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About some problems of interaction of society and power in Kuban in 1941 - 1943

UDK 930


IN KUBAN In 1941 - 1943

© 2011 of L.V. Radichko

Kuban State University, Kuban State University,

Stavropolskaya St., 149, Krasnodar, 350040, Stavropolskaya St., 149, Krasnodar, 350040,

The problems of providing the population with food, purposes of pensions and grants, payments of taxes to the state in 1941 - 1943 in Kuban are considered. The reasons of bureaucracy of authorities, their inattention to needs of ordinary people, an arbitrariness in relation to workers are analyzed. The data of archive of the Otradnoye district relating to 1942 - 1943, confirming what means heads of the area carried out a task of restoration of a collective-farm livestock of the cattle lost during occupation are for the first time introduced for scientific use. Methods of work with the population of the regional office of the power in the conditions of war, action of the authorities in problem situations are investigated.

The problems ofproviding the population with food, pensions and allowances, payment of taxes to the government in 1941 - 1943 in the Kuban. Analyzes the causes of bureaucratic government, and their inattention to the needs of ordinary people, arbitrariness with respect to the workers. Was first introduced into scientific data archive Otradnenskoye area related to 1942 - 1943 showing that the means by which district leaders fulfill the task of restoring collective livestock lost during the occupation. Study the methods of work with the population of regional power apparatus under conditions of war, authorities& actions in problematic situations.

The question of problems of interaction between the power and society will be always relevant as they existed also in the historical past of our country, and are characteristic of the present. Therefore the research of the reasons which generated them and ways of their permission are important now.

The relevance of a question is caused by subject of the Great Patriotic War, need of studying experience of the Soviet government for emergency situations. Undoubtedly, in these extreme conditions quite often there were burning issues of interaction between society and the power, as is a reason for consideration in this article.

For the purpose of identification of the causes of problems in relationship between authorities and the population of Kuban during the studied period we defined factors because of which there were problems, the analysis of actions of power structures in difficult situations is carried out and also the value of the studied problems for society is found out.

For study and the analysis in article only those questions which directly affected the standard of living of people are raised, - provisioning, purpose of pensions and grants, payment of the national taxes and loans. Only at first sight they seem insignificant in the light of global events of the period of the Great Patriotic War which predetermined its outcome. However for the population of Kuban at that time they had the vital value.

Besides similar problems then were widespread and covered quite wide range of the population, being that considerable factor by which there cannot pass the researcher.

To understand the nature of relationship between society and the power in Kuban in days of the Great Patriotic War, it is necessary to remember that in preceding war of 1920 - the 1930th this relationship developed far not just owing to policy of a dispossession of kulaks, a decossackization, hunger of 1932 - 1933 and some other factors. The regional power functioning in the conditions of the totalitarian state, often dey-

a stvovala unfairly strictly in relation to society subject to it. According to researchers, management of People's Commissariat for Internal Affairs of Krasnodar Krai was one of the most cruel in the USSR. It is no accidental in the 1930th over 42 thousand people were repressed [1].

However from the beginning of war the power appeared in new conditions. It was necessary to resolve the hard task of defeat of the powerful aggressor who enslaved the whole Europe that was impossible without full support of the people. There was a change of implementation methods of the power, in particular, mass repressions stopped.

About a new trend the prosecutor of Krasnodar Krai V.I. Kolesnikov said in clear, speaking on November 19, 1941 at the IX Plenum of regional committee of the All-Union Communist Party (bolsheviks): "... our task... to quickly liquidate mistakes, to organize work so that to help the party and Soviet organizations, without allowing mass repressions" (our italics. - L.R.) [2, l. 17].

In a military situation there were demanded an initiative, efficiency in decision-making, readiness to take the responsibility. These qualities were not inherent in the regional office of the power created in days of political repressions when any initiative was punishable when people preferred to be reinsured than to show independence in decision-making. Now it was necessary to get rid of this vicious tradition of blind implicit obedience.

In this regard the first secretary of regional committee of party P.I. Seleznyov, commenting on the complaint of one of secretaries of a district committee to the wrong instructions of the regional administration, told: "... it was necessary... to take the responsibility and to tell - no, I will not follow ridiculous instructions". To dispel the last doubts at the "overcautious persons" who were afraid to contradict the administration, Seleznyov says: ". companions, I would like to hear at least once the complaint from regional heads to secretaries of district committees, but there is no it... Why?... it seems to me that companions hesitate to assume overall responsibility completely and entirely. if we take completely the responsibility, then all defects can be eliminated on the place" [2, l. 18]. These words Seleznyov kind of gave new installation by all attendee at a plenum that now in continuously changing and constantly becoming complicated conditions of war it is necessary to improvise, quickly and quickly, without expecting hints from higher bodies, resolving local questions independently.

Thus, from the first days of war implementation methods of the power changed both from the regional device, and from security agencies that finally helped them to carry out all tasks assigned to them by war. And these tasks were difficult and multidimensional. In the first months of war it was necessary to carry out general mobilization in the region, to reap a crop of 1941, to provide army and the population with food, to transfer the regional industry to release of military products, to construct defensive boundaries, to organize protection of the back, to train the population in military science (general compulsory education), to dig up considerable material supplies

in fund of warring army to organize resistance to the enemy by guerrilla methods, etc.

During implementation of these tasks, in the conditions of the hardest war there was also a transformation of the Soviet command management system, its transformation into a system mobilization [3], actions of the front and the back, to mobilize all forces of the people for the fight against fascist Germany which managed to coordinate together.

However the extraordinary military situation considerably caused also existence of various problems of interaction between the power and society in Kuban.

Most often complications arose in the sphere of supply with food which catastrophically were not enough in view of increase in deliveries to army. To provide the population with the guaranteed bread, SNK USSR enters since August 20, 1941 food stamps [4]. According to the Government decree a krayispolok makes the decision "On introduction of cards on bread, sugar, and confectionery in the cities and industrial settlements of edge". Trade by cards in Krasnodar Krai began since September 1, 1941 [5, page 53 - 54].

Reaction of urban population was in general benevolent as cards exempted from hours-long standing in turns. However with introduction of cards of the right for the guaranteed bread villagers lost. Some of them only lived in the village, and worked in the city. In information of the Tikhoretsk district committee to the Krasnodar regional committee the statements of railway workers about it are recorded: ". my family yesterday sat hungry what it has to starve to death? Then expel me that I together with it starved to death!" (the worker of shop No. 14 comrade Palnikov - to the foreman comrade Kvitko); "... I have to feed the children with the earth or the Holy Spirit? This decision is incorrect" (the inspector of cars of the station Tikhoretsk Boris Klimenko). The secretary of the Tikhoretsk district committee noted that such moods are supported by all workers living in villages and asked to rank their families as category of linear workers for receiving cards [5, page 55].

It is obvious that at introduction of a rationing system the regional authorities did not think over all aspects of new situation, as was the reason of a conflict situation.

But if this error was corrected further, then collective farmers and were left without the guaranteed supply with bread, and similar situation remained throughout all war.

Numerous complaints of workers were caused also by dishonesty of executive bodies during implementation of the state law (Decree SNK USSR of the June 26, 1941) defining an order of appointment and payment of the state allowances to families of the military personnel ". the ordinary and younger commanding structure of RKKA." [6]. Allowances were granted to disabled members of families which with leaving on the front of relatives lost the main source of existence. The regional power published several orders to district committees and city town committees of edge about assistance in employment to members of families of veterans (Direction of regional committee of July 17, 1941) [7] and also

obliged local authorities to survey regularly living conditions of families of Red Army men regarding rendering the necessary help to them (The directive letter of regional committee of the All-Union Communist Party (bolsheviks) of May 8, 1942) [8].

However in practice the executive bodies allowed numerous violations that was revealed by checks of supervisory authorities. For example, cases when grants were not given because lists of families of the military personnel in due time were not transferred to district social security (Tuapsinsky District) [9, l took place. 66], or were given to families of deserters (New Pokrovsk district) [9, l. 73 - 74]. Some heads suited on vacant positions of the wives while members of families of Red Army men were not hired (The Seversk district) [7]. There were also scandalous things when, for example, the manager of district social security of the Ilyinsky Region of Selyukov, having left to the village of Uspenskaya for correction of distortions in notices, got drunk drunk and lost all protocols with notices for what it was discharged from office and is brought to trial [9, l. 56 - 57].

However not always for the heartless bureaucratic attitude towards needs of workers so serious punishment followed. In this sense the answer of the deputy regional prosecutor P.I. Plyushchy to one of secretaries of a district committee is indicative: "... on your request for quantity made in the region responsible by bodies of prosecutor's office this type of crime it is not considered therefore about criminal prosecution of persons for bureaucracy as separate crime we have no data. The style of work of prosecutors has mainly preventive character - i.e. certain heads orally or in writing warn about illegality of their actions" [9, l. 50]. Thus, it is obvious that infringement of the rights of citizens and also the bureaucratic attitude towards their needs were by no means the frequent phenomenon.

Except bureaucracy as defect of the Soviet management system the significant increase in the amount of taxes in the period of the Great Patriotic War was other cause of problem situations.

According to some researchers (A.S. Yakushev-sky), taxes and fees from the population in the government budget of 1943 increased in comparison with pre-war level almost three times (from 11.2 up to 30.7%) that helped to make the budget deficit-free [10]. Except obligatory taxes and payments on four military loans (1942, 1943, 1944 and 1945) among the population also various lottery tickets from which collecting went to fund of warring army "voluntary forcibly" were implemented. In general it made the considerable sum. The heavy tax press noticeably pressed on the budget of each Soviet family. But if people resignedly paid obligatory taxes, understanding need of it, then additional expenditure for acquisition of lottery tickets caused discontent those who were in especially difficult financial position. The secretary of the Spokoynensky district committee of party Sokolov to the secretary of regional committee P.I. Seleznyov provides the curious fact in the report of July 7, 1941: "the worker of a lubzavod of the village Quiet Eudoxia Kulesheva, having received the lottery ticket of Osoaviakhim, tore it, threw

on the earth also trampled legs" [11, l. 15 - 20]. This fact was regarded as anti-Soviet attack as well as the statement of the collective farmer of collective farm "Lenin's Precepts" Waugh-ronenko who said: "... Germany will better live. The Soviet power ripped at us skin off heels to the head" [11, l. 20].

Certainly, there were a few similar cases and not they defined the general spirit of the people directed to the help to army and state during the difficult period of war.

Continuing a conversation about problems of interaction between the population of Kuban and authorities in 1941 - 1943, it is necessary to mention some facts relating to August, 1942 when rapid approach of the German troops took unawares most of the heads of areas who were not advanced at a planned order to carry out evacuation of the population and material values. A situation in areas at their leaving, differing in details, was generally identical: lack of communication with the regional center, unexpectedness of invasion of the opponent, hasty evacuation and holding special actions for destruction of material values the enemy did not get them. The situation was catastrophic and in these extreme conditions the representatives of the regional authorities arrived unequally. In some areas material values of collective farms: grain, a bird, the cattle young growth which is not subject to evacuation some construction materials and other material values - were distributed to collective farmers as payment on account of workdays (The Crimean, Tbilisi districts, etc.), and in some (Yeysk, Ust-Labinsky, Otradnoye, Spokoy-nensky, Udobnensky, etc.) above-mentioned values were given on receipt on preservation with the subsequent return [5].

There is a natural question: how could collective farmers keep this property if subsequently soldiers of enemy army who began to plunder the population entered the area?

Invaders undoubtedly were informed on this situation as orders to hand over "within 24 hours the property of collective farms and other institutions received by inhabitants on storage or appropriated - the cattle, furniture, regimentals and the equipment, etc." were their first orders. Such order of a justice of Yeysk of August 13, 1942 was published and brought to the attention all. Guilty of the shelter of property the death penalty threatened [5, page 463]. It is obvious that in such conditions it was impossible to keep that that was when under the threat there was own life.

However no circumstances were taken into account representatives of the Soviet power who after release of areas demanded to return the property checked by them. The impracticable requirement poured out in a conflict situation which can be considered on the example of foothill Otradnoye district.

On the first ambassador of departure of invaders a meeting of the regional asset which took place on February 14, 1943 (the area was freed on January 21) it became clear that the livestock base of collective farms of the area is strongly undermined - was not enough to 65% of a livestock of the collective-farm cattle which partly

it was distributed to collective farmers on preservation [12, l. 10 - 11]. Here it should be noted that the collective-farm cattle was distributed on hands young growth (calfs, pigs, lambs), and now the requirement of the power was to return the adult cattle. The question of costs of a pro-forage and leaving was not put. The single action of withdrawal of the cattle at collective farmers was carried out in June, 1943. In case collective farmers could not return the collective-farm cattle, took away their own cow, a horse, etc. from them. It was withdrawn as well that cattle which collective farmers got for the means during occupation [13, l. 99].

These actions of the authorities summoned numerous complaints of collective farmers to executive committee of the Otradnoye regional council. Only at one meeting of the district executive committee which took place on June 14, 1943 over 55 applications for return of illegally taken away cattle were considered, however the majority of requests it was refused [13, l. 99 - 100].

At the XIII session of deputies of workers of the Otradnoye district on July 4, 1943 it was noted that "it was during this time collected on farms of cattle of 830 heads, sheep - 4500 heads, pigs - 460, birds - over 4000, pchelosemy - 2100". The manager of the regional procuring organization Soskova recognized that "the question on livestock production at us costs highly... we the richest district of the region on livestock production. we will have to help other areas" [12, l. 11 - 15]. So the regional power solved a problem of shortage of the collective-farm cattle at the expense of the population.

Only an arbitrariness it is possible to call withdrawal of personal property of collective farmers (in this case the cattle) instead of the collective-farm property lost during occupation. However it must be kept in mind that such actions can be to some extent justified by force majeure in which there were authorities after release of the area. Situation developed the hardest: the collective-farm economy is ruined by invaders, the livestock base is undermined, to a spring sowing campaign there is only a month, the help from the center is not expected. Withdrawal of the personal cattle of collective farmers was the only exit, as it was made.

Summing up the result, it is necessary to point that, as a rule, the cause of complications in relationship between the office of the power and the population of Kuban in 1941 - 1943 were the unreasoned or illegal actions of authorities infringing the interests of ordinary citizens. However in certain cases similar actions can be substantially justified forced neob-

a hodimost, extraordinary conditions of the hardest war, so far as it concerned rescue of the state.

In other cases of action (or, on the contrary, inaction) the authorities cannot be justified with anything is in pure form bureaucracy, callousness, inattention to needs of the ordinary people straining all forces in heroic work for the country benefit.

In conclusion it is necessary to tell that, despite all negative consequences for people from any given unreasoned actions of the management, in general society gave unprecedented support to authorities (i.e. to the state) what never was before.

In days of the Great Patriotic War (more than ever for the entire period of the Soviet power) in the conditions of terrible danger that necessary unification of the state and society without which there would be no Great Victory was reached.


1. V.E. Martianov. Bodies of People's Commissariat for Internal Affairs of Krasnodar Krai on the eve of and in days of the Great Patriotic War (1937 - 1945): avtoref. yew.... edging. east. sciences. Krasnodar, 1999. Page 45 - 50.
2. TsDNIKK. T. 1774 A. Op. 2. 5.
3. N.A. Chuguntsova. The Soviet mobilization system in days of the Great Patriotic War. 1941 - 1945//the Great Patriotic War in the context of history of the 20th century: materials Mezhdunar. nauch. - prakt. konf. (Adler, May 27 - 31, 2005). Krasnodar, 2005. Page 329.
4. Directives of the CPSU and the Soviet government on economic questions. M, 1957. Page 705.
5. Kuban in days of the Great Patriotic War. 1941 - 1945. Chronicle of events. Prince 1. 1941 - 1942 Krasnodar, 2000.
6. The decree of Presidium of the Supreme Council of the USSR "About an order of appointment and payment of grants to families of the military personnel of the ordinary and younger commanding structure in wartime" of June 26, 1941//the Hammer. 1941. June 27.
7. TsDNIKK. T. 1774 A. Op. 2. 1. L. 36.
8. In the same place. 288. L. 33.
9. In the same place. 386.
10. Tsit. on: S.I. Linets. The northwest Caucasus on the eve of and during fascist occupation: a state and features of development (July, 1942 - October, 1943). Rostov N / D, 2003. Page 222.
11. TsDNIKK. T. 1774 A. Op. 2. 170.
12. Archive of the Otradnoye district. T. 55. Op. 1. 2.
13. In the same place. 4.

Came to edition On December 23, 2010

John Robert Joshua
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