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Category: History

Galitsko-russky question

dmitry MAPKOB


Malorossa at heart people kind, patient. Historical sufferings, awareness of century slavery tempered the nature of a soft maloross, having made it steady and ruthless in fight for the national rights. The koliivshchina or a gaydamachestvo is explained Ukraine by that: from this point it is necessary to look also at historical types of Gogol (Taras Bulba) and Shevchenka (Gonta, Iron ore); the same lines meet also at a galitsky maloross. Torn off from the Russian culture and the Russian statehood of a chervonorossa long time were in bondage, spiritual and physical. In the opinion of the sir or the Latin priest chervo-noross was only "cattle", without the earth and the rights of the citizen until recently. But time to it was succeeded to tear "kaydana", he becomes the sworn enemy of the oppressors. This social and national psychology - the investigation of century sufferings of maloross - did not meet however objective assessment at opponents. The short-sighted enemy, where only and as soon as could, added fuel to the fire.

The reasons of such sad phenomenon repeating and presently (bloody elections, murders of peasants in disputes with landowners), are in special cultural-national type and in social and state views. Maloross protected Slavic culture, i.e. the Slavic-and-Russian nationality all the time; the Pole who is brought up on the basis of the Western European feudalism and the Roman clericalism considered and considers, unfortunately, yet nowadays nearly prizvani-

* The present article belongs to a feather of the eminent galitsko-Russian political figure and publicist D.A. Markov, the deputy of the Vienna reykhsrat. Illumination of the galitsko-Russian or rather the Russian-Polish and Ukrainian question, given by Mr. Markov in this article, differs in the accuracy, clarity and simplicity. It is impossible to tell the same concerning a measure what is proposed by the author of article for permission of "the Ukrainian question" at us and abroad: in this case the formula offered by Mr. Markov differs in some fog. "The Ukrainian question" in Foreign Russia in its historical genesis is some more clear though its further development can as that is recognized also by Mr. Markov, it is disastrous to affect the fate of Galitsky Russia. At us, in the empire, existence of the Ukrainian question is the total absurdity, a fruit of children's naive dreams of our still groundless intellectuals-ukrainofilov. Note of edition.

I eat with the to destroy "barbaric", i.e. Slavic-and-Russian culture. Maloross on a soul warehouse the extreme democrat, the Pole - the aristocrat par excellence... The Polish intellectual sees the task in service to others ideals. Rome, others and not national dynasties, benefits of a shlyakhta and in general intelligent layers make his foremost care; the peasant Polish at it on the second plan, Slavic peoples on the last.

And in Galichina, despite half a century of the constitutional life, still is not present between Poles of true national, Slavic democracy. The policy and education of the galitsko-Polish intellectual are still within the old Polish idea, aristocratic, not national and not Slavic.

However, modern Polish parties sport formally democratism, but it is only further development of the same political idea. Instead of shlyakhetsky party of stanchik now Poles have several new parties: democrats, national democrats or vshekhpolyak, lyudovets, Catholic centralists, etc. But once you look narrowly at them closer, and there will be a former idea of the poet Skargi and Mickiewicz, with her shlyakhetsky knights and the Roman prelates.

Without accident the Poles will not refuse an old form and old borders of Polish "dzielnic-a". It constantly dreams ancient, victorious Poland from the sea to the sea - at least so far only in the form of an allegorical old Polish large coach with the legionaries of Small and White Russia chained to it!

The latest events in Galitsky Russia are the proof just told. Understanding the weakening of the Russian state caused by crushing blows in the Far East, one part of the Polish intellectuals, so-called vshekhpolyak, and the Polish clergy declared new reckless war on the East. Results of activity managed to affect already: massacre of peasants during elections, political persecutions and prisons, violent romanization of poor, therefore, dependent working people, churches in purely Russian villages and villages, etc. However, at one time it seemed that the Polish politicians came round: the Slavic demonstration in the Austrian parliament against Prussian expropriation was organized sincerely and without ulterior motive; followed then Slavic days in Prague.

Far from it. Even murder of the galitsky governor count Andrey Pototsky by the ukrainofilom-student Sechinsky only for a minute hyped up conscience of the Polish politicians. After the funeral of the unfortunate victim of the Polish policy everything went as before especially as

and the killed count as subsequently it appeared, was the same merciless performer of the Polish historical mission as his grandfather and his great-grandfather.

And today madness and fury concerning the Russian fraternal people proceeds. Prisons are filled still by Russophiles and ukrainofila who for songs about the political murderer who for obviously felt sympathy to the murderer or his family. Meanwhile Poles would have to go a shoulder about a shoulder with Czechs in the general fight against a germanizm impact.

The famous galitsko-Russian figure A.I. Dobryansky often called the union a disgrace. We will not go so far; our way, the union it the same that marriage necessarily, with the same consequences. Such is and a unification of Red Russia with Rome. By fire and sword the Polish sirs and Jesuits spread at us the union. Bulls of the cleverest Roman high priests - Kliment, Venedikt and Urban remained an empty and dead letter in Poland. They under the pressure of local Polish hierarchy were never executed and not executed.

But until recently, especially from the moment of transition of chervonnorussky lands from imperious shlyakhetsky Poland under a scepter of the reigning house Gabsburgov, the union seemed tolerable. There was, for example, time when the galitsky Greco-catholic (uniatsky) clergy, using the constitutional basic laws, began to establish at itself the rules answering to resolutions of the fathers called above.

During management of the Lviv metropolitanate of the late M. Yakhi-movich, very capable and active archbishop, radical cleaning of the Greek-Russian ceremony began. However this cleaning of the Russian soul and Russian ceremony came to an end for us sadly. The metropolitan M. Yakhimovich died sudden death (speak, he was poisoned by the Polish Jesuits), the archpriest Naumovich and his associates got to disgrace and were forced to repent cruelly for activity. The movement of the 70th years gradually ceased.

And only beards, this visible sign "schisms", still long time disturbed the Polish priests. And yes here business was not without repressions and processes. So, the priest V. Salamon from Komarnik until the end of the life conducted with Rome and the Lviv metropolitanate a dispute because of the beard which was recognized as sinful. In 1885 the emperor Franz Joseph forbade the priests welcoming him Criminal Investigation Department Russian to carry beards.

Since then there could not be also a speech about further cleaning of the Russian ceremony. Ghosts of the bearded "schism" which disturbed Polish

gladkobrity and cunning prelates, absolutely disappeared soon. Only so-called "svyatoyursky bottoms" (a nickname for irreconcilable fans of reform of a ceremony), peers of the metropolitan Yakhimovich and the archpriest Naumovich, remained in soul just though the Orthodoxy was shown only that they often did not mention dad during a liturgy - especially Pius IX who after his blessing Turks in the Russian-Turkish campaign was directly hated.

With Naumovich's translation the end came to Russia to all. Excommunicatio latae sententiae concerning transition to village Orthodoxy where there was the archpriest Naumovich, remained terrible memento.

Also the jealous old men priests working on national, cultural and economic recovery of the galitsko-Russian peasant became silent. There was with them only a deep belief in correctness of the Russian idea and belief in its victory. This belief did not shake even the occupation of vasiliansky monasteries by Jesuits which followed in 1882 with their million property. By the end of the 80th years the Polish politicians assured Vienna that sooner or later it will be possible to recreate Poland, of course, in former historical borders, but led by Gabsburgami. In life of this invention it was necessary to pave the way for carrying out, first of all, in the galitsko-Russian society.

For this purpose the so-called "new era", in other words, the second publication of the Brest and Lublin union in a miniature was proclaimed in 1890 in Galitsky diet.

The Polish politicians managed to catch on this rod ukrainofi-fishing which proclaimed lips of the deputy Romanchuk not only fidelity of Austria, but also basic submission and devotion to Rome. Finally the Lviv metropolitan Sylvester Sembratovich harnessed in the uniatsky chariot the Ukrainian party (except for radicals) though he and did not manage to equal quite hopes of Rome.

Recently there was a new star in a galitsky sky. It was tonsured in uniatsky monks the Polish count Andrey Sheptitsky, the former cavalry officer, the lawyer by training fifteen years ago. Sheptitsky from the very beginning managed to win hearts ingenuous galichan: even such clever and perspicacious figure what was the late A.I. Dobryansky, gave in on this rod and was fascinated by the new bishop.

Four years later the count Sheptitsky felt the soil underfoot. The former mood of spirit - mystical, touching - was replaced with other, more real. Two hundred thousand kroner of year income of the Lviv metropolitanate created completely different mood. The count Sheptitsky at first carried time two-three Russians of uniats to Rome; then visited Jerusalem with uniats pilgrims; personally where could,

participated in celebrations all-Catholic, international. All these celebrations, trips, audiences created to the count Sheptitsky popularity of the diplomat and dexterous courtier.

But in process of this achievements in the diocese the full desolation was noticed: in churches dirt, a disorder, in a ceremony chaos, church singing in decline, among secular clergy there are a demoralization, a lack of discipline and extreme party fight. It, however, did not disturb progress of the count Sheptitsky at all and did not shake to him sympathies.

Only in recent years noticeable shadows darkened in souls galichan still fine person of future apostle of connection of the "schismatic" East and Catholic West.

At a funeral gr. Shembek, the Polish bishop - the exile from Russia, the count Sheptitsky in a funeral oration not only praised fight the column Shembeka with the Russian state and the people feeding it, but even declared himself, though in a reserved and politichny form, the direct successor and the follower gr. Shembeka. Really, in the last three years the real hell was created in galitsky church affairs. The Russian candidate pupils are expelled from theological seminaries (or just are not accepted), from priests the oath is selected not to read the Russian and Ukrainian radical newspapers, the Russian priests (Russophiles) are pursued with big persistence, than at the time of historical Poland.

the Wreath of this underground demoralization of the Russian people and its church are excesses of a vasiliansky award both in Austria, and in America.

Reformed recently by Jesuits to the vasiliyena absolutely changed the shape now. Old to the vasiliyena there were "obrya-dovets" and loved the people. The young people reformed by Jesuits

>- it is wild, unrestrained chauvinists. Their main lines - fanaticism, falseness, extreme spinelessness and profound ignorance. Their only task is fight against "schism", against "Russians". Now all to the vasiliyena - ukrainofila. They enter violently latino-Polish innovations into church and gradually replace thus the Russian ceremony Latin and Polish; from evangelical department they excite national uneducated masses to systematic fight against "schism" and against "Russians".

They sell church and monastic manors often to Jews. The government does not oppose to it especially as the gained money is sent ordinary to Rome. For the last few years several estates are sold. Wanted to sell to the vasiliyena ancient church in Submountaineers four years ago, and only a protest of flock and fear that it will pass into Orthodoxy, interfered with sale of the ancient temple.

In 1908 suggested the Lviv City Council to sell to the vasiliyena the ancient Sacred and Onufriyevsky monastery of the 12th century. It is characteristic at the same time that the city registrar and the keeper of local antiquities Pole Cholovsky supported preservation of the ancient monastery and called behavior of a vasiliansky award vandalism; at the same time the metropolitan's representative, the protoabbot Filyas expressed consent to sale of the most ancient part of the monastery, bell tower.

Latinizatorsky plans of the count Andrey Sheptitsky are not limited, however, to internal demoralization of the galitsko-Russian church, but go much further. Recently in Sknilov near Lviv the new uniatsky award St. Studita is based. Studitov now about 50 people; in an award not only Russians of a Greco-catholic ceremony, but also foreigners of a Latin ceremony are accepted.

Studita are prepared for activity in the east. For this purpose gather in all arrivals of donation for construction of the enormous uniatsky monastery in Bethlehem. Near it gr. Sheptitsky brings corruption and in the Ukrainian party, more radical and in affairs of belief more indifferent.

The dexterous policy column of Sheptitsky was not slow to be reflected also in America, among galitsky emigrants where terrible religious discord also already began. At the beginning of 1907 the bull "Ea simper" which subordinated again appointed uniatsky bishop, a shlyakhtich and a vasilianin Sotera Ortinscogo to Catholic bishops who prohibited the mystery of anointing, marriage of uniatsky priests, a baptism of children of the mixed matrimonies in the Russian ceremony, etc. was issued by Rome. This bull met by an unanimous protest of the American uniats nevertheless started out in America and has to prepare gradual and full romanization of the American uniats.

Romanization of the American emigrants-malorossov is the first step of romanization of maloross in general, the beginning of a polonization of Red Russia. Polonization of Red Russia makes only the hidden, but common goal of all Polish intellectuals which the Polish intellectuals not so will refuse soon. At a secret meeting of the Polish conservatives in Krakow (prawica narodowa) it was solved just after the Prague congress and in the presence of outstanding Polish neoslavs to start, first of all, systematic romanization of East Galicia. This plan is carried out before our eyes, and the Polish newspapers print even monthly lists about transition of the Russian uniats to a latinstvo.

From our party there is no appropriate repulse, unfortunately, there is no systematic fight and the organization. Galitsko-Russian intelligentsia generally terrorizovana. Treat individuals bestse-

remonno. The Ukrainofilsky editor Tsegelsky who was convicting the count Sheptitsky and named him in the Dsho newspaper the Polish Valeprod and the enemy of Russia was forced to leave the structure of the editorial office. In the environment of the so-called Russian-people's party the situation is even worse. Writing these lines it was necessary to test many troubles for the fact that he pointed to underground work of uniatsky bishops.

Of course, sooner or later it is necessary to one part of our society

>- the intellectuals - to undertake safely fight against the dangerous enemy. The beginning is already made. The Russian youth and educated peasants will already be organized. The right wing of the Russian-people's party most of which prominent representatives not very long ago signed the metropolitan manifesto on the issue of construction of the uniatsky temple in Bethlehem will be paralyzed by new evolution in the party.

Summer of 1908 to Galicia there arrived together with the count Bobrinsky the Russian guests of their empire. Lviv welcomed guests without protest, but for the third day someone threw into the crew carrying the count Bobrinsky, rotten egg. Subsequently it turned out that students of the Lviv craft school were authors of this scandal. My adherents, especially younger, nearly entered a dump. Old men dissuaded, shifted the blame on the Ukrainian schools and on Shevchenko, the father and the parent of the Ukrainian radicalism. Only the police agent standing on the street said more strong: "dziez, psiakrew tatarska". In what, as a matter of fact, business?

Undoubtedly, an ukrainofilstvo - dangerous abscess on the Russian body. This abscess becomes ripe so far. While it only grew and received a form, the patient was looked after by different doctors: they also injected different poison to make the Russian organism more insensitive and suitable for a further vivisection. There were Polish sirs, Jesuits, the Austrian ministers, and especially with all "Drcibund’a" played a role of assistants here, paramedics the dependent, short-sighted and flabby servants are slaves.

Ukrainofilstvo still so recently was the movement more democratic and social, than national; national coloring was only external form of motion. In Russia it went in parallel with liberation movement.

Ukrainofila in Austria in fight against aristocratic Poland, against domination of crafty Polish politicians and Jesuits played a huge role. Taras Shevchenko's ideas were live fire which burned down hearts of the galitsko-Russian youth, inspiring for fight against the Polish and Vienna cruel regime.

Shevchenko's compositions brought up ideologically our youth; they also taught her to fight for "a share and will" of the galitsko-Russian man groaning under oppression of sirs and German officials selflessly.

Safely and without confusion the ukrainofilsky party was accepted to a task to acquaint the intellectuals in the social and cultural relation to world progress. Ukrainofilstvo became exactly thanks to the democratism and the originally ruthless tactics on the attitude of Poles, sirs and enslavers of the galitsko-Russian man a strong factor in revival of Galitsky Russia soon. The conservative Russian-people's party executed the task in other direction, more ideal; the ukrainofilstvo was the left wing, and, it is necessary to recognize, very strong lever of economic and social development of the people. It also forced Poles to look at it as on a future question, as on business absolutely real.

Soon the old Russian party after a number of persecutions and owing to the mistakes was forced to concede the first place to an ukrainofil-stvo, more live and mobile. In hope of fight against hated Moscow the Poles already during an era of the third revolution supported the ukrainofilsky movement. In the ranks of the Ukrainian youth, leaflets about the joint fate of a historical shamrock (Russia, Poland and Lithuania) were distributed, and the general Miroslavsky wrote in the will: "Let's give up the fire and bombs for Dnieper and Don into heart of Russia. Let destroy Russia! Let's inflate hatred and disputes in the Russian people! Russians will tear themselves the claws... We but will grow, we will get stronger.".

The final attempt was made in the nineties. The contract of political and church character was signed (at the Minister of Foreign Affairs gr. Kalnoki); the phonetic spelling is entered at schools; Poles started talking about political Ukraine

>- "v_d Karpat_v to the Caucasus". So Poland with the uniatsko-anti-Russian and low-Russian Ukraine in one couple came to be!. Also chauvinism and hatred unprecedented still to Russia and Russians was since then spread. The Polish school did not distort a concept of young maloross about Russia and in general about the Russian people. "Moscow and schism" made an Alpha and Omega of the Ukrainian educational system. Soon, however, the ukrainofilstvo got stronger and showed teeth.

About two years ago the Ukrainian students with rare courage began the fight because of the Lviv university which was followed by hostile demonstrations for which protesters were put by Poles in prison. Then in 1908 the galitsko-Russian student,

"Ukrainian" Sechinsky killed the Lviv governor count Pototsky. The Polish society took offense university "vandalism", it was upset, boiled, was simply enraged after the April terrible event, but reconciled with the fact soon. For the "Ukrainian" university the place - possibly, Chernivtsi as the closest and suitable Piedmont against the Russian unity is looked for already; in the case of Sechinsky began to look for psychosis.

And the Polish politicians will tear the bonds connecting Poles with Ukrainians because existence of the yagellonovsky idea requires the historical trio not soon: Russia, Poland and Lithuania. Can break off these bonds and have to, for the benefit of Slavic peoples, only the Russian people and the Russian society at which is on this legitimate right. And the outcome of a question has to come perhaps rather; otherwise accidental waves of the rough Ukrainian stream which left the Russian course under the pressure of hostile elements can tear a dam and run low finally in others lake, having weakened, of course, depth and width of the peaceful current of the mighty Russian river.

In real him, so to speak, exclusively galitsky edition it is dangerous by Ukrainofilstvo, and it is necessary to fight against it, but cultural means. The best people who left the environment of maloross specified a way on which it is necessary to direct nowadays Ukrainian question: it is a way of national and cultural unity.

Great Gogol not only put on a pedestal of outstanding fighters and martyrs for unity of Russia, but he in "Dead souls" bequeathed to us, malorossa, the deep, boundless and ideal love for immense, wide and great Russia!... Even Taras Shevchenko though he was also bitterly cried on oppression of "Russians", i.e. officials and noblemen, and it did not mean two or three Russia, and only one free, mighty and happy Russian people. "The kozachchin will not return, not to vstatnut a getmana", Shevchenko in the poem "To Osnovyanenk" says though he immediately adds: "Our thought, ours tsnya not to a vmra, not the zagena"...

The low-Russian geniuses in their heart-felt dreams, in their integral, clear and certain beliefs are that. They collected the Russian soul and the Russian heroes on all Russian land and to us bequeathed to do the same. Right now it is necessary to protect any unit, it is necessary to collect the huge mass of energy for implementation of full harmony of the Russian breeding force, all Russian people. Start up this amicable, manual and heavy labor the radiant beam, the sacred purpose lights: Russian culture, its power and its greatness!

Source: Slavic news. No. 6. SPb., 1909. Page 811-822.

French Alfred
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