. Yakushkin. A Russian press and censorship in the past and the present. - M.: Sabashnikova, 1905. - 250 pages
25. Freedom of scientific information and protection of the state secret: tez. konf. (Leningrad, Sep. 24-26, 1991) / edition M.B. Konashev. - L.: 1991. - 54 pages
26. A.A. Streltsov. Ensuring information security of Russia: teort. and metodol. bases: studies. grant. - M.: MGIU publishing house, 2009. - 281 pages
27. M. Tex Choldin Imperiya behind a fence: the history of censorship in tsarist Russia. - M.: Rudomino, 2002.-309 pages
28. A.A. Fatyanov. Secret and right / Mosk. state. engineer. - physical. in-t. - M, 1998. - 285 pages
29. Censorship in tsarist Russia and the Soviet Union: materials konf. (on May 24-27, 1993). - M.: Rudomino, 1995. - 176 pages
30. Censorship and access to information: history and present: tez. dokl. mezhdunar. nauch. konf., St. Petersburg, on March 16-18, 2005 / otv. edition M.B. Konashev. - SPb.: Grew. national. 2005. - 126 pages
31. Censorship in Russia at the end of XIX - the beginning of the 20th century: sb. memoirs / Dews. national. / sost. N.G. Patrusheva. - SPb., 2003. - 366 pages
32. A.P. Shikman. Absolutely unclassified//Owls. bibliogr. - 1988. - No. 6. - Page 3-12.
33. http:/www.gumer.info/bibliotek_Buks/History/reifm/litr. php
34. http:/www.sgu.ru/files/nodes/9828/3.pdf

Material came to edition of 19.11.2009

Information about the author: Natalya Vitalyevna Makhotina is the manager of the reading room, ph. (383) 266-25-51, e-mail: or@spsl.nsc.ru

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