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The FATAL CHOICE of the RUSSIAN UNIVERSITY SCIENCE (to the 150 anniversary since the birth of V.I. Razumovsky it is devoted)



SUDBONOSNY the CHOICE of the RUSSIAN UNIVERSITY SCIENCE (to the 150th anniversary since the birth of V.I. Razumovsky it is devoted)

Year: 2007, volume 3 Number: No. 1 of the Page: 109111

Heading: Medicine history, anniversaries article Type: Short message Authors: P.V. Glybochko, V.I. Nikolenko, T.V. Kochetkova

Organization: SEI VPO Saratovsky GMU of V.I. Razumovsky Ministry of Health and Social Development of the Russian Federation of the Summary:

A role of the individual in the history — a subject wide and disputable. But sometimes the business charged by the state to one person turns later time for the good of millions. It is accepted to speak about these people with great respect. Any facts of their biography are invaluable, and it would be desirable that they were transferred from generation to generation. The first rector of the Saratov university, the Kazan surgeon Vasily Ivanovich Razumovsky was one of such people.

About many-sided activity of V.I. Razumovsky of IOJ. but to argue long enough. He is a founder of big surgical school in Russia, he is the first rector and the builder of the Saratov university, the first rector of the Tiflissky and Baku universities. He is a large public figure, the organizer of health care, the talented teacher, the strict teacher not only in science, but also in life. V.I. Razumovsky was widely educated doctor working in various fields of surgery: belly surgery, surgery of the head, face, neck, bodies of a thorax and extremities. Also he showed interest in questions of anatomy, balneology, medical physical education, medicine history.

V.I. Razumovsky was born on March 27 (on April 9), 1857 in the village of Efimovka of the Buzuluk County of the Samara province in family of the priest. The father trained it in the initial diploma and also the Greek and Latin languages. He studied in the Samara spiritual school and the Samara theological seminary. The early thirst for reading, knowledge of secular and spiritual literature, diligence, persistence in achievement of the goal brought the first serious success to V.I. Razumovsky in the spring of 1875 when it with a gold medal ended the Samara gymnasium. His first biographer, professor P.I. Tikhov, so wrote about this period: "The deaf province which then was Samara, endured in days of Vasily Ivanovich's doctrine still an era of the sixtieth years which, thus, had strong impact on development of future surgeon; according to Vasily Ivanovich, N.A. Dobrolyubov, D.I. Pisarev, N.G. Chernyshevsky were his favourite writers then". Well-known gertsenovsky "Bell" had strong impact on formation of souls and the ideas of youth, talented work of I.M. Sechenov "Brain reflexes" was published, a transfer into Russian of the well-known work of Ch. Darwin "Origin of species" is made. For the young looking for minds of Russia the way was paved for reflections and fulfillments.

V.I. Razumovsky's desire to arrive on medical faculty of the Kazan university was final.

Those years the Kazan university was one of the best educational institutions of Russia in which the group of talented democratically spirited scientists taught. "At the Kazan university Vasily Ivanovich deeply worked a course of medical sciences and was marked out by the fellow students

and and ■ and ^ and and

as the serious and diligent student, and professionals — as young, capable, promising. He chose surgery the specialty" — other his biographer of the joint venture writes about him. Shilovtsev. Based on the advanced achievements of scientists of that time, the surgery becomes one of the main branches of medicine. V.I. Razumovsky's formation was influenced by works ingenious

N.I. Pirogova, jewelry operations of N.V. Sklifosovsky. After the termination of the university V.I. Razumovsky receives an internship in the hospital surgical clinic headed by professor L.L. Levshin. In one of the Kazan hospitals of V.I.

Razumovsky studies carrying out courageous operations at professor N.I. Studensky. For years of training in an internship V.I. Razumovsky gave a number of interesting scientific reports in the Kazan society of doctors.

In three years of an ordinatorsky experience V.I. Razumovsky is elected the scholar for preparation of the doctoral dissertation on which he works hard in laboratories and clinics of Army medical college of SanktPeterburg at professor N.P. Ivanovsky. In 1884 in 27 years

he successfully defends the doctoral dissertation on "To a Question of Atrophic Processes in Bones after Recutting of Nerves". The author the first in the fatherland suggested about trophic influence of nervous system, the gained development in L.A. Orbeli's works, A.G. Molotkova and many others.

In 1885 V.I. Razumovsky comes back to Kazan. Its professional ascension was prompt: in 29 years — a privatdotsent rank, in 30 years — extraordinary professor of department of operational surgery of the Kazan university with simultaneous management of surgical office. Having passed a way from the anatomist to the manager of surgical department,

V.I. Razumovsky one of the first in Russia systematically was engaged in development of problems of practical neurosurgery. Extremely fruitfully its surgical activity in clinic of nervous diseases of professor L.O. Darkshevich, brilliant diagnostician and propagandist of introduction of surgical methods of treatment developed in neurologic practice. In 1893 V.I.

Razumovsky the first in Russia executed Gorsley's operation (extirpation of sites of bark of a brain) for dzheksonovsky and kozhevnikovsky epilepsy. In 1902 he reported the remote results of treatment of 9 patients. "To a question of surgical treatment of cortical epilepsy (traumatic and not traumatic)" professor V.I. Razumovsky wrote in work: "When we with professor L.O. Darkshevich in the first half

the 90th years of last century began to make this operation, wishing to make material on this new question, neither the equipment, nor indications to operation was still developed. The question of existence of the epileptogenny centers was called in question".

V.I. Razumovsky by right can be called the pioneer of neurosurgery in our country. Already in 1895, systematically operating on a brain, he improved a technique of kostnoplastichesky trepanation and for performance offered it the special zhelobovaty chisels which significantly facilitated technology of access. For the first time in Russia it executed an extirpation of a gasserov of node (1903) at neuralgia of a trigeminal nerve. It in 1908 at the VIII congress of the Russian surgeons made the message about successful crossing of a sensitive portion of a back of the trigeminal nerve (the operation Frezhera, 1904) called "a physiological extirpation".

V.I. Razumovsky the first of the Russian surgeons introduced this method in clinic and in the neurosurgical practice more than once to it came back. For the first time in Russia (1909) it executed alcoholization of a gasserov of knot (for the purpose of a profilatika of trophic violations in a cornea) at the patient with neuralgia of a trigeminal nerve on side of one seeing eye.

In 1904 at the IV congress of the Russian surgeons V.I. Razumovsky made the program report "About the remote results of operations on nerves at neuralgia". The author for the first time shared the experience uses of alcohol in the form of its perinevralny introduction or appliques at surgical treatment of neuralgia and kauzalgiya in this message. This message is made by it for three years earlier, than the famous French neurologist Sikar (1907) to whom the offer priority is attributed. The Kazan experience in the field of neurosurgery was covered by V.I. Razumovsky in the monograph "The Latest Data on Cherepnomozgovy Surgery" which made special X release of the multivolume management of "The Russian surgery" (St. Petersburg, 1913). In essence, it is one of the first Russian monographs devoted to system statement of problems of neurosurgery of a brain.

V.I. Razumovsky gained deserved authority of colleagues and students of the university. Examples of that set. In 1903 it was chosen a ktitor of Varsonofiyevsky church, having replaced in this field of the first ktitor, extraordinary professor of B.C. Gruzdeva. Let's remind that originally in Old Russian church history a ktitor was called the person who built the temple on the means, and later so began to call churchwardens whose duty entered fund raising for church and care of its improvement. The Varsonofiyevsky church at clinics of the Kazan university was a component of all complex of buildings of new clinics and was under construction along with them. It was constructed on the means offered the famous manufacturer I.I. Alafuzov. In 1905 V.I. Razumovsky became the first elective dean of medical faculty of the Kazan university. Thanks to V.I. Razumovsky's persistence on medical faculty of the Kazan university the first women were accepted. It combined various meetings of Council, Board, the different commissions with professorial duties, clinical and scientific work.

V.I. Razumovsky repeatedly went abroad, was fluent in German, talked in French and English. In the summer of 1908 V.I. Razumovsky visits the leading surgical clinics of Germany and Austria. On the way back he visited Moscow and St. Petersburg. In

this trip the minister of national education A.N. Schwartz suggested V.I. Razumovsky to undertake duties of the rector of the Saratov university. Members of the State Duma of a professoramedika M.Ya. Kapustin and M.M. Alekseenko recommended V.I. Razumovsky for so high post. About this event memoirs of the younger daughter of V.I. Razumovsky Sofya Vasilyevna remained: "In 1909 my father received the offer from the Ministry of Public Education to undertake the organization of the new Russian university in Saratov. Being a hot advocate of the higher education, always feeling a lack of the centers of culture of Russia, it accepted the offer. His candidate was prompted in the ministry by a number of eminent territorial persons".

The Kazan period of activity of V.I. Razumovsky ended. He worked in this city of 28 years. The new pages of the biography of V.I. Razumovsky rich in bright and difficult events were connected with Saratov to which he devoted 20 years of vigorous activity. On July 26, 1909 I. Razumovsky was officially reappointed by the rector of the organized Imperial Saratov university.

For us, professors of the Saratov state medical university who are in the run-up to the 100th summer anniversary of higher education institution becomes obvious that the choice of the candidate for the first rector was not accidental.

V.I. Razumovsky used broad popularity not only as the surgeon with big scientific authority, but also as the person of courageous, independent judgments. He had a gift of the gab, was able to convince and carry away intelligibly. His lectures and numerous public statements were kept to listeners in mind. In consonance to its work were words pronounced by it in 1906 on the occasion of death of the rector of the Kazan university N.M. Lyubimov: "Over Russia the dawn of new life was already engaged... For this life honest, self-sacrificing intelligent workers are necessary — and not just "ideological" people, and with strong labor temper, with thorough knowledge. You all life constantly worked, served science, the truth, spread knowledge. You in word and deed commanded to your pupils respect for work, love for knowledge and that can be even more important, love for the neighbor. This you prepared figures for new Russia and honestly fulfilled the duty to the people which of environment you left... Your pupils will go there where you called them where you led them... They will go to sufferers and the disadvantaged whom you so loved — and there they will continue a great cause to which you selflessly served all life".

The world of medicine sacredly stores eternal values and honors the heroes. "Because of medicine ideal aspirations are easier carried out, personal happiness here often merges with happiness of the neighbor, and in it and consists... the prime target of life" — V.I. Razumovsky wrote. Having studied even short biographic data of V.I. Razumovsky, it is difficult to believe that possibilities of one person allowed to bear on the shoulders such incredible loading, messages such intense, sated with people and events life!

LITERATURE

1. Aminev A.M. 125 years since the birth of Vasily Ivanovich Razumovsky//Vestie of surgery. — 1983.

— No. 5. — Page 137139.

1 2. Unbeaten roads//Sb. essays about the largest scientists-doctors working in Saratov].

— Saratov: Privolzh. izdvo, 1981. — Page 524.

3. Unknown Gruzdev (archival documents tell) / Sost. Yu.I. Borodin, Krasilnikov

S.N. — Kazan: KGMU, 2000. — Page 23.

4. V.N. Semyonov. Rectors of the Saratov university: facts of life and activity. Saratov: Izdvo Sarat. unt, 1999. — Page 1533.
5. V.A. Solomonov. Imperial Nikolaev Saratov University: the history of opening and formation (19091917) / Under the general editorship of. I.V. Gunpowder. — Saratov: Izdvo "Compatriot", 1999.
6. The speech of professor V.I. Razumovsky told at the university over a coffin of the late rector N.M. Lyubimov. Kazan, 1906. — Page 12.
7. Yurikhin A.P. Vasily Ivanovich Professor Razumovsky (To the 130th anniversary since birth)//Surgery. — 1987. No. 10. — Page 148150.
8. H.M. Shulman, V.I. Ismagilov, V.I. Danilov, A.V. Gorozhanin, L.A. Chekalin Kazan in formation of domestic neurosurgery//Neurologic vestn. 1995T.XXVII/of the Issue 34. Page 5963.
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