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Category: History

Successors of Department of water and overland messages: structure and competence



m. V. Borisenko,

Dr. east. sciences, dots., SPGUVK

SUCCESSORS of DEPARTMENT of WATER AND OVERLAND MESSAGES:

STRUCTURE AND COMPETENCE

SUCCESSOR OF THE DEPARTMENT OF WATERWAY AND LAND COMMUNICATIONS: STRUCTURE AND COMPETENCE

In article the historical aspect of transformations of organizational forms and administrative control facilities the sphere of means of communication in the Russian Empire by XIX - the beginnings of the XX centuries is considered. The Is-tochnikovy basis of the analysis — special literature on the history of Ministry of Railways and materials of the Russian state historical archive.

The article deals with historical aspect of reforming organization forms and administrative management of ways of communications in Russian Empire in the XIXth and beginning of the XXth centures. The source for analysis is special literature on history of the Ministry of Ways of Communications and materials of Russian State Historical Archive.

NAChITELNUYu Part XIX centuries of the Russian history made developments promyshlen-

It is known that one of the first public institutions in the sphere of transport of Russia — Department of water and overland messages — was created under the personalized decree of the emperor Paul I in 1798. The department under the leadership of N.P. Rumyantsev worked successfully and in 1809 expanded the powers. At Alexander I on November 20, 1809 there was a Manifesto which founded Management of water and overland messages and Institute of the corps of engineers of means of communication.

leg of a revolution and at the same time extensive agrarian managing and expansion of borders of the country. Among the dominating phenomena of this context there was also a development actually of the system of vehicles. Not casually the chairman of the board of Ministers of the Russian Empire P.A. Stolypin in the speech of 1906 about continuation of construction of the Great Siberian way emphasized: "... the taking priority, our major task are means of communication. Not only from the technical, strategic point of view, but from wider, nation-wide political." [1, page 3].

In literature on the history of Ministry of Railways [2; 4; 9] the main forms of development of institutions from department of means of communication in the 1800-1890th are established. And during an initial stage of existence of Management of water and overland messages as it is noted by literature, in its structure the Council, the Expedition of water and overland messages and also districts of means of communication are formed [2, page 45]. Nevertheless during the subsequent period, including the 1900th, the control system of water communications underwent a number of changes, in literature almost of not reflected.

The made study attempt

historical aspect of transformations of governing bodies of the sphere of means of communication of the Russian Empire XIX — the beginnings of the 20th century has special relevance for the modern period when again issues of development of organizational forms and administrative control facilities the sphere of means of communication are particularly acute.

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Considering indisputable importance of the called subject for the history of public institutions and management of Russia, at the same time it is very interesting to disclose actual state of that department which operated and controlled generally existence of the transport systems, waterways and swimming means in our country during an era of an industrial revolution. This article is devoted to identification on the basis of special literature on the history of Ministry of Railways and archive materials of structure and functional specialization of the central governing bodies of transport of Russia during the highest imperial development of the middle of XIX — the beginning of the 20th century

To an abolition of serfdom in Russia the relative extent of the mastered water communications was rather low: it made 35 versts on 100 square miles whereas in Germany — 119, in France — 135 and in England — 145 versts [8, page 26]. At the same time the number of river crafts in our country was more, than in other Europe. The beginning of introduction of the steam equipment in the European Russia became new line of development of water and land transport. However it is unlikely noted lines directly defined during this period the organization and forms of governing bodies of transport. To a large extent the structure of the relevant department depended in Nicholas I's government on a common line on specification of functions of the ministries and on strengthening of a regulation of the acting officials at a list towards militarization. In such conditions the further development of former Management of water and overland messages continued.

From 1820 to 1833 named Upravle - ny existed as Head department of means of communication, since 1833 it is transformed to Head department of means of communication and public buildings. In its structure: Council, the Commission for audit of reports; The Commissions for consideration of plans and estimates; Depot of cards and plans and workshops; The Department of means of communication, since 1829 is created the Headquarters of the corps of engineers of ways of messages and Special office of the general manager.

From 1842 to 1865 the structure of Head department of means of communication and public buildings began to include: Council, the Headquarters of the corps of engineers of means of communication, at it audito-riat and the chief physician; Special office of the general manager, Educational committee, Department of the railroads, Department of artificial affairs, Department of economic affairs; Department of projects and estimates, Department of plans and maps, Department of audit of reports.

In addition it should be noted a boundary of 1865 when in Russia Ministry of Railways under Alexander II's Decree of June 15, 1865 was created. As a part of Ministry of Railways of the Russian Empire (Pavel Petrovich Melnikov was appointed the first Minister of Railways) the Department of water messages was again founded on June 23, 1865. And on December 31, 1870 new reorganization is carried out to Department of highway and water communications. Along with the called Department entered into structure of Ministry of Railways: Council; Office of the ministry; The Headquarters of the corps of engineers of means of communication and at it audito-riat and the chief physician; Special office of the general manager; Educational committee; Department of the railroads; Department of artificial affairs; Department of economic affairs; Department of projects and estimates; Department of plans and maps; Department of audit of reports [2, page 45].

As in Russia X! X century and till 1918 the bulk of the rolling stock of the river fleet coped and operated by the right of private possession, the organization of navigation was a prerogative of private owners of the fleet. Therefore the government took measures for a protection of the rights and the interests of shipowners — it was expressed, for example, in the device of congresses of shipowners, since 1880th

Nevertheless during the period after an abolition of serfdom (beginning of the 1860-1890th) at the general increase of the outputs cargo commodity transportations and streams of country resettlements increased. In the conditions of more and more increasing volumes of the transport address there was a need to develop corresponding transport

network. It is natural that before development of the railroads in the country the major role belonged to river transport. In such conditions Ministry of Railways, without having a direct problem of control of navigation, after 1874 acquired the right "to issue obligatory resolutions on an order and conditions of following of vessels on internal water communications" [9, page 239].

Besides, as appears from annual reports, under the direction of Ministry of Railways considerable volumes of hydrographic works were carried out. The aspiration to improve water communications resulted in need to have authentic data on a condition of water levels and their fluctuations in time which could form a basis for design of traveling actions and arrangement of signs of a navigation protection. So on March 19, 1876 the chairman navigation opisnoy P.A. Fadeyev in the report "About production of observations of water levels" for the first time stated to the commission of Department of highway and water messages the detailed program of the organization of water-measuring observations on the rivers of Russia. The Instruction for production of such observations was the same year developed and measures to creation of water-measuring posts which were appointed taking into account were taken: importance of the river area concerning the movement of the fleet, existence of cable communication with the district of means of communication, also intended for timely transfer of data on water levels and a possibility of hiring of vodomershchik on places.

On the basis of noted it becomes clear why improvements of the sphere of the organization of management continued.

Since 1870 as a part of Ministry of Railways are formed: Council, Department of common causes; since 1880 — Office of the Minister of Railways; Department of highway and water messages, at which Technical and inspection committee; Department of the railroads, at it Tekhni-chesko-inspektorsky committee; Management of the state railroads; Yuriskonsulsky part. Since 1892 there were an Inspection of the railroads and Inspection of highway and water messages (since 1893); Statistical department (since 1873), Educational department (since 1880) [2, page 124].

The given structure during the subsequent period of completion of an industrial revolution, new problems of the public imperial policy, conditions of growth of the resettlement movement and other influences stayed not unchanged.

At a boundary of the 1890-1900th for the former Management of water and overland messages the strip of considerable reorganization begins. "Most high the approved opinion" the State Council as a part of Ministry of Railways formed on May 3, 1899 Management of water and highway messages [3, Article 16822]. At the head of new Management there was a collective body — Committee of management where, except the high-ranking officials of Ministry of Railways, representatives of the Ministry of Internal Affairs, Ministry of Finance, Ministry of Trade and industry and also the Ministry of Defence and Head department of mails and telegraphs entered. Selection of the leading top of this branch education as we see, was based actually on a complete set by the principle of interdepartmental character. Therefore, during this period not the branch, but functional approach at creation of bodies of supervision and control over the transport sphere prevailed. Additional confirmation of this conclusion is the fact of creation and action during 1907-1911 under the agreement of Ministry of Railways and Head department of land management and agriculture of "A special meeting" of these departments with participation of the Ministry of Internal Affairs, Ministry of Defence, board of KVZhD and representatives of the all-territorial organization of Russia. The meeting planned a number of concrete measures for improvement of transport service of the resettlement movement, both overland, and water [5].

We will return, however, to the structure of the above-mentioned Management of water and highway messages. The following departments were a part of Management since May, 1899: operational, water and highway communications, trade ports, legal part, calculating part, office.

we will note

from characteristic of office personnel of this Management that in staff of different departments such positions as were presented: inspectors in -

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dyany messages, the highway and ports, engineers of technical works, officials on survey and test of boilers on vessels (appeared, since 1903) [4, page 73].

Apparently from the provided nomenclature, for the majority of positions engineering training was required. Other circumstance: on structure and the tasks it is Upravle - ny knew not only water and highway communications, but also trade ports. However soon there were further structural changes. The affairs concerning work of trade ports since November, 1902 were allocated from conducting Management of water and highway messages. On November 7, 1902 there was a personalized Decree of the emperor Nicholas II Senatu on establishment of Head department of trade navigation and ports. Respectively Management of water and highway messages and trade ports was renamed into Management of inland waterways and highways (since January 1, 1903) [6, page 1]. At the same time the structure of departments and office-works was left at first almost without changes. A bit later, since February 27, 1903, at Management the Technical bureau on road affairs and Bureau of a research of waterways was created.

The given structure of departments, bureau and office-works in general was rather steady. It should be noted especially what represented office-work. In the system of institutions office-work is understood as specialization of activity of departments in the general departmental profile. More specifically competences of office-works and departments of Management of inland waterways and highways during the 1890-1910th can be characterized on materials of an archival collection of documents of Management [6] as follows.

1. Operational department

I. Office-work — consideration of charters of the navigable enterprises, management of navigable, highway, bridge and other tolls.

II Office-work — development of rules and obligatory resolutions on navigation, ship traffic, about issue of loans under

pledge of vessels and cargoes, management of a vrachebnosanitarny part and drawing up reports.

III. Office-work — implementation of navigable supervision, the description of lighthouses and signs on the rivers and lakes, drawing up bulletins about a condition of waterways, conducting accounting of sale and loss of state property.

2. Department of water and highway communications

I. Office-work — observation of water level and carrying out water-measuring works, of opening and freezing of the rivers, a research and the description of the rivers and other waterways, management of drawing up cards.

II Office-work — management of works on deepening of the rivers, to straightening of the course, strengthening of coast, alienation of lands under the device of harbors, piers, etc.

III Office-work — management of works on improvement of a water system, reorganization of locks, beyshlot, dams, floodgates and other devices.

IV Office-work — the organization of zemlecherpatelny and kamnepodjemny works, contents, activity and maintenance of vessels.

V. Office-work — the order of vessels, devices and other equipment, observation of execution of orders and inclusion in treasury, consideration of offers on new vessels and mechanical designs.

VI Office-work — management of the device and contents of highway messages.

3. Calculating part

I. Office-work (accounting) — estimating, distribution of the credits, maintaining accounting reports.

II Office-work — drawing up the urgent and annual reporting.

III Office-work — development of standard prices of works and deliveries, construction statistics.

4. Legal part

Production of judicial and administrative character, legal supervision of boards of districts of means of communication.

5. Office

Managed affairs of staff of Management.

6. The technical bureau on road affairs Conducted development of data of highway and construction statistics and technical questions of road management.
7. The bureau of a research of waterways Was engaged in processing and preparation for the edition of "Indexes" of waterways of the message [6, page 1-3].

From external capital location the central institutions of Ministry of Railways were placed in the capital to the addresses: on the Embankment of the Fontanka River, 117, and on Italyanskaya St., 17 where actually there was a Management of inland waterways (fig. 1).

In the conditions of World War I, at difficulties of economic regulation, the structure of departments began to be split up. In 1915. The department of water and highway communications was divided on: a) Department of inland waterways (five office-works); b) Department of highways (two office-works). Growth of a tendency to branch division led to emergence of new organizational forms: since October, 1916. Management of internal water ways and highways was divided into Management of inland waterways and Management of highways.

in general for 1917 Ministry of Railways consisted of Council of the minister, Office, Council on

to railway affairs, Managements (or former departments): railroads,

inland waterways, highways and some other special facilities. Revolutionary events of 1917 prevented to complete transformations of department in line with branch specialization

After October 1917 of revolution on the basis of Ministry of Railways is created Narkomat of means of communication. Special decree of Council of People's Commissars of March 5 (on February 20), 1918. Management of inland waterways was transferred to the jurisdiction of the All-Russian council of the national economy of RSFSR [7, page 69]. Despite numerous radical reorganizations of work of department and change in subordination, there are bases to agree that during the subsequent period in the environment of governing bodies of water communications the tendency to the increasing branch specialization which was outlined earlier was kept and developed.

In conclusion it is necessary to draw conclusions on diverse modification of a system of the central institutions on management of the transport systems, waterways and swimming means in our country of an era of an industrial revolution. The main objective of activity of all these managements and departments in XIX — the beginning of the 20th century was

Fig. 1. The building of the central institutions Ministry of Railways on the Embankment of the Fontanka River, 117,

St.-Petersburg. Beginning of the 20th century

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maintenance and development of waterways taking into account requirements of the developing navigation. Nevertheless the increasing river fleet of Russia being mainly in private possession had no in scales of the state of a certain uniform governing body. Influence of department of means of communication on work of the fleet after the 1860th consisted in regulation of rules of navigation of vessels, in diverse supervision of the safe maintenance of ship power plants and also in control and improvement of a hydrotechnical condition of inland waterways.

(The end of XIX — the beginning of the 20th century) control systems of ways of messages are characteristic of the period of the highest imperial development considerable specialization and differentiation of governing bodies. Along with it it is necessary to recognize that the carried-out changes were not always justified by the interests of business or reasons of improvement of the management. Such indicative example is the fate of the Department of water and overland messages which was repeatedly changing the names.

Tasks and a format of this article did not allow to find some other important lines of characteristic of water department of Russia the studied period. In particular, the essential value for development of transport communications was gained by the progressive ideas and undertakings of many advanced scientists and practitioners. Along with it the carried-out review of a control system for waters -

ny communications allows to notice that in the system of public institutions of tsarist Russia Management of waterways of the message was, perhaps, one of quite bureaucratic and conservative. Naturally, this circumstance in a certain measure influenced the slowed-down development of the water transport and capacity of waterways. Despite this circumstance, the main function of the device of administrative activity promoted growth and improvement of river transport and increase in its role in economy of Russia XIX — the beginning of the XX century.

Apparently, appropriate to correlate experience of the past to modern conditions of basic institutional transformations on transport of the Russian Federation in the 1990th when was the privatization and transition from direct administrative management to state regulation of subjects of the market are carried out [10, page 1]. Externally it was expressed in abolition on March 9, 2004 of Ministry of Transport and Ministry of Railways of the Russian Federation. But already on May 20, 2004 the decree on the actual reconstruction of Ministry of Railways of the Russian Federation as uniform federal body in the field of transport follows.

So, results of the undertaken study can be demanded in a certain measure at the solution of questions of what has to be structure of modern governing bodies of the sphere of transport communications, prerequisites for sustainable development of a system of Russian Federation transport and other common problems are how created.

List of references

1. V.P. Kalinichev. Great Siberian way. Historical and economic essay. — M.: Transport, 1991. — 247 pages
2. A short historical essay of development and activity of department of means of communication in 100 years of its existence (1798-1898). — SPb.: Type. Ministry of Railways, 1898. — 219 pages & #43; prilozh.
3. Complete collection of laws of the Russian Empire. — SPb., 1899. — 1120. — SOBR. III. — T. XIX. — Otd. 1.
4. A short historical essay of the organization and development of department of means of communication in 110 years. — SPb.: Type. Ministry of Railways, 1909. — 121 pages
5. Russian state historical archive, St. Petersburg (RGIA). — T. 190. — Op. 4, 1911, 5382, nn. 20 - 82.
6. RGIA. T. 190. — Op. 4, 1899-1918
7. The collection of decrees on the National commissariat of means of communication of January 1, 1919 — M.: Prod. PS Oil Company, 1919. — Prince 1. — 219 pages
8. V.F. Marukhin. The history of river navigation in Russia (X! X century, Volga basin). — M.: Orekhovo-Zuyevo ped. in-t, 1996. — 410 pages
9. Short historical essay of development of water and overland messages and trade ports in Russia. — SPb.: Type. Ministry of Railways, 1900. — 372 pages
10. Transport strategy of the Russian Federation: Vseros. konf., Moscow, December 3, 2003 — M., 2003. — 28 pages

And. M. Gapeev,

Dr.Sci.Tech., prof., SPGUVK;

V. V. Kononov

Cand.Tech.Sci., SPGUVK

the HISTORY of FORMATION of ENGINEERING DISCIPLINES, CREATIONS of SPECIAL DEPARTMENTS AND FACULTY of WATER COMMUNICATIONS AT the ST. PETERSBURG INSTITUTE of ENGINEERS of MEANS OF COMMUNICATION (1809-1930)

HISTORY OF ESTABLISHING ENGINEERING DISCIPLINES, CREATING SPECIAL DEPARTMENTS AND FACULTY OF WATER COMMUNICATINS IN ST. PETERSBURG INSTITUTE OF ENGINEERS OF WAYS OF COMMUNICATIONS (1809-1930)

Data on formation and development of special and all-engineering disciplines and formation of faculty of water communications are provided in article.

The article gives brief information about forming and developing special and general engineering disciplines and establishing faculty of water communications.

Formation of special and all-engineering disciplines

The history of training of engineers-builders for the water transport begins with the creation moment in Russia of the first transport higher educational institution — Institute of the Corps of engineers of water and overland messages transformed in 1864

in the St. Petersburg Institute of Engineers of Means of Communication (SPIEMC). According to the Manifesto signed by the emperor Alexander I on December 2, 1809 the Department of water communications and the Expedition of organization of roads in the state were transformed to Upravle - ny water and overland messages, the Corps of engineers of means of communication are formed and

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Edgar Samuel
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