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Civil war in Kuban (1917 - 1920): to a question of influence of the Caucasian war (19th century)



 © 2003 N.A. Pocheshkhov

CIVIL WAR IN KUBAN (1917 - 1920):

To the QUESTION OF INFLUENCE of the CAUCASIAN WAR (19th century)

The research of the processes and the phenomena which caused civil opposition in regions of Russia, in particular in Kuban represents rather difficult multidimensional task. The changes which led to social explosion, revolution and civil war collected within decades in the most various spheres of public life, gaining more and more expressed character.

In recent years research search allowed to come out to more productive idea of studying sources of the contradictions which are saved up by prerevolutionary Russian society. At such approach the revolutionary events are considered as a part of the system crisis which was growing ripe a long time and shown is extremely sharp, socially finical [1].

The new approaches developing in a historiography allow to investigate at the regional level the contradictions which developed in the remote past and, nevertheless, influenced revolutionary events in Russia. Features of folding of the Russian multinational state and processes complicating inclusion in structure of the empire of the territory of Kuban can be referred to long-term conditions of ripening of contradictions.

At a research of a problem of colonization by historians it is accepted to allocate two characteristic types: so-called peaceful and military colonizations. Process of colonization of the North Caucasus gained the pronounced nature of the colonial war complicated by collision of interests not only Russia, but also England, France, Turkey. As a result ruling circles of Russia, without having an accurate position for decades, balanced between peace and power methods of colonization of the region.

At the end of XVIII - the beginning of the 19th century among representatives of the highest government of steel quite popular the ideas of peaceful, trade expansion on the East. Certain statesmen (R. de Scassi, N.S. Mordvinov, etc.), military leaders (N.N. Rayevsky, etc.) supported the "peaceful" movement, by cooperation with Adyghe, by means of development of barter and introduction of civil management [2].

Originally Russia practiced more sparing methods: kreyserstvo sea and coastal, actual occupation of the coast, establishment of the coastal Black Sea line [3, page 116]. However tactics of colonization of the region underwent changes towards a problem solution by force soon. In Russian government the plan of large-scale military operations against indigenous people of the North Caucasus is developed. War gains difficult and rather specific character, it is developed in the terr -

the ritoriya long since mastered and which is made habitable by the Adyghe population which all history was the history of military collisions. As a result within decades the Adyghe were forced to live in the mode of continuous military expansion. Not only military formations resisted to mountaineers, but direct contact with them was made also by the Cossack parts [4] representing military estate of Russia and which were traditionally used as a boundary barrier. In the south of Russia besides traditional functions also the problem of expansion of borders of the Russian state fell on the Cossacks. Opposition of Adyghe and Cossacks gained the special lines in many respects reminding civil opposition: lack of the accurate front line confronting army, rear communications and also the mass victims among civilians as with one, and on the other hand.

The main part of male population anyway was involved in the course of military operations. The situation was even more aggravated by the "militarized" nature of a way of life of mountaineers and Cossacks. It is traditionally considered to be that mountaineers of the North Caucasus were always ready to war both morally, and physically. Weapon was for them a pride subject: "... on clothes they are the last poor people, and on weapon the first rich men" [5]. Adyghe since childhood accustomed the children to military science, paid to military education exclusive attention. The system of physical training made the young man strong, hardy, fast, tamed to maintain wearisome physical activities, cultivated abstemiousness in food [6].

In turn all tenor of life of Cossacks, internal arrangement and management were subordinated to the extreme conditions interfaced to danger of the military collisions supporting a male part of the population in constant combat readiness, giving to this society high mobility.

It is possible to refer mass involvement in opposition of civilians to one of the defining characteristics of civil war. This process was typical and for the Caucasian war. From traditional ordinary life the most part of the mountain population which represented a passive side in war was "beaten out", but tested all its falsities [7]. "War smoldered slightly considerably, ran high in large glow" [8, page 173, 185], involving more and more people in the circulation.

In response to attacks of groups of the mountaineers bringing ruin to settlers, the military authorities of edge conducted special retaliatory expeditions in which active armed forces and the Cossack hundreds participated. Extreme exasperation of people, feeling of revenge often prevailed over common sense. The "internal" tension of confrontation was reflected by stylistics of official documents: "enemy earth", "enemy population", "hostile people" [9].

The definition of civil war accepted in a modern domestic historiography fixes process of the going deep opposition of society, not only its division into two accurately expressed parties "red" - "white", but also appearance of the hesitating groups of the population ("green"),

In the years of the Caucasian war similar processes of "partition" of the Adyghe society on groups, in division of aboriginals on "peace" and on "unpacific" appeared. However this division had very conditional character. "It is difficult to define with an accuracy what is peace mountaineers, - the ataman of the Black Sea army Ya.G. Kukharenko noted. - They differ from only unpacific in the fact that come to us, speak with us, deal with Russians and consider themselves to have the right to demand from them all services..." [8, page 173, 185, 273, 829].

In process of aggravation of war contradictions to a meyaed these groups amplified. Quite often Cossacks and army groups acted in a campaign to punish "unpacific" mountaineers for attack on "peace" which, feeling support, became "a scourge for the neighbors" [10]. At the same time "peace" Adyghe at times gave full support "unpacific" in their actions against Russians, being involved in attacks, and quite often made escapes to mountains [8, page 273, 829]. Especially mass this phenomenon became in the late thirties when the whole auls ran to the rebellious fellows.

Considering the nature of the Caucasian war, the Russian government tried to support, and at times and to initiate practice of split among mountaineers. "Peaceful" auls used special protection from Russia, kept the internal schedule, were freed from duties, they were given freedom of religion, a pilgrimage opportunity to the holy sites and freedom of barter [8, page 167, 562, 566]. Nevertheless the Caucasian command did not manage to split fully Adyghe into "peace" and "unpacific". Mountaineers who cooperated with Russia and were involved in war on its party received for it extensive allotments, high titles and ranks [11]. The representatives of the highest estates of mountain society who rendered services to the government received a noble rank, awards and large land grants. As very seductive prospect the possibility of use in fighting against Adyghe of the special groups created from their tribespeople was considered.

"Peace" mountaineers, despite the expressed loyalty, did not enjoy full confidence from the Russian command. Usually, becoming a citizen, mountaineers except the oath, gave amanat in podtvsrzhdsnis the peaceful intentions.

In war two forces representing the different religious systems faced: Russians - Christians (first of all Cossacks) and mountaineers - Muslims (Circassians). The religion considering war with "incorrect" a holy duty -

the zhdy believer, turned into the factor fueling tension of Russia and the mountain population. The religious element played a part in formation of national consciousness, strengthening of community on belief, by the principle "we" ("") and "they" ("strangers") with a tendency to overestimate the dignity of the first and shortcomings of the second. All this stimulated intra group solidarity [12].

In a domestic historiography at a research of civil war, as a rule, the statistical data confirming demographic changes in society are introduced for scientific use. Considering these approaches, it makes sense to address the demographic processes connected with the Caucasian war and a vkhoyaedeniye of the territory of the Northwest Caucasus in structure of the Russian Empire in post-war time.

Formation of the population of Kuban in the second half of XIX - the beginning of the 20th century represented not just natural increase of its number, and difficult, extremely contradictory process of interaction of local community and powerful migration and emigratory flows. Settling and development of the territory of Kuban by natives of the Voronezh, Kharkiv, Poltava, Kursk, Ekaterinoslavsky, Chernihiv and Oryol provinces [13] introduced the new economic and cultural relations on traditional Wednesday of the Adyghe people. The situation was complicated also by the fact that the increasing value in public life got the Cossacks. As a result mass migration fueled social and international tension, formed the negative attitude towards migrants. The division, aspiration to change raznoetnichesky origin monoethnic was fixed in consciousness of Cossacks. Radical peasants and non-residents in villages and farms were perceived as ethnically alien element ("Russians", "Ukrainians"),

The ethnodemographic processes substantially regulated by the Russian government structures (resettlement legislation) led to establishment of prevalence in structure of the population of the area of the Russian ethnos and to decrease in a share of indigenous people. So, the specific weight of mountaineers by 1916 in the lump of the population was only 4.26% [14, page 14]. It is known that Adyghe of the Northwest Caucasus in the 60th of the 19th century endured large-scale demographic accident - the mass emigration which received the name "makhadzhirstvo" in a historiography. On available, not full, this the maximum number of immigrants was about 1.5 - 2.0 million people [15]. As a result of these difficult demographic "motions" the Adyghe in the primordial territory of dwelling during short time (several decades), turned into one of small groups of the population. Need of adaptation for the new climatic and social environment was defined by deep changes in mentality of the mountain population and the Cossacks.

For strategic reasons the mountain settlements (auls) were separated (are lodged cherespolosno) and covered by network of the Cossack villages. Mountaineers could not leave the places of residence established for them. A part of the mountaineers who remained in the Kuban region was subject to numerous movements. Only in the first half of the 60th of remote mountain areas on the plain about 50 thousand people who were lodged in Kuban and in mouths of the rivers flowing into it [16] were moved. At kayaedy new resettlement, lands were transferred to them only to temporary use that developed at mountaineers mistrust to the government, forcing everyone to be in constant fear for the future.

Moving mountaineers on the plain, the government did not consider their traditional agrotechnology calculated on mountain, but not on a flat landscape. Change of a habitual microenvironment, resettlement, bitterness for loss of relatives - all this changed psychology of people, pushed not only to active resistance, but generated public apathy, "nobody wanted to develop the economy and to put forces on cultivation of the earth" [17]. Also there was a difficult economic situation: the lands lying in the neighborhood of auls were untilled, the cattle breeding was in decline. Decades later mountaineers could not adapt to new conditions [18, page 84].

Adaptation process took place slowly, painfully and difficult as well for Cossacks and the Russian immigrants who had a fate to master (to colonize) the territory of Kuban. The edge was new, unusual for the Russian person. The economic experience accumulated for years remained unclaimed. The Cossacks who earlier had strong farms hardly adapted to new conditions [3, page 122]. A place time for construction of villages were caused rather by reasons of convenience of their defense that far did not mean their suitability for housekeeping and just for dwelling. They actually contained at the expense of treasury. Marked out F.A. Shcherbin that "the Russian person was pressed here by everything: both nature, and heavy situation, and lack of everything" [8, page 315]. The incidence and mortality were high, from diseases more people, than perished from fighting battles.

Diseases and a heavy unusual landscape weakened an organism, people fell into a condition of a depression and lost working capacity. Everywhere various diseases became widespread: malaria, scurvy, typhus. It is even worse, than at Cossacks, the situation at Russians from internal provinces was, many of which had no own farms and certain classes earlier, lived day work, sometimes without showing activity in the organization of the business [3, page 123]. Immigrants preferred to lodge north of Kuban where there was a landscape, more habitual for the Russian person, who did not demand development of new systems of agriculture [18, page 88].

Creation of new raznoetnichesky community assumed a certain perception of the environment, adaptation to it, inscribings not only on landscape Wednesday, but also in the social environment representing conglomerate of cultures, traditions, mentalities. The ethnic diversity was one of the factors influencing stability. Sharp change in Kuban of ethnic structure of the population generated constant conflictness. Border settlements and villages constantly were exposed to devastating attacks from mountaineers. And instigators and participants of incidents continually alternated as attacks of mountaineers were replaced by attacks of Cossacks [19].

Traditionally researchers focused attention on contradictions between the mountain and Cossack (Russian) population. However the situation did not look so simplified, rectilinear. Certificates remained that other groups of the population also were involved in the interethnic conflicts. Antagonism and contradictions, collecting, passed into the phenomena, very typical for Russia, - arsons and robberies, mass actions and other protest forms, such as descents, addresses, parcel of delegates [16, page 456]. In particular, in May, 1874 in the Ekaterinodarsky County of the Kuban province of 20 armed mountaineers burned several houses of the Greeks living the special settlement [20].

The conflictness of separate groups of the population which developed in the years of the Caucasian war not only on social, but also on ethnic signs with transition to "peace" life not only did not weaken, and more and more went deep due to "reduction" in the political rights of a part of the population. In the Kuban region till 1917 the so-called system of the "military-Cossack" management remained. It was based on military community-based organization of the Cossack troops which had to, according to the government, "to preserve Cossacks against foreigners". From the Cossack administrative management not only 4.2% of local indigenous people, but also 53% of the non-resident were in complete dependence [14, page 14].

the Conflictness of a situation was most clearly shown by

in the land question. About 42.7% of the Cossack population located 78.3% of the earth, all other population (57.3%) had in use 21.7% [14, page 227]. It is well known that the agrarian question was one of the central, defined sense both the Russian revolution of 1917, and the civil war in Russia. In this plane the influence of a land problem, eternal for Russia, defining public instability and impossibility of their reformational decision is found.

The split which happened in the Adyghe society had noticeable impact on all subsequent story. Traditional Adyghe society underwent significant changes, stopped being "uniform". Moreover, its differentiation happened not only on social feature, but also in mental-

Nosta various attitude towards the Russian Empire and to its policy in the Northwest Caucasus was fixed.

1. P.V. Volobuyev, V.P. Buldakov. October revolution: new approaches to study//history Questions. 1996. No. 4. Page 30.
2. V.A. Potto. Caucasian war. Stavropol, 1994. T. 2. With 497; Kasumov.X. The end of the Caucasian war and eviction of Adyghe to Turkey//the Caucasian war: lessons of history and present: Materials nauch. konf. Krasnodar, March 16 - 18, 1994. Krasnodar, 1995. Page 33.
3. G.G. Tkhagapsova. Population policy of Russia on Western Caucasus (end of the 19th century) and its ethnoenvironmental impacts//Informatsionnoanalitichesky Vesta. Maykop, 2001. Issue 4.
4. F.F. Tornau. Memoirs of the Caucasian officer: In 2 h Cherkessk, 1994. Page 134.
5. I.D. buttocks. The Black Sea Cossacks in their civil and military life. Krasnodar, 1988. Page 151.
6. E. Spencer. Travel to Circassia. Maykop, 1994. Page 105; S.S. Kirzhinoye. About some means of physical training at Adyghe in the past//Culture and life of Adyghe. Maykop, 1988. Issue 7. Page 164 - 165.
7. State Archive of Krasnodar Krai (SAKK), t. 347, op. 1, 54, l.
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8. F.A. Shcherbina. History of the Kuban Cossack army. Ekaterinodar, 1913. T. 2. Page 173, 185.
9. I.Ya. Kutsenko. The Caucasian war and problems of continuity of policy in the Caucasus//the Caucasian war: lessons of history and present...
10. V.V. Lapin. National formations in the Caucasian war//Russia and the Caucasus - through two centuries: Historical readings. SPb., 2001. Page 116.
11. Since 1842 the mountaineers officers on an equal basis with Russians received the land plots: generals for 1500 des., the headquarters officers on 400 des., subaltern officers on 200 des. (F.P. Troyno. Caucasian war and fate of the mountain people//Caucasian war: lessons of history and present... Page 83).
12. V.Yu. Hotinets. Ethnic consciousness. SPb., 2000. Page 109.
13. V.M. Kabuzan. The population of the North Caucasus in the XIX-XX centuries: Ethnic research. SPb., 1996. Page 83.
14. Kuban collection of 1916 Ekaterinodar, 1916. T. 21. Page 14.
15. A.H. Bizhev. Adyghe of North Western Caucasus and crisis of East question in the late twenties - the beginning of the 30th of the 19th century Maykop, 1994. Page 69 - 70; S.G. Kudayeva. Fire and iron: The forced resettlement of Adyghe to the Ottoman Empire (20 - the 70th of the 19th century) Maykop, 1998. Page 129 - 130.
16. Problems of the Caucasian war and eviction of Circassians in borders of the Ottoman Empire (20 - the 70th of XIX c): Sb. archival dock. Nalchik, 2001. Page 21.
17. Russian State Military and Historical Archive (RSMHA), t. 126, op. 12, 105, l. 74.
18. N.Yu. Silayev. Migration policy of the Russian government in the North Caucasus in the 2nd. floor. 19th century: practice and results//Vesta. Mosk. un-that. It is gray. 8. History. 2002. No. 3. Page 84.
19. In the subsequent there were conflicts because of russification that was taken even by a part of the Slavic population very painfully (in particular, Ukrainians). The Zaporizhia educational society of the Pashkovsky village of the Kuban army addressed the Chairman of the State Duma with the offer on establishment of the Federal republic and renaming of the Kuban army in Zaporizhia (RGVIA, t. 400. op. 25. 14161. l.36; L.S. Gatagova Ciscaucasia, the Caucasus and Transcaucasia in 1860 - the 1870th: etaokonfliktny problems//People and the power in the history of Russia: research problems. Maykop, 2002. Page 23 - 24).
20. L.S. Gatagova. Decree.soch. Page 31.

Adygei state university

Julia Barber
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