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ESSAYS ON the HISTORY of STUDYING RADIOACTIVITY AND FORMATION of URANIUM GEOLOGY IN the CENTRAL SIBERIA. The second essay



stranitsa of history TPU

UDC 550.3 (571) (09)

ESSAYS ON the HISTORY of STUDYING RADIOACTIVITY AND FORMATION of URANIUM GEOLOGY IN the CENTRAL SIBERIA. Essay of the second

V.A. Domarenko, L.P. Rikhvanov, V.I. Molchanov *, A.A. Potseluyev

Tomsk Polytechnic University of E-mail: domarenkoVA@ignd.tpu.ru * Federation Council of FUGP "Urangeo" Beryozovgeologiya, Novosibirsk

The history of studying radioactivity and radioactive elements contains more than hundred years. Interest in uranium at the beginning of the 20th century was defined, first of all, by the cost of its product of disintegration - radium which already at the earliest stage was applied in medicine and the research purposes. The short review of history of studying radioactivity and formation of uranium geology in the Central Siberia is given. Earlier unknown pages of this story are provided.

At the end of 1938 world the scientific community was stirred up by news from Germany. Physicists Otto Gunn and Fritz Strassman established that the atomic nucleus of uranium is in a condition of instability. It is capable to be split, marking out at the same time huge amount of energy. This opening allowed several scientists in various countries at once to predict a possibility of self-sustaining chain reaction in the certain mass of uranium which is followed by explosion of enormous destructive force [1]. On April 24, 1939 in the Imperial Ministry of Defence of Germany professor of the Hamburg university Paul Gartek and his assistant Wilhelm Grot handled the conclusion with the letter that the country which the first will place to herself at service of achievement of nuclear physics will find absolute superiority over others. Albert Einstein wrote on August 2, 1939 the letter to the president Roosevelt about Hitler's intentions to use atomic weapons and need to do everything possible that opponents of Nazism were ahead of him in it. However, initially good purposes, in the course of their achievement opened new and not always positive prospects. Already on September 4, 1945, i.e. next day after official completion of World War II by the 329th joint reconnaissance committee of the USA the memorandum was submitted for review of chiefs of U.S. Army headquarters by committee. In the memorandum the task was set: "To select about 20 most important purposes suitable for atomic bombing in the USSR in the controlled territory... Further there was a transfer: Moscow, Gorky, Kuibyshev, Sverdlovsk, Novosibirsk... and so on. 13 million Russians were doomed to death according to the most conservative estimates [1].

Promptly developing situation in the world in 1943 forced the Government of the USSR to draw closer attention to an uranium problem, especially when it became known that Americans work on weapon of huge destructive force which basis is formed by uranium. The country needed uranium raw materials in large quantities, large-scale deposits of uranium were necessary and in spite of the fact that still there was a Great Patriotic War, intensive operation in search of radioactive raw materials began to be taken. By definition of the academician A.P. Alexandrov - "clear, but incredibly difficult plan - to begin extensive search of uranium and to organize its production" was the most important component of an uranium problem.

In 1943. The resolution of the State Committee of defense (state treasury bills of the USSR) as a part of Committee on affairs of geology at SNK USSR organized department of radioactive elements led by F.M. Malinovsky with sector 6 (the manager. the sector M.N. Altgauzen, the research supervisor D.I. Scherbakov) for development of scientific bases of search of fields of uranium and rendering the scientific and methodical help to the organizations which are carrying out search and investigation of these fields.

In 1944 the Resolution state treasury bills obliged Committee on affairs of geology to organize at SNK USSR search of fields of uranium in areas of Central Asia, Kazakhstan, the Estonian and Karelian SSR, Western and Eastern Siberia.

On August 20, 1945 the decision of state treasury bills creates special committee which chairman appointed L.P. Beria and the same decision organized the The First Head Department (FHD), preobra-

to the Karasug field. For detailed investigation of this object the Ermakovsky (Mountain) expedition was also created. Later the works which are carried out by SU Eniseystroy were transferred to it.

In geological managements field specialized parties, and in large prospecting expeditions - specialized groups on search of uranium ores which works were supervised by experts of the Berezovsky expedition are created, PGO (GGP) "Beryozov-geologiya" is later. They annually revealed on 100 and more radioactive anomalies which then under the act transferred to the Berezovsky expedition for industrial assessment [3].

It should be noted special privacy of carrying out all works connected with uranium. The word was strictly forbidden to use uranium and thorium, and were recommended for use of "first", "second", "albite", "anortit", etc. And if you, working in funds, meet information on a "lead" mineralization on the Sorsky copper-molybdenum field, then know that it is about an uranium mineralization which is really revealed on the deep horizons there.

In the first years of the activity the geological organizations specialized on uranium were poorly equipped with special appliances for studying radioactivity as that was not yet. For these purposes listochkovy electroscopes, as by means of what at the beginning of the last century Marie Curie, P.P. Orlov, V.S. Titov, etc. studied radioactivity were used. As the veteran of geological service of Siberia, professor N.N. Amshinsky, the former chief geologist of the Berezovsky expedition to the period of 1947-1958 remembers: "... these electroscopes studied the collections of samples of rocks and ores which remained from the former SibGeolkom's parties, Tsvetmetrazvedka, Redmetraz-vedki, the Chermetrazvedka, ZSGU, KGU and other organizations which were in Tomsk, Novokuznetsk, Novosibirsk, Barnaul, Krasnoyarsk..." [5].

By 1960 the Berezovsky expedition, PGO (GGP) "Beryozovgeologiya" is later, and nowadays Siberian branch FUGP "Urangeo" (Moscow) remained the only geological organization specialized on uranium throughout the Central Siberia. Since the beginning of the 60th at the initiative of the chief of an expedition M.M. Matuseev began to carry out exploration works on uranium by creation on the most prospective areas of large stationary parties, instead of temporary small divisions. In such parties, bases on repair of equipment, cameral and laboratory buildings, housing stock, boiler houses and social and cultural facilities were created.

The prospecting party No. 15 originally educated on the basis of SU Eniseystroy (Sorsk, 1957) with the main objective of assessment of an uranonosnost of the Minusinsk hollow and its volcanogenic frame was the first such party.

In other area, on Yenisey Ridge in 1958 by party No. 821 it was revealed Cedar and Voro-govsky fields of uranium in terrigenous thicknesses of lower-average rifeya. The remoteness and a difficult environment limited carrying out search works and by 1966 they were suspended.

Together with geologists production workers, case studies by the staff of Institute of geology and geophysics WITH Academy of Sciences of the USSR under the direction of F.P. Krendelev, and the Tomsk polytechnical institute A.D. Nozhkin and V.A. Gavrilenko under the leadership of V.K. Che-repnina regarding identification within Yenisey Ridge of large-scale deposits in conglomerates of the Proterozoic like Witwatersrand were conducted. For authentication of expected constructions in 1970 the party (later an expedition) No. 57, in the item Verkhne-Pashino under the leadership of V.G. Scherbakov was created. Were opened by this party the Cervine field in the Cedar and Vorogovsky trough and a number of small fields with complex gold-uranium ores in terrigenous breeds rifeya. Efforts of geologists of this expedition, together with the scientific organizations, within Yenisey Ridge revealed extensive radio geochemical specialized zones and knots which owing to the difficult natural and developed economic conditions were insufficiently studied though this uranium-ore province is of undoubted interest to future researches.

After opening of the Solonechny field in 1966 party No. 53 with a problem of assessment of an uranonosnost of volcanogenic formation of Devon of the North Minusinsk hollow was organized, is later for assessment of the Agul deflection, transferred to the item Sushinovka of Uyarsky district of Krasnoyarsk Krai. For rather short period the geologists of this expedition opened a number of fields of uranium in East Sayan's vulkanita - Solonechnoye, Deciduous, Mountain ash, Magnetic, Chaginsky and also Kremenetskoye and Tumanshet-skoye in the field of structural and stratigraphic disagreement of a southwest frame of the Siberian plaforma. One of them - the field Mountain ash, along with Seaside, Karasugsky and Malinovsky are enlisted in the State reserve [6]. Fields of molybdenum, silver, fluorite, marble, placer gold are in passing revealed and estimated.

After opening and investigation of the Seaside field in the Minusinsk hollows for studying an uranonosnost of the Tuva deflection and, first of all, revaluation of the Ust-Uyuk field prospecting party No. 819 was transferred to Tuva. The central expedition No. 56 organized in 1971 was engaged in search of radioactive raw materials in the east of Western Siberia where in the mid-seventies found the Malinovsky field of "hydrogene type" perspective for underground leaching. In the 60-70th were open and

a number of objects in Kuznetsk Alatau are estimated (Rocky, Light, Birch, Southern, the Cauldron, etc.).

Thus, in the territory of the Central Siberia 5 specialized divisions, apart from parties and groups of mass search worked at the territorial PGO equipped with the modern equipment and the provided highly qualified personnel capable to solve any geological problems. In these divisions at different times the number of experts only of a geologic-geophysical profile reached 1500 persons. In search and assessment of uranium fields the huge contribution was made by I.V. Derbikov, N.N. Amshinsky, D.S. Mitropolsky, M.M. Ma-tuseev, V.P. Kovalyov, V.G. Lavrenov, D.V. Klechkov-sky, G.M. Komarnitsky, P.S. Dolgushin, V.A. Do-marenko, V.I. Molchanov, A.M. Molokoyedov, V.K. Kondrin, V.G. Pakhomov, A.S. Serykh, Yu.V. Al-tyntsev, A.A. Antsyrev, V.S. Menshikov, I.N. Ilyin, N.G. Senkevich, V.G Spirin, A.A. and I.N. Chauzo-vy, A.F. Spichkin, N.P. Tsebikov, V.K. Maximov,

A.A. Loginov, A.P. Naumov, S.N. Ermakov, N.I. Timofeev, M.I. Bazhenov, M.V. Bavykin, A.V. Kolba-sin, V.I. Selivanov, V.G. Scherbakov, Yu.M. Petrov, L.P. Shikalov, V.K. Maximov, N.G Leshchenko,

B.B. Seryakov, A.P. Konovalov, F.I. Volkov, M.I. Petrochenko, N.A. Charikov, V.A. Taranenko, Yu.V. Altyntsev, V.Ya. Shatov, I.M. Rubinov, Accusative and V.V. Kuzmina (father and son), O.F. and G.V. Unshchikov,

A.I. and L.D. Reukova and many, many others. Except performance of the main task on hurrah -

to new ore objects, these divisions performed considerable exploration works in the Tuva coal basin, on the olovorudny field in Primorye, on studying oil-and-gas content of Vanavarskaya Square, on diamond fields in the Arkhangelsk region and even in Bulgaria, Germany as soon as possible. Mongolia.

For providing uranium geology with shots in 1954 at the Tomsk polytechnical institute with F.N. Shakhov and V.K. Cherepnin organized department of ores of rare and radioactive elements. In the middle of the 1950th under the leadership of F.N. Shakhov multidimensional scientific research and training of highly qualified personnel were begun. A long time, after transition in 1957 of Felix Nikolaevich for work in the Siberian office of Academy of Sciences, these researches professor headed

B.K. Cherepnin, and then professor L.P. Rikhvanov. In works, in different years took active part

S.I. Watermelons, A.A. Belyaev, E.G Vertman, V.V. Vetrov,

A.B. Gavrilenko, V.A. Domarenko, V.V. Yershov,

of V.G Kolosov, S.S. Kropanin, V.G Kryukov, V.A. Ku wedge, V.M. Levitsky, S.A. Lykov, V.Z. Mustafin, A.Yu. Nikiforov, A.D. Nozhkin, P.G. Paderin,

A.A. Kisses, S.I. Sarnayev, V.M. Sovetov, A.F. Su-dyko, A.N. Uvarov, L.E. Fedorina, Yu.A. Fomin,

B.B. Cherepnin, E.G Yazikov, etc. Later the similar specialty opens in Irkutsk [7].

In the Ministry the scientific leadership in works was assigned to VIMS and VSEGEI. Actively scientists of VNIIHT, VSEGINGEO, TPI, MGRI, SGI cooperated with the production organizations. In 1960 at institute of geology and geophysics FROM Academy of Sciences of the USSR the laboratory of geochemistry of rare and radioactive elements which was headed by the member correspondent is created. Academy of Sciences of the USSR F.N. Shakhov.

In parallel with direct tasks - search of radioactive ores, conducted also the basic researches using the radioactivity phenomena. In 1967 in Tomsk the first in Siberia is started and in the Far East the research nuclear reactor, and since 1985 in TPI the radio geochemical researches were issued in nuclear and geochemical laboratory. In specification of history of geological development of Siberia, time of formation of many ore fields radiological researches on determination of absolute age of ores and breeds had great value Results of researches were regularly reported on KNTS in VIMSE and at the All-Union and International meetings and conferences organized at different times. In 1972 in Novosibirsk the first All-Union radio geochemical meeting is held.

Materials of the XXVII session of the International geological congress (Moscow, 1984) demonstrate that the Siberian radio geochemical school at that time occupied the advanced boundaries in the world.

That serious research and production potential was involved in this work for rather short period of 60-80 the powerful breakthrough in understanding of regularities of formation of fields of radioactive raw materials was made, are created expected metallogenicheskiye cards, its main ore and formational and geological and industrial types are revealed, prospective areas are allocated and the fields in various geological and structural situations are found [6-8].

However the world's largest reserves of uranium in subsoil explored in the USSR with disintegration of the power appeared, generally behind boundaries of Russia. Uranium reserves in the subsoil of the Russian Federation make about 180 thousand tons, but on the quality indicators they considerably concede foreign (Canada, Australia, Kazakhstan). Among them stocks ("active" stocks), profitable for industrial development, make less than 30%. Their main part is concentrated on the territory of the Chita region (Streltsovsky district). Prospecting works at the expense of means of the government budget since 1989 are almost stopped. Building of reserves of uranium on the first hundreds of tons does not solve a problem of long-term security of Russia with raw materials. Even if tomorrow geologists will find the new large-scale superprofitable uranium deposit, till 2015-2020 to expect growth of explored reserves of uranium in the Russian subsoil not at -

it is gone since from opening of the uranium field before its transfer of mining industry there pass 15 — 20 years [9].

It is scientifically proved that Russia has high and reliable geological prospects of a possibility of radical improvement of the uranium mineral resources, first of all, due to identification of fields of rich complex ores of the Canadian and Australian types. Expected resources of uranium of categories P; and are estimated by P2 in such ores as of 01.01.2003 at 100 thousand tons. However these resources, are generally concentrated in the remote and poorly developed areas, including Yenisey Ridge, East Sayan, Northern and Subpolar Urals, the Aldan and Anabar boards. Large-scale and hard exploration works with the annual budgetary charges exceeding present at least by 3 times are necessary for realization of these prospects. Whether geologists have chances of stable receiving such means within at least 4-5 years? Here also the answer to a question of chances of fast opening of new highly profitable uranium fields is.

Now the uranium mineral resources of the country are in critical condition. It is represented that correction of current situation, first of all, requires its understanding and acceptance of a package of measures at the highest state level. As the first step it is necessary to provide uninterrupted annual financing of exploration works on uranium of 350...400 million r within 5-6 years. Only in this case by 2010 it will be possible to expect identification of new uranium-ore objects which will interest mining industry.

The uranium geological service of the country which provided the USSR in 1960-1980 with the world's largest mineral resources of uranium since 1989 is in permanent reorganization with a trend of its reduction. In MPR of Russia it does not use any priority, will be reorganized and financed according to the general schemes without its specifics, is deprived of many necessary functions. Nevertheless, the service keeps so far the intellectual potential which carriers are skilled and, unfortunately, elderly spetsiali-sty-uranshchiki.

The phenomenon of radioactivity finds the increasing application at ecological researches for studying an ecological condition of territories, especially large industrial centers recently. They are directed to identification of radioactive pollution of food and the environment as natural, by technogenic radionuclides. Thus, the new direction in science and the national economy - radio ecology, the leading role in which formation is played by the educational, scientific and production organizations of Siberia, is formed: TPU, Federation Council

Beryozovgeologiya, LLC GGP No. 53 "Phoenix", Federation Council Sosnovgeologiya, OIGIY Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Science, etc.

So, GGP "Beryozovgeologiya" during the period from 1986 to 1995 carried out aero gamma-spectrometer shooting and land radiation survey of Middle Siberia, including of Tomsk, Novosibirsk, Omsk, Krasnoyarsk, Achinsk, Kansk, Zaozyorny, etc.

GGP No. 53 Phoenix together with service of Gossanepidnadzor, with assistance of Administration within the Radon program is created "The card of radono-dangerous situations of Krasnoyarsk Krai of scales 1:5,000 000-1:500,000", the radio hydrogeochemical map of the central and southern districts of the region and the Republic of Khakassia of scale 1:500,000, the unique radonic anomaly of the village of Atamanovo is in details investigated.

Employees the OIGGY Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Science (V.M. Gavshin, V.P. Sukhorukov, V.P. Kovalyov, etc.) actively joined in the Ground program execution, having conducted researches in territories of Altai Krai, Altai Republic, Zelenogorsk, etc.

Scientists of the Tomsk Polytechnic University under the leadership of professor, the doctor of geological and mineralogical sciences L.P. Rikhvanov conducted complex environmental-geochemical researches, including radio environmental monitoring in Mezhdurechensk, Rubtsovsk, Seversk, Tomsk and the Tomsk region. Results of these researches were reported at the international meetings and conferences in Tomsk (1991, 1996) and Krasnoyarsk (1996).

In Tomsk in 1991 at the 3rd All-Union radio geochemical meeting questions of use of methods of radiography for the solution of questions of radio ecology, materials science, etc. were considered

In 1996 the Tomsk Polytechnic University and Goskomecologies of the Tomsk Region with some other the organizations held the International conference "Radioactivity and Radioactive Elements in the Habitat of the Person" devoted to century from the opening day of radioactivity and to the 100 anniversary of TPU, and in Krasnoyarsk the 3rd International radio ecological conference under the motto "The fate of spent nuclear fuel took place on June 22-27, 1996: problems and reality". In 2004 in TPU the II International conference "Radioactivity and Radioactive Elements in the Habitat of the Person" devoted to the 50 anniversary of uranium education in Siberia is held.

In conclusion of the short historical review it should be noted that the modern public situation is characterized by very contradictory judgments, both about the opening of the phenomenon of radioactivity, and about its practical application connected with use of nuclear technologies. As V.V. Cheshev [10] emphasizes, the fate of similar opening, a way of their practical use depends not only on scientists and designers, but also on all public atmosphere, from that what values and what way of development are chosen to itself by mankind.

Estimating philosophical and gnoseological value of the carried-out works in this area, he notes that opening and development of the phenomenon of radioactive decay forces mankind to address itself(himself) and in new conditions to raise a traditional question of point of human existence, of the choice of the values. The mankind with this opening and its practical applications should enter a new phase of history, and the constructive relation to the scientific fact, has to consist in assessment of its epistemo-logical and social consequences in the past and the future.

The great Russian scientist V.I. Vernadsky who devoted to studying this phenomenon a considerable part of the life wrote: "This opening made a huge revolution in scientific outlook, caused creation of the new science other than physics and chemistry - the doctrine about radioactivity, put before life, science and technology practical

LIST OF REFERENCES

1. V.N. Ovchinnikov. Hot ashes: The chronicle of a secret race for possession of atomic weapons. - M.: News, 1984. - 127 pages
2. A.P. Zenchenko. Myths and the facts about uranium. - Krasnokamensk-Irkutsk, 2002. - 397 pages
3. V.A. Nevolin, V.N. Markov, A.V. Polushin, etc. The history of development of geological works in the Central Siberia and its mineral resources. - Krasnoyarsk, 2000. - 589 pages
4. N.P. Posokhov, Tolstikhin of W. Difficult way to iron of Irby: The history of the Irbinsky iron mine of 1734-1999 / Under the editorship of B.M. Afanasyev. - Krasnoyarsk: Offset, 1999. - 327 pages
5. A way to uranium//In prince: Memoirs of participants of creation of a source of raw materials of uranium in Western Siberia. - Novosibirsk, 1990. - 219 pages
6. V.A. Domarenko, V.I. Molchanov, V.V. Kuzmin, V.K. Maximov. The main results and the prospects of development of exploration works on the radioactive and accompanying them minerals in Krasnoyarsk Krai//In sb.: Geological service Krasnoyarya. - Krasnoyarsk, 2000. - Page 248-264.

of a problem of absolutely new sort, opened the horizons of opportunities, absolutely unexpected and, appear, forever for mankind of closed... And now before us the sources of atomic energy in millions of times exceeding all those sources of forces what were drawn to human imagination open in the radioactivity phenomena. As this way is difficult, there is no doubt that the mankind will go on it" [11].

More than 40 years search of fields of uranium in the Central Siberia was conducted. Large-scale deposits which could make base of the mining enterprise it is not revealed. Authors are deeply convinced that more than in six decades of researches it was only succeeded to approach a solution of mysteries of depths of this richest region that the found uranium-ore objects are only "champagne splashes" from large uranium deposits.

7. L.P. Rikhvanov. Common and regional problems of radio ecology. - Tomsk: TPU publishing house, 1997. - 384 pages
8. L.P. Rikhvanov. Formation and development of the Siberian radio geochemical school in TPU//Investigation and protection of subsoil. - 2001.-№ 7. - Page 37-42.
9. E.A. Vorobyov, G.A. Mashkovtsev, S.S. Naumov, V.V. Teng. A condition of a mineral resources and extraction of uranium in the Russian Federation/Radioactivity and radioactive elements in the habitat of the person: Mater. Mezhdunar. konf. - Tomsk, 2004. - Page 123-124.
10. V.V. Cheshev. Discovery of radioactivity and human knowledge/Radioactivity and radioactive elements in the habitat of the person: Mater. Mezhdunar. konf. - Tomsk: TPU publishing house, 1996. - Page 21-24.
11. V.I. Vernadsky. Radioactivity and new problems of geology//Main ideas of geochemistry. - L., 1935. - Issue 2. - Page 23-40.

Arrived 29.05.2007

Susan Mary
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