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Life and N.G. Vysochansky's activity on the Bryansk earth



ISTORIYA

UDC 623.5

LIFE AND N.G. VYSOCHANSKY'S ACTIVITY ON the BRYANSK EARTH

V.A. Bobkov

Life and activity of the talented military engineer, colleague Semyon Nikolaevich Wang-kova, the general Nikolay Grigoryevich Vysochansky on the Bryansk earth is reconstructed. Questions of work of N.G. Vysochansky on a problem of shortage of shells for army of Russia are brought up. The course of life of family of N.G. Vysochansky in the territory of the Bryansk region is shown.

In 1899-1903. The Bryansk arsenal was converted for new dresses on production of various objects of artillery accessory [1, l. 1-1ob.]. Old mechanisms were replaced with mechanisms of a new design, installed turbogenerators, expanded a smithy with installation of steam hammers, mechanical shops electrified carried out other necessary works [2, page 167]. These years, difficult for the enterprise, the talented person Nikolay Grigoryevich Vysochansky cast in the lot with the Bryansk arsenal.

N.G. Vysochansky (1874 - on October 21, 1929) was born in the village. Swept away the Cherkassk County of the Kiev province in poor noble family. On a noble grant it comes to the Kiev military school, later comes to Mikhaylovsky artillery school in St. Petersburg. Then serves in the third leyb-guard to the artillery crew deployed in Warsaw. At the first opportunity takes examination in Mikhaylovsky artillery academy, and after its termination as the military process engineer arrives on the Bryansk arsenal. According to the documents N.G. Vysochansky served in the Bryansk arsenal since August 20, 1900 [3, l.1].

Work on the Bryansk arsenal was difficult. In this regard the example of sincere service to business of development of domestic military industry from Nikolay Grigoryevich is indicative. N.G. Vysochansky refused the offer of directorate of the joint-stock company of the Bryansk plants to pass with the technologist to the engine-building Bezhetsk plant near Bryansk, as motive of an act acquaintance "with life of working barracks" and straight talk with "Georgy Mikhaylovich Paustovsky working at the plant as the statistician" served [4, page 19].

In 1914 the I World war began. At this time an arsenal Semyon Nikolaevich ordered Bankov [5, page 60]. Under its management in Bryansk there was also those years guards a colonel Nikolay Grigoryevich Vysochansky [6, l.140]. These two persons with assistance of colleagues had to solve a problem of supply of the Russian army with shells during the period, so-called, "projectile hunger".

Level of scientific training of N.G. Vysochansky, was high, in particular he was the author of numerous articles about properties of different metals. N.G. Vysochansky translated articles into French and published in the Parisian magazine "Revyu De Metallurzhi".

In Russia its articles were printed, but much less than in France [7, page 12]. In particular in 1914 N.G. Vysochansky publishes the note concerning D.K. Chernov's article about burning out of channels in steel tools placed in the Artillery magazine. In article it is noted that when transferring the phenomena happening in channels of tools (crack) on stamps when stamping steel similar processes proceed there, their research as a result becomes simpler. In article it was indicated on the need of introduction to business of studying channels of tools of the microscopic analysis which will promote more rational and deep illumination of a question. A research of this question on stamps

can lead to a right choice of materials for stamps that can be the first step to the appropriate solution of a question of selection of material for channels of tools. Experiments with stamps easily and conveniently carried out and not much costing, in any case, have to facilitate and accelerate the solution of a question of a razgoraniye of channels in steel tools [8, page 581].

D.K. Chernov wrote that "in the Russian literature this question is not developed, I addressed search about it in foreign literature. It turned out that the serious work, only till that time, on this question was performed by the chief of the Vulichesky Arsenal of that time, the colonel Metland, together with the chemist sir Ebel. It was reported in 1886 in a meeting of the English institute [9, page 841]. By recognition of authors of work, neither the chemical composition, nor mechanical qualities give certain instructions on firmness of steel against burning out.

In 1898 in England new work therefore to a subject, belonging to Robert-Osten was performed, the report on the done work is read in Stockholm on a meeting of institute of iron and steel. In it the attention focused on the thermochemical, technical, mechanical and structural phenomena, at all was not given to the fiziko-geometrical phenomena playing the major role in the matter [9, page 842]. Therefore, the engineer - the technician of the Bryansk arsenal N.G. Vysochansky, investigating the questions which are brought up by D.K. Chernov touched upon the subject which is not developed not only in Russia, but also in other countries. It is not casual that N.G. Vysochansky made a key contribution to the solution of a question with the projectile hunger which arose in Russia from the beginning of the I World war.

The commander of the Bryansk arsenal S.N. Bankov showed an initiative in an issue of production of shells. In 1915 to Petrograd there come the French for technical assistance on production of tselnokorpusny grenades. "Instead of hotel allocated them rooms in the Grenadierial barracks, most remote from the center, and the chief of head department grand duke Sergey Mikhaylovich flatly refused to them reception" [10, page 545]. The French were transferred to the major general S.N. Vankov under the leadership of whom at GAU the special organization for production of shells was created.

S.N. Vankov's organization originally united up to 200 enterprises, by the end of their 1916 became 300 [11, page 304]. The plants made 1 areas: Moscow, Odessa, Kiev, Southern, Tambov, Petrograd and Yaroslavl. The plants were divided into groups: the 1st and 2nd groups made glasses for grenades 16 - mm, etc. tools, the 3rd manufactured detonators, the 4th - detonator tubes, the 5th made equipment of glasses [12, page 34].

At an initial stage of attempt to arrange production of shells on "the French image" fail. It did not stop S.N. Vankov, he charges to N.G. Vyso-chansky "experimental release of shells in the Bryansk arsenal" [4, page 15]. As a result of implementation of a little changed "French technology" success was reached. As a result N.G. Vysochansky was appointed the assistant (deputy) for a technical part of authorized GAU on production of shells on the French image.

Due to the departure from Bryansk of S.N. Vankov and N.G. Vysochansky by the acting as the chief of the Bryansk arsenal appoint A.N. Lukashov.

In May, 1911 after the death of the acting chief of an arsenal of the general A.N. Lukashov of N.G. Vysochansky appoint the assistant to the chief of the Bryansk arsenal. At the same time with a temporary state it as the chief of an arsenal. N.G. Vysochansky was also the assistant to the inspector on heavy shells, at the same time controlled the Bryansk and Lyudinovsky plants [1, t. 220. Op. 1. 323. L. 26].

Caring for business of defense of the state, in August, 1911 N.G. Vysochansky brought up the question "about continuation of the postroyekt on development of an arsenal" [1, t. 221. Op. 2. 381. L. 42]. Owing to the objective reasons, it was not succeeded to implement plans, in September, 1911 there was a problem of evacuation of an arsenal [1, l. 54].

N.G. Vysochansky headed an arsenal in the time of troubles of 1917 - 1918. During the October events Nikolay Grigoryevich was in Petrograd at a congress of workers and administration of the artillery plants.

Sergey Nikolaevich Vysochansky wrote on this matter: "according to the father (N.G. Vyso-chansky - V.B.)... between Bolsheviks and representatives of administration (and all of them in the most recent past were royal generals and colonels) there were no external acute contradictions" [4, page 20]. Sergey Nikolaevich explains it with the fact that "Bolsheviks already proceeded from strong confidence in a fast victory of socialist revolution, and, therefore, had to look at military industry by eyes otvetstven - the owner's leg", and "at all these generals and colonels since childhood the strongest patriotic installation was brought up: Russia has to exist as the independent state. Nothing could change this ideological basis". On the other hand and workers understood that not to do them without experienced engineers and persons of administration. So, the question of creation of courses of training of persons for management of the plants, factories, etc. rises in Bryansk only in 1919. In particular, it was entrusted to the worker of the Mechanical artillery plant "to companion Kurshanov on arrival to Moscow will address to VSNKh and the central union of metalworkers, to strive on opening of courses" [13, l.4].

The I World war continued, in October, 1917 the commission on evacuation of the Bryansk arsenal specified that evacuation is all the year round possible only by the Moskovsko-Kiyevo-Voronezhskoy railroad on the only constant wooden bridge: undependable on the decay. The low-power rope crossing on the floating bridge connected with the station of the Rigo-Orlovsky railroad. In the designated directions the evacuation lasted for half a year, and the commission recommended "to throw the temporary pile railway bridge through the Desna River around an arsenal" [1, op. 2. 381. L. 58]. Evacuation in this case could be carried out to three-four weeks.

Upon return from Petrograd N.G. Vysochansky was accepted by the working organizations of an arsenal and the city Bryansk organizations quietly, without excesses and misunderstanding. Its position at a congress: "Not to come off workers for preservation of the Russian military industry" - allowed to incline to the point of view and other administrators, especially the lieutenant general Vadim Sergeyevich Mikhaylov [4, page 20]. B.C. Of Sovet GAU as chairman of bureau of the Union of Chiefs of the artillery plants and talented process engineer elected Mikhaylov the chief of GAU (Held this position till December 21, 1918).

Acceptance under the influence of N.G. Vysochansky and B.C was significant achievement of a congress of workers and administrations of the artillery plants. Mikhaylov of the address of military engineers with an appeal to work together with the working organizations, to keep the Russian industry. In the conditions of war of the address got special weight, it allowed not to stop in view of disorganization of work of administrations of the enterprises of delivery to the front. The Bryansk arsenal in 1917 even increased the performance in comparison with other military years on separate indicators almost twice. If in 1916 objects of accessory and spare parts made 571,160 pieces, then in 1917-1,087,815, etc.; but on other indicators performance fell [2, page 91].

Publicizing of activity of any person will be not full if to affect only professional activity. At all the employment, especially during war, Nikolay Grigoryevich did not forget also about family, relatives and friends whom he very warmly treated and with which spent each free minute. Interesting N.G. Vysochansky's life and out of a profession was highly rich.

N.G. Vysochansky arrived to Bryansk not one, and with the young charming spouse Maria Ivanovna. Maria Ivanovna was an educated person, she ended the High female courses and two years taught at national school. From the moment of marriage it is impossible to talk only about Nikolay Grigoryevich's life since it became an indissoluble component with Maria Ivanovna's fate. More appropriate, in our opinion, to speak about family

Their Vysochansky general relatives and friends, joint interests. Especially as soon to young spouses Maria Ivanovna's parents - the father Ivan Ivanovich Tennov and mother Maria Karlovna Tennova also moved to Bryansk. With parents there arrived also elder sister of Maria Ivanovna - Anna Ivanovna. Upon termination of medico-surgical academy Maria Ivanovna's brother - Pavel Ivanovich also located in St. Petersburg in Bryansk, it served in military hospital [14, page 10].

Young Vysochansky' impressions at the first acquaintance to Bryansk were excessively adverse. Sergey Vysochansky writes in the memoirs, is indicative characterizing Bryansk of that time: "small, wooden, very dusty, badly paved, without prospects. Stone buildings are generally barracks and the Arsenal, several two-storeyed houses of the Bryansk millionaires, merchant warehouses

>- were deprived of any architectural advantages" [4, page 19].

at the same time as Vladimir Tennov reports in the memoirs, telling

about N.G. Vysochansky's fate: "The service at choice was offered the graduate of academy

>- in the Kiev or Bryansk arsenal. It chose Bryansk" [15, page 36]. It would be difficult most likely not for rich graduate of academy N.G. Vysochansky to provide family in large and required considerable expenses the Kiev therefore the choice and fell to small, modest Bryansk.

The young family of Vysochansky lacked money periodically even for life in Bryansk. Nikolay Grigoryevich's salary was small. A third absorbed it apartment cost. That though to improve a little the budget of family, Nikolay Grigoryevich during 1908 - 1911 gives mathematics lessons in a gymnasium, and Maria Ivanovna teaches in "kindergarten and the elementary school" organized by her sister Anna [4, page 19].

The spiritual circle of contacts of family of Vysochansky was not big. Families of Vysochansky and Tennov in Bryansk united kind of to "The big family house". The phenomenon this which is nowadays almost forgotten was characteristic of the Russian life of those years. In essence it was the commonwealth not only members of two families, but also Nikolay Grigoryevich's colleagues, and in turn - their family and acquaintances [14, page 10].

From Sergey Vysochansky's memoirs it becomes clear that residents of Bryansk did not please parents, among them merchants, dealers, inhabitants prevailed, it is unknown as existing. The intelligent public is not enough: about ten doctors, ten two teachers of gymnasiums, the forest warden, the architect, two notaries, army officers of the deployed 143rd Dorogobuzhsky and the 144th Kashirsky of regiments, priests, bank employees, excise officers. Most of them could be referred to the intellectuals very conditionally. Some are obsessed with elementary money-making, others drank bitter, devoted leisure to cards [4, page 19].

Owing to this fact becomes clear that Vysochansky' family kept separately, led almost solitary life. There were many nodding acquaintances, but the circle of close acquaintances was extremely narrow: two-three families of the officers of the Arsenal (who also graduated from Mikhaylovsky academy), several medical officers from the St. Petersburg medical academy, several teachers with university education.

Vysochanskiye seldom happened in officer, and in a public meeting. Possibly for a number of reasons is a congestion work and some caste - unwillingness to meet not palatable people of absolutely other direction and warehouse. Was not at Vysochansky and communications and acquaintances to merchants tops. As Sergey Vysochansky writes: "It is possible that someone, especially from the circle of garrison officers, explained it with "Guards arrogance"" [4, page 19].

Their house in Bryansk becomes the center of communication of relatives and friends of the family Vysochansky. Vysochansky' house was on the Pokrovsk mountain. It towered over the city. In front of the house a garden was laid out. From here the Top pike perch, Moskovskaya Street with the market square leaving afar houses over the river were perfectly visible. The house was on -

it is harmonious for the arsenalny administration therefore inhabitants called it "the general house" [15, page 36].

"The general house" was surely filled with guests on big holidays as Christmas and Easter. The house quite could accomodate all guests, it consisted of large and light rooms: living room, dining room, Nikolay Grigoryevich's office, bedroom.

Vladimir Tennov's memoirs very brightly transfer the good-natured, warm situation reigning in the house at Vysochansky: "Each visit "Of the general house" was for me a holiday. The aunt Manya surely treated with something tasty. Then we, children, played in a shady garden. In the living room, dances quite often were arranged" [15, page 37].

In the summer life of members of household and their friends was moved to the dacha to the village of Ryovnakh. During a classicism era the monument of landscape gardening art appears here. At the beginning of XIXb. probably by Ivan Strakhov's forces - the hero of Patriotic war of 1812 - in the village of Ryovny the local house is under construction of two floors with the mezzanine. Before a park facade of the farmstead house the flower bed behind which the regular French park with direct avenues, paths and sculptures was located was broken according to geometrically correct scheme [16, page 370].

By the end of XIXb. the village of Ryovny falls into decay, the farmstead park had a similar destiny also. The estate passes from hand to hand, at the end of XIX - the beginning of XXb. it Fromelda's Germans, then Rommera owned at first. And in 1907 it was bought by the landowner Lyubarsky.

The enterprising German Charlotte Fromeld began to use the local house, getting profit on delivery it for rent. In the shady lime park some more dachas, one of which was removed by Nikolay Grigoryevich Vysochansky, were built.

To get to the village of Ryovny, it was necessary to reach to the Sinezerki station. Then on the dirt road on rural a supply or crew to reach the village of Ryovna [15, page 38].

The park was the impressive sizes its area about 10 hectares. In planning of the park regular and landscape parts are combined. A composite axis is wide (about 12 m) the direct avenue conducting from the street sat down on the North, to the Nightingale ravine. Here it is divided into two freely planned paths following to the river where in 1900 - x were swimming baths. This avenue connected the farmstead house with the river and was crossed by the perpendicular cross avenue coming in the western part of the park to the lower dam. The regular nature of planning of the central part was complemented geometrically correct with flower orchestra seats before the main facade of the house and a lilac garden before a park facade.

On both sides of the central avenue and north of cross, landscape sites of the park were located. Here the natural wood is complemented with landings of landscape groups and separate trees. The green massif of the park consists of local breeds of trees and a bush. Glavnaya Avenue is created by lindens. In a landscape part a pine (groups and alone), the linden, a maple ostrolisty, in an underbrush - a rowan red, a hazel grove meet [16, page 371].

Today planning of the farmstead park was reconstructed by V. Gorodko-vy. According to reconstruction were a part of the park: Bolshaya Avenue, "Avenue of love", "Avenue of sighs", Nightingale ravine, Island, Staritsa of Revna, Ozerko, Old sculpture, "Diana's Temple", Places of country buildings, Croquet platform, House estate, Lilac gazebo, Berry-picker and garden.

At the end of the 20th century. The farmstead park [17, page 113-120] was in the village of Ryovny in utter desertion. Since 2006 the situation begins gradually will change. Students of department of history (now faculty of history and the international relations) the Bryansk state university of a name of the academician I.G. Petrovsky under the leadership of professor, the doctor of historical sciences of A.M. Dubrovsky practically

annually (in 2009 and with the assistance of the author of the present publication of the associate professor, the candidate of historical sciences V.A. Bobkov) within carrying out ethnological practice and just on a voluntary basis successfully are engaged in restoration of a unique monument of landscape gardening art in the village of Ryovny.

N.G. Vysochansky was an uncle of the famous Russian writer Konstantin Georgiyevich Paustovsky. K. Paustovsky mentioned the park in the village of Revny in the memoirs [18, page 73-79]. Moreover, Nikolay Grigoryevich was of particular importance in Konstantin Paustovsky's life. As Vadim Paustovsky writes: "Over time he replaced to him the father". And of course, on country giving the uncle in the village of Ryovnakh also the grammar-school boy Kostya Paustovsky, the full participant not only intellectual life of "The big family house", but also charitable and other undertakings stayed [19, page 10].

Ryovna were the remote, lonely vacation spot, but also here guests visited Vysochan-skim. Here is how Sergey Vysochansky describes one of such visits: "One of pictures of summer of 1904. In the evening when the brother and I already slept, there arrived to us guests from Kursk, the father's sister Elena (Gelyunya).... Together with the aunt to Gel-it there arrived also elder sister of dad - the aunt Marusya (Paustovskaya). She with the sons - my cousins - Borya, Dima, the Cat lives in the country on other side of the big avenue, few steps away from us.

With us, i.e. with dad, mom, me and Dima, constantly there lives the grandmother Maria Karlovna. I remember that she "spills" evening tea, often plays solitaire... plays cards with our rare guests" [4, page 18].

The silent and pacified country life of Vysochansky was closely with events in the country and for obvious reasons was interrupted. At the end of August, 1919 when Denikin threatened both Oryol, and Bryansk, Nikolay Grigoryevich urgently transported all family to Moscow [4, page 22].

During the Soviet period N.G. Vysochansky was a board member oruzheyno - arsenalny trust of the Head military-industrial department and its activity was not connected with the Bryansk earth any more.

In a consequence the fate of the talented person was tragic, as well as many other wonderful people on a charge of communications with foreign agents of N.G. Vysochansko-go were arrested on March 26, 1929, and already on October 21, 1929 he was shot. On January 16, 1989

N.G. Vysochansky was rehabilitated.

In clause the life and activity of the visible military ingineer, colleagua Semena Nicolaevicha Vankova, general Nico-laya Grigorevicha Vysochanskogo on the Bryansk ground is reconstructed. Questions of the work of N.G.Vysochanskogo above a problem of release of shells for army of Russia are consecrated. The life and way of life of the Bryansk edge.

The key words: artillery arsenal, First World War, military industry, working class.

List of references

I. State donative archive of the Bryansk region (further GABO). T. 221. Op.

I. 2958.

2. E.Z. Barsukov. Artillery of the Russian army (1900-1917). T.2 Part 3 Artillery supply. M of 1949.
3. Archive of the Military historical museum of artillery and troops of communication. T. 6. Op. 73/8 D.
132.
4. S. Vysochansky. Our family, its past//World of Paustovsky. No. 15-16. 2000.
5. Chernyak A.Ya. Simeon Bankov. Military publishing house. Sofia. 1989.
6. State archive of the Oryol region. T. 883. Op. 1. 791.
7. Paustovsky K. Dyadya Kolja and aunt Marusya//Paustovsky's World. No. 15-16. 2000.
8. N.G. Vysochansky Zametka concerning D.K. Chernov's article.//Artillery magazine. No. 5. 1914.
9. D.K. Chernov. About burning out of channels of steel tools (Reported in a meeting of the Russian metallurgical society on May 10, 1912)//the Artillery magazine. No. 7. 1912.
10. Ignatyev A.A. Fifty years in a system. Semfiropol.1953.
11. A.G. Golikov A.A. Brusilov and military and diplomatic ensuring approach of the Russian army in 1916 and 1917 "the world can be we will beat the German yet". In prince - Russia, world situation and military potential in the middle the XIX beginning of the 20th century. Essays. - M of 2003.
12. The history of the organization of the representative of the Head artillery department of the general S.N. Vankov for production of shells on the French image. 1915-1918 M. 1918.
13. Center of the Contemporary history of the Bryansk region. GABO. T. 1695. Op. 1. 1.
14. V. Paustovsky. History of families of Vysochansky, Gulya and Tennov//Paustovsky's World. No. 15-16. 2000.
15. V. Tennov. Pages of the past//Paustovsky's World. No. 15-16. 2000.
16. Arch of monuments of architecture and monumental art of Russia: Bryansk region. M.: Science, 1998.
17. V.N. Gorodkov. On ancient avenues. Tula. 1983.
18. K. Paustovsky of SOBR. Soch.: In the 8th TM, 1968. T.4.
19. V. Paustovsky. History of families of Vysochansky, Gulya and Tennov//Paustovsky's World. No. 15-16. 2000.

About the author

V.A. Bobkov - an edging., dots. Bryansk state university of the academician. I.G. Petrovsky, vladimir.bobkoff-2009@yandex.ru.

UDC 971

FORMATION of the RELATIONS of RUSSIA AND EUROPEAN UNION

S.I. Vodorezov

In article the development of the relations ме^ду by the European Union and Russia at an early stage is stated (before ratification of the Partnership and Cooperation Agreement). Continuity of the right regulation of the economic relations between the European Communities (European Union) and the USSR (Russian Federation) is shown. Influence of the European Union on the Russian economic and political sphere is considered. Participation of the European Union in consultation of Russian government on carrying out political and economic reforms and also technical assistance is established. The period of negotiations of the commissions on creation of the Agreement is considered and also problems which arose in the course of negotiations are described. The short analysis is given to the Partnership and Cooperation Agreement. The main spheres of creation of cooperation ме^ду are allocated with the EU and Russia.

Cooperation between Russia and the EU gained many-sided character and took the important place in the policy of these parties. In this article the short consideration of the first steps to cooperation and also legal registration of the political and economic parties of the relations is offered.

Relationship between the European Union and Russia, is represented very interesting and at the same time contradictory. They were not stable, and their change was subject to influence of various factors (such as public opinion, change of foreign policy interests, etc.)

Brent Mark Christopher
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