The Science Work
Site is for sale:
Category: History

To a question of improvement of personnel of provincial police at the beginning of the 20th century (on the example of the Penza province)

v. Yu. Kladov

To the QUESTION OF IMPROVEMENT of PERSONNEL of PROVINCIAL POLICE at the beginning of the 20th Century. (On the EXAMPLE


Work is presented by department of the contemporary history of Russia and study of local lore of the Penza state pedagogical university of V.G. Belinsky.

The research supervisor - the candidate of historical sciences, associate professor O.V. Yagov

Article is devoted to consideration of the main problems characteristic of provincial police of the beginning of the 20th century. The author makes an attempt of identification of the reasons of their emergence and also gives characteristic to actions of the local police authorities for establishing system work in the field of prevention and fight against crime.

The article is devoted to the main problems which are specific for the provincial police at the beginning of the 20th century. The author tries to find out the reasons for these problems. He also characterizes the actions of the local authorities in improving the system of preventive measures and crime control.

Extremely low number of average and local positions was one of the most important problems of provincial police of the beginning of the 20th century. In spite of the fact that the number of police ranks on reform of 1903 calculated the government taking into account opinion of the local police administration, the principle of minimization of the state which made almost impossible full implementation of the official duties by district police was the basis for completing. For example, the average distance falling on a zone of service of the police policeman in

The Penza province, made, by our calculations, from 12 to 28 versts in a radius (in the Chembarsky County - to 84 versts) 1. It is necessary to consider also almost total absence of means of communication between settlements - phone or telegraph were located then only in large settlements. The same can be told also about intermedia - according to remarks checking, collecting even horse group from seven-eight people in case of agrarian disorders, would occupy from one and a half to two sutok2.

The agrarian disorders which swept across Russia coincided with nacha-

8 7

scrap of the first Russian revolution and also sharp jump of the general crime rate at the beginning of the 20th century forced the central government to develop and embody a number of the actions which positively affected personnel of the Russian police in practice. Since 1906 the district police guards were strengthened by horse established posts at the rate of a quarter of constant structure of guards from among which special flying groups, for the purpose of expeditious suppression of large-scale attempts of disorderly conduct were formed. Also the general staff of police was a little expanded.

On the other hand, for all considered period in the Penza province there was no case of full completeness of the police state, and to that there is a variety of reasons. First, the Russian government initially made a serious mistake, having been the principle of stagnation the basis for completing of the staff of police, having tied by that hands of local administration concerning a possibility of hiring of additional forces. Secondly, there was no control system for completeness of states on places as the shortage of ranks in the Penza province could make up to 15%, however any complete action program was not provided in similar cases in St. Petersburg, especially in provincial administration. As a result the problem of shortage of shots was particularly acute for the provincial authorities throughout the considered period.

Turnover of staff in provincial and district police was one more serious problem, which reasons consist in extremely low level of income of police ranks that inevitably involved falling of prestige of a profession and affected quality of personnel. In a pursuit of completeness of regular structure the Penza police administration was forced to ignore the system of selection of persons interested to arrive

on police service. As a result the structure of police was extremely ill-matched and weak in respect of vocational training.

In the absence of recommendations from the center the management of the Penza police saw an exit only in development of the system of measures which realization in practice would allow to adjust, first, process of vocational education of the operating ranks of police for the purpose of increase in their qualification, secondly, to make more effective return when carrying out educational work with subordinates, thirdly, to stimulate devotion of workers on duty.

Since 1906 in Penza the special Educational command which is intended for implementation of comprehensive theoretical and practical training of local policemen, and subsequently and village constables to police sluzhbe3 began to carry out training of horse and police policemen.

Specialists of various institutions and departments of Penza developed the program of a theoretical and practical training approved by the governor. Only skilled and competent ranks which proved in the course of service only from a positive side acted as teachers. Upon termination of courses each policeman was obliged to pass examinations ("to pass test"). In case of their successful he was paid back on hands in kind the certificate which allowed it to take advantage before others at appointment to the post of the village constable. Slabouspevayushchy and not passed examination either left, or went to remote corners of the province without the right of increase on sluzhbe4.

But also it not fully satisfied the Penza police administration. It was obvious that three-months developing the skills of the police officer of times in 10 years will not bring the expected effect. Therefore since 1912 practice included annual camp gatherings of policemen.

To a question of improvement of personnel of provincial police at the beginning of the 20th century...

Collecting was appointed by the order of the governor, as a rule, during the summer period for a period of one month. The total number of policemen of each county was divided into three groups at an equal number of people, respectively each group got on collecting the first, second or third stage, passing the identical program of training and trainings. The program of collecting included generally practical exercises - pedestrian and horse, the cabin, firing, drill and gymnastics. Theoretical classes provided educational conversations with use of data of the Penza police leaf. In the last days of collecting the prize-winning fire and the cabin in which also the staff of gendarmerie, city police and cadets of educational team for strazhnikov5 took part were opened.

It is necessary to pay tribute to the Penza governors who, without waiting for the corresponding orders from the center, tried to adjust study with the lowest link of police. In 1906 the general Sokolovsky checking the Penza guards noted that the provincial administration, without waiting for receipt of the promised instruction to the lowest ranks from St. Petersburg, itself created that in 1903, having entitled it "The management to guards at execution of official duties by it. Published by the Penza governor temporarily, up to the edition of the general instruction". The instruction supported the most necessary for the policeman information on the Russian legislation and was one of the Russia's first practical posobiy6.

By 1912 the system of training of the Penza policemen at places was finally created. Once in two weeks on the basis of stanovy apartments at presence and under the personal guide of the police officer with all policemen attributed to this camp classes were given. The program and the schedule for them were developed by the provincial inspector of guards and approved as the governor and included "prak-

tichesky" and "verbal" forms of work. The priority at the same time was given to educational work and drill. Each occupation had to begin with survey of a horse, equipment, arms and the policeman's regimentals that had to discipline in addition employees politsii7.

Special classes in studying rules of actions by group against crowd were developed for employees of "flying groups" of city police - a prototype of modern OMON-. Policemen were learned to work depending on the developed situation - in the conditions of the different number of crowd and its structure, number of the group and the sizes of the territory on which it was necessary to operate. Special attention was paid on studying special police receptions and also ways of actions for dispersal mass skop - lines of people: system, pace, separate teams, etc. The special course included also instructions on carrying out secret operations on capture objectionable to the authorities of persons. Also such questions as it is correct to block town houses how to concentrate people at a village cordon and so forth 8 were considered

Training of employees of Detective office of the Penza city police, in our opinion, was also conducted rather competently, but only in relation to beginners for whom three-months courses of study where the former policemen were acquainted with specifics of service were organized. Further work on increase in special training of employees it was not carried out so they had to improve skills in process of execution of official duties, a trial and error method in the absence of institute of mentoring. In it to us the essential gap in the system of preparation of police shots on places seems.

Much attention was paid by the police authorities and to carrying out educational work with ranks of police. Besides

extensive instructions of the governor and the district police officers disclosed daily before a zastupleniye in a dress in Penza began to lead weekly discussions during which it was inspired that the rank of police is the authority and has to on this basis steadily try to obtain the respectful attitude towards themselves.

Among employees the "Penza police leaf" appearing once a week every Tuesday which contained texts of educational conversations with police ranks and also "The bulletin of police" - the illustrated magazine of popular scientific character in an available form explaining the most difficult moments of the administrative and criminal legislation regularly extended.

It is known that one of the simplest and effective forms of work with staff is use of different ways of encouragement and punishment. Unfortunately, the Penza police administration, in our opinion, often neglected both material, and moral encouragement of subordinates, giving preference to punishment as the easiest way to affect discipline with -

trudnik. So, in 1908-1916 in the Penza County, according to official figures, were noted by thanks of 39 people, and under arrest were put 159 sluzhashchikh9. Dynamics of number of police officers in relation to whom as a measure of punishment the arrest was applied is rather stable that cannot be told about number of the policemen who are marked out by thanks and awards from the administration that demonstrates lack of systemacity in this aspect of work with staff demanding a special subtlety.

So, deterioration in a criminogenic situation at the beginning of the 20th century and also the lack of the thought-over personnel policy from the central authorities put the Penza police authorities before need, without serious financial injections, to think over and realize the system of the actions aimed at improvement of quality of local personnel.

We consider that in issues of training and education of employees this task was carried out rather successfully. At the same time existence of a number of gaps in carrying out other forms of work with staff of the Penza police looked natural.

1 State archive of the Penza region. T. 6. Op. 1A. 82. L. 1-72ob.; 83. L. 1-38.
2 In the same place. 55. L. 32.
3 In the same place. T. 176. Op. 1. 77. L. 1-115.
4 In the same place. T. 103. Op. 2. 69. L. 4-5.
5 In the same place. 74. L. 1-88.
6 In the same place. T. 176. Op. 1A. 55. L. 32.
7 In the same place. T. 103. Op. 1. 1659. L. 20-21, 40-42, 57-57ob.
8 In the same place. L. 21.
9 In the same place. Op. 2. 14. L. 1-103; 31. L. 1-70; 47. L. 1-99; 61. L. 2-95; 62. L. 5-52; 73. L. 1-189; 83. L. 1-84ob.; 96. L. 1-63; 105. L. 1-63; 120. L. 1-81.
Rosa Powell
Other scientific works: