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Distribution of education among Komi-Zyrians of the North of the Tobolsk province (the end of XIX - the beginning of the 20th century)



rasprostraneny educations among Komi-Zyrians of the North of the Tobolsk province (the end of XIX — the beginning of the 20th century) 1

N.A. Povod

The article is devoted to school education among the Komi-Zyryany people from Beryozovo District of Tobolsk Province in the late XIXth — early XXth cc. Basing on a wide range of different sources, author considers development of a number of educational institutions in the settlements inhabited by the Komi people. The paper determines number of students, as well as composition of the teaching staff, including Komi teachers. Development of literacy contributed to dissemination of bilingual ability among the Komi people, thus increasing chances for their social flexibility.

Formation of settlement group of Komi-Zyrians in Berezovsky the district of the Tobolsk province is noted from 1840th. Representatives of the Izhma group of the Komi (so-called izhemets) who lived in the Arkhangelsk province in the settlements located in the basin of the Izhma Rivers and Pechora moved generally. Total number of the Komi of the population in Berezovsky edge by the end of the 19th century, according to a census of 1897, was 2023 persons. More than 80% from them lived in several settlements — Beryozovo, villages Men, Obdorsk, Shchekurya, the settlement of Saranpaul. At the end of XIX — the beginning of the 20th century settled residence of Komi-Zyrians in the basin of North Sosva, in the mouth of the rivers Nadym and Nyda is noted. Besides, Komi reindeer breeders of whom the semi-nomadic way of life was characteristic lived in plagues within Kunovatsky, Obdorsky, Lyapinsky, Sosvinsky, Podgorodny volosts [Patkanov, 1911. Page 2-3, 26-27, 32-40].

In economy of Komi-Zyrians in Berezovsky edge reindeer breeding and fishery was of great importance, these industries had commodity character. An important role was also played by trade. Komi took active part in fair trade in Beryozovo, Obdorsk, Men, took out goods to the Arkhangelsk province, often were resellers between indigenous people and the Tobolsk merchants. The social activity of Komi-Zyrians promoted establishment of contacts and communications with various groups of the population. Knowledge of language was one of conditions of successful communication, achievement of mutual understanding with representatives of other people. Studying processes of interaction of the Komi-izhemtsev with other people shows that for them development of bilingualism [Kotov, was 1989 the characteristic phenomenon. Page 44].

Many Komi-Zyrians of Berezovsky of edge knew Russian. Knowledge of Russian was followed at them by development of literacy, especially among living settled in large settlements, i.e. in zones of the most intensive contacts with the Russian population. So-called "home schooling" as a result of which they studied Russian and seized skills of reading and the letter practiced in Berezovsky the district among Zyrians. As a certain indicator of distribution of the diploma at the Komi of the population the identification of number of signatures can serve in various documents. So, data of marriage searches of Mikhailo-Arkhangelsky church demonstrate that in 1881-1888 in the village. Men among Komi-Zyrians could append the signature more than 60 men [GUTOGAT. T. 156. Op. 24. 9. L. 13ob., 20-20ob., 23ob., 27ob., 29ob., 35ob., 36ob., 37ob., 54ob., 59ob., 65ob., 68ob., 69, 76ob., 78ob., 119ob., 144ob., 148, 149, 151, 153, 162]. In 1888, for example, according to ispovedny paintings, 155 men of the Komi lived there 16 years, therefore, more than one third of adult male population of page are more senior. Men owned the diploma [In the same place. T. 700. Op. 1. 10. L. 82-90ob.].

Formation of a system of school education in Berezovsky edge and emergence at the end of the 19th century of a number of schools including in those settlements which were the centers of compact resettlement of Komi-Zyrians was very important factor of distribution of literacy. During the studying history of development of schools, illumination of teacher's structure and level of training of teachers, determination of dynamics of total number of pupils, identification of opportunities of self-education and increase in the social status of the competent population, materials of the Tobolsk spiritual consistory of the Tobolsk order of public contempt, Muzhevska Mi-hailo-Arkhangelsk churches, Obdorsky parish school, etc. are of great importance [GUTOGAT. T. 156, 335, 700, 702].

As a rule, data on the number of pupils at schools were not differentiated on ethnic sign though sometimes there were instructions on the number of pupils from among "foreign" children. Establishment of extent of participation of Komi-Zyrians in the course of education in most cases can have only estimated character. The contingent of pupils was caused by the ethnic structure of the population. The aspiration to mastering the diploma was characteristic of the Russian population [Minenko, 1975. Page 123-124]. Komi-Zyrians at the end of XIX — the beginning of the 20th century, according to contemporaries, also had tendency to training and showed activity at poluche-

scientific research institute of education [Bartenev, 1998. Page 165; Zhitkov, 1913. Page 19; Irinarkh, 1903. Page 24]. At the same time aboriginals were against education prejudiced and reluctantly sent children to school [Mavlyutova, 2001. Page 85-90]. Such relation to school was explained by the different level of focus on training of various ethnosocial groups.

At the end of the 19th century, according to a census of 1897, the largest group of Komi-Zyrians lived in page. Men of the Kunovatsky volost — 737 people, it made 36.4% of total number of the Komi-Zyrian population of Berezovsky of the district. At this time in the village. Men only 904 persons, from them, except the Komi, 60 Russians, 63 Samoyeds, 44 ostyak were registered. In the village of Obdorskom of the Obdorsky volost in 1897 1249 inhabitants, from them 539 Komi-Zyrians, 421 Russian, 164 Samoyeds, 94 ostyak, 27 Voguls were registered. In Beryozovo the Komi-Zyrians made 12.3% (132 people) of all population of the city (1070 people), except them 776 Russians, 5 Samoyeds, 53 ostyak, 67 Voguls are marked out. In the Lyapinsky volost the villages of Saranpaul and Shchekuryinskoye located in 5 versts from each other were the main centers of resettlement of Komi-Zyrians. According to a census, in the village of Saranpaule 281 persons, from them 212 Komi-Zyrians, 2 Russians and 67 Samoyeds were registered; in the village of Shchekuryinskom 67 inhabitants — 51 Komi-Zyrians, 15 Russians and 1 Samoyed are recorded. In the Sosvinsky foreign volost in 1897 the accommodation of only 52 Komi-Zyrians, i.e. 4.1% of the population of the volost (1275 people) is noted. Most of them were nomadic reindeer breeders; 12 people — on Sosvinsky pier (village of Nyaksimvolskoye) where also 13 Russians and 1 Pole [Patkanov, were registered 1911. Page 2-3, 26-27, 34-35, 37, 40]. Resettlement of Zyrians to the Nadym region is noted at the end of the 19th century, by the beginning of the 20th century 113 people of Russians and Zyrians lived in seven settlements there, and Zyrians made the majority [Dunin-Gorkavich, 1995. Page 344].

In Beryozovo, the administrative and cultural center of the district, in the 19th century the network of educational institutions most of which part was in parish of Resurrection Cathedral began to be formed. At the beginning of the 19th century in Beryozovo there was a garrison school, in 1818 the district school consisting of two classes and one preparatory was open, in 1842 at school opened the third class [Minenko, 1975. Page 121-122]. At Resurrection Cathedral in 1861 the women's one-great school began to work [GUTOGAT. T. 156. Op. 24. 216. L. 47ob.]. It appeared thanks to activity of the priest Ioann Matfeev Zaborovsky who managed to gain for it developments of 344 rub and the comfortable house for placement of school [In the same place]. In 1906 the women's parish school (CPS) was transformed to second-class [The reference book..., 1913. Page 17]. Besides female CPS, at the beginning of the 20th century in parish of Resurrection Cathedral there was a model mixed school [GUTOGAT. T. 156. Op. 24. 540. L. 4ob.]. For the maintenance of women's school in 1913-1914 it was allocated from treasury of 296 rub 80 kopeks and of local means — 580 rub, 500 rub were allocated for model school from treasury [In the same place. 559. L. 2ob.; 564. L. Craw.]. In klirovy sheets of 1910 the city four-great men's school is noted [In the same place. 526. L. 38ob.]. Except men's school, at the beginning of the 20th century there was a mixed school of the ministry of national education [In the same place. 564. L. Craw.].

Possibly, existence of men's school in Beryozovo caused prevalence of girls among pupils at parish schools. In female CPS in 1911 20 girls, in 1913 — 30, in 1914 — 33, in 1915 — 38 girls studied [In the same place. 540. L. 4ob.; 559. L. 2ob.; 564. L. Craw.; 576. L. 2ob.]. At model parish school in 1911 11 boys and 31 girls, in 1913 — respectively 8 and 30, in 1914 — 5 and 25, in 1915 — 6 and 27 studied [In the same place. 540. L. 4ob.; 559. L. 2ob.; 564. L. Craw.; 576. L. 2ob.]. Not only children of residents of Beryozovo could study at Berezovsky women's school of the Tobolsk diocese. At school there was a board, and persons interested from other settlements had an opportunity to get an education. In parishes of churches of Berezovsky of edge letters with rules of receipt to school were distributed. Among materials there are correspondences of Mikhailo-Arkhangelsky church of page. Men the similar letter of 1914 remained. In it it is said that reception of examinations in female CPS began on September 1, persons interested to arrive aged from 13 up to 16 years had to submit the application addressed to school council, applying to it metric vypis about the birth and a baptism and the certificate of behavior and progress; arriving brought a monthly payment for accommodation in the hostel in the sum of 8 rub of 50 kopeks, at the same time accommodation on private apartments was strictly forbidden [In the same place. T. 700. Op. 1. 43. L. 43-43ob.].

The Komi-Zyrians living in Beryozovo had good opportunities for education. N.L. Skalozubov notes that in 1906 among the Zyrians living in Beryozovo there were competent people. So, Nikita Aristarkhov of Battements even supplied with some information on language to professor of the Kazan university, the missionary A.I. Yakoby [Skalozubov, 1989. Page 360].

In Obdorsk since 1846 there was a school for "foreign" children which worked on a private initiative of the priest P. Popov [Mavlyutova, 2001. Page 87]. In 1867 the missionary school which existed till 1882 [In the same place was officially open. Page 89]. The school was located in the small room of the first floor of the missionary building; pedagogical experience of mentors, according to I.S. Polyakov, was low [Polyakov, 2002. Page 163-164]. 210 rub a year [Mavlyutova, were allocated 2001 for the maintenance of this school. Page 88]. Since 1885 at the Obdorsky mission again

the missionary school was open [GUTOGAT. T. 156. Op. 24. 576. L. 56ob.]. According to V.V. Bartenev, in the 1890th, Russians and Zyrians studied at this school generally, teaching was put very well as the priest managed missionary school, there "quite prepared and betrayed to the business", the ended course in the Omsk teacher's seminary and the having ten-year teacher's experience [Bartenev, 1998. Page 165]. In 1894 at a mission the missionary board (boarding school) which was located in own house and contained at the expense of missionary committee in Tobolsk [GUTOGAT was based. T. 156. Op. 24. 564. L. 44; 576. L. 103ob.; Mavlyutova, 2001. Page 90]. The board was focused on training of children of indigenous people, the number of pupils in it was small [Irinarkh, 1905. Page 37]. It was not recommended to admit Zyrians as "the Zyrians living in Obdorsk are attributed to Obdorsky church to the missionary educational institutions intended for children of radical nationality, and the mission does not stretch on them the spiritual influence" [In the same place].

Since 1898 in parish of the Peter and Paul Obdorsky church there was a one-great parish school [GUTOGAT. T. 156. Op. 24. 482. L. 65]. Besides, in 1902 the ministerial second-class school was open [In the same place. 576. L. 56ob.]. On the maintenance of CPS 240 rub a year were released, but it had no own building, and only in 1915 it is noted that the school is located in own building [In the same place. 520. L. 37ob.; 576. L. 56ob.]. In 1917 for the maintenance of Obdorsky CPS it was allocated under sentence of citizens of the village of Obdorskogo from the wordly capital of 300 rub [In the same place. T. 335. Op. 608. 42. L. 10]. At school in 1915-1916 the God's law, Slavic language, Russian, calligraphy, notation, church singing were taught "" [In the same place. T. 702. Op. 1. 7. L. 1ob.].

The number of teachers at schools was small. Priests of the Peter and Paul church often taught the Scripture at several schools at the same time, children of priests could become teachers. So, in 1900-1906 Evdokim Nikitin who ended courses in the Tobolsk theological seminary [GUTOGAT was a religious teacher in CPS and ministerial school. T. 156. Op. 24. 439. L. 50; 448. L. 49; 457. L. 47; 473. L. 47; 482. L. 65; 491. L. 61]. In 1907-1910 a religious teacher in CPS was the priest Fedor Alexandrov Plekhanov, Berezovsky's son of the merchant [In the same place. 501. L. 64; 511. L. 68; 520. L. 37ob.; 526. L. 38ob.]; from 1908 to 1910. The Scripture at ministerial and missionary schools was taught by the priest Gury Mikhaylov [In the same place. 511. L. 68; 520. L. 37ob.; 526. L. 38ob.]. The priest's daughter Anna Nikolaeva of Popov [Was a teacher in CPS in the same place in 1902-1907. 457. L. 47; 473. L. 47; 482. L. 65; 491. L. 61; 501. L. 64]. Since 1907 at school there were two teachers: in 1907-1910 the daughter of the priest Yulianiya Lukin Tveritin was engaged in teaching [In the same place. 501. L. 64; 511. L. 68; 520. L. 37ob.; 526. L. 38ob., 40ob.]; in 1908-1910 the duties of the teacher were carried out also by Ilyin's Olympic Games of Lukin [In the same place. 511. L. 68; 526. L. 38ob., 40ob.]. At ministerial school in 1908-1909 Alexey Stefanov Grigoriev [Was a teacher in the same place. T. 704. Op. 1. 153. L. 12ob., 32].

Not only Russians, but also Komi-Zyrians were teachers at schools: in 1909-1910 a singing teacher in CPS was the psalm reader Evgeny (Evfimy) Nikolaev Kanev who ended a course at Sizyabsky school, second-class with a teacher's class, and had certificates on a rank of the teacher of CPS, the psalm reader and deaconry according to the program of the Arkhangelsk diocese [GUTOGAT. T. 156. Op. 24. 520. L. 37ob.; 526. L. 40ob.]. In 1913 it was transferred to Nyaksimvolsky Nikolaev church [In the same place. 564. L. 39ob.]. In 1914 at Obdorsky missionary school the teacher Komi-Zyrian Grigory Ivanov Arteev consisted [In the same place. 564. L. 44].

V.V. Bartenev noted that at the beginning of the 1890th the adult Komi-Zyrians who recently moved from Izhma to Obdorsk were almost all illiterate and quite badly knew Russian. It was explained, according to him, by the low level of development of school education Izhma and weak quality of training of the teachers teaching Russian. At the same time immigrants Zyrians quickly adopted Russian, especially local songs. Unlike adults, almost all Zyrian children of school age at the beginning of the 1890th read and wrote in Russian. They studied the diploma in Obdorsky missionary school and at rural obdorsky school, children studied well and very much loved church singing [Bartenev, 1998. Page 127, 138, 139, 165].

At the beginning of the 20th century many Komi-Zyrians knew the diploma, liked to read prayer books and editions of religious and moral contents. From all Komi-Zyrians living in Obdorsk, Russian was known by about two thirds of men and nearly a half of women [Irinarkh, 1903. Page 23, 24]. Understanding importance of literacy, they with big hunting sent children to school. In 1903 even fear that schools, "intended for satisfaction of needs of actually about-dorsky population, will be crowded with the Zyrian children, often at all not knowing Russian" [Internal news., expressed 2003]. In 1901 the observer of schools of the Tobolsk diocese G.Ya. Malyarevsky, reckoning with number in Obdorsk of "the Zyrian element", sent one of the first in progress of the Zyrian boy to second-class CPS for preparation it to a position of the second teacher at obdorsky school that "in its younger office in the first year of training of the Zyrian children who are not knowing Russian the teacher speaking on their adverb" [In the same place] was engaged with them.

Total number of the children studying in CPS during the period since the beginning of the 20th century till 1915 fluctuated from 34 to 58 people, the number of the studying girls gradually increased and in some years was more than a half of all pupils (tab. 1). In 1915/16 academic year at Obdorsky parish school from 53 studying there were 28 Komi-Zyrian children (Vokuyev, Vityazev, Terenthier-vy, Istomina, Konev, Rochev, Chuprova) [GUTOGAT. T. 702. Op. 1. 7. L. 1ob. - 14ob.]. A head of group was Alexander Vokuyev [In the same place. L. 1ob.]. At ministerial school the number of pupils increased more rapidly, and increased from 39 people in 1900 up to 119 in 1915 (tab. 2).

In the village. Men the school appeared in 1887 at Mikhailo-Arkhangelsky church, it was one-cool and had the status of school of the diploma [GUTOGAT. T. 156. Op. 24. 576. L. 44ob.]. In 1888 the local merchant Stefan Trifonov Okunev offered for school the house; it reconstructed it in 1898 in "more extensive" [In the same place. 473. L. 43]. The school of the diploma was renamed by Berezovsky's order of district office of the Tobolsk diocesan uchilishchny council of March 29, 1890 into parish, with corresponding change of the training program [In the same place. T. 700. Op. 1. 18. L. 52-52ob.].

Till 1910 the school contained at the expense of the funds allocated by church and parishioners. At the beginning of the 19th century from church 25 rub were released, parents had to deliver 0.5 sazhens of firewood from each pupil that caused their "discontent" [Kozlov, 1903. Page 404]. In 1907 in the schoolhouse, repair was made [GUTOGAT. T. 156. Op. 24. 501. L. 42]. In 1909 the school of own means had no and contained for the public account [In the same place. 520. L. 28]. From 1910 to 1918 the means for school arrived from the Kunovatsky foreign justice of 50 rub, from church 50 rub were released; from society of peasants of page. Men in 1910 112 rub, in the next years — firewood for heating were allocated for the sum of 80 rub [In the same place. T. 700. Op. 1. 32. L. 26, 31 about., 37ob., 39ob., 46ob., 52ob., 59ob., 65ob.; T. 156. Op. 24. 564. L. 31 about.; 576. L. 44ob.]. Increase in the sum of fund raising from parishioners in 1910 was caused by the decision to build the new schoolhouse with craft office and a dosshouse shelter, in 1913 for this purpose brought together deer in number of 97 heads for the purpose of the subsequent sale [In the same place. T. 700. Op. 1. 43. L. 11-11 about., 15ob.]. In 1918 the maintenance of school was limited to firewood from country society for the sum of 80 rub [In the same place. 32. L. 70ob.].

Table 1

Total number of pupils of one-great parish school of the village of Obdorsk

Year Boys Girls All

1900 35 11 46
1902 40 10 50
1904 46 9 55
1905 29 13 42
1906 43 15 58
1907 29 28 57
1908 26 18 44
1909 16 18 34
1910 19 25 44
1911 24 20 44
1913 25 22 47
1914 26 19 45
1915 25 23 48

Note. The table is made on: GUTOGAT. T. 156. Op. 24. 439. L. 50; 457. L. 47; 473. L. 47; 482. L. 65; 501. L. 64; 511. L. 68; 526. L. 38ob.; 540. L. 61ob.; 559. L. 48ob.; 564. L. 55ob.; 576. L. 57ob.

The system of training was described by the psalm reader of Mikhailo-Arkhangelsky church Zosima Kozlov who from 1898 to 1902 fulfilled duties of the assistant to the teacher at local school [Kozlov, 1903. Page 404]. Children were admitted to school, practically without knowing Russian therefore it was necessary to study them for five-six years though within one-great school the three years' training was supposed. In the first year they learned Russian and were accustomed to a school order. In the second year began to master the program of younger group, and pupils having insufficient abilities and occupied with household chores had to pass this program in two-three years. On average office pupils were engaged two years as a lot of time was spent for oral lessons and arithmetics. In the senior group the pupils also sat two years for the bigger fixing undergone. Classes were according to the following manuals: "Parish school" of Eremin and Volotovsky, "Arithmetician" Egorov, "Scripture" by Krylov, "Copy-book" Tikhomirov and "Alphabet" [GUTOGAT. T. 700. Op. 1. 18. L. 52ob.]. Within 14 years since formation of school there were only two releases: in 1897 — 2 pupils and in 1902 — 3 pupils [Kozlov, 1903. Page 404]. Almost all children studying at school began to speak well Russian.

Table 2

Total number of pupils of one-great ministerial school of the village of Obdorsk

Year Boys Girls All

1900 14 25 39
1901 18 29 47
1904 50 9 59
1905 51 22 73
1906 53 26 79
1907 39 10 49
1908 32 22 54
1909 38 22 60
1910 62 30 92
1911 56 42 98
1913 50 44 94
1914 68 56 124
1915 81 38 119

Note. The table is made on: GUTOGAT. T. 156. Op. 24. 439. L. 50; 448. L. 49; 473. L. 47; 482. L. 65; 501. L. 64; 511. L. 68; 526. L. 38ob.; 540. L. 61 about.; 559. L. 48ob.; 564. L. 55ob.; 576. L. 57ob.

During occupation epidemics at school stopped. For continuation of classes previously consulted on the rural paramedic. So, in 1890 when there was an outbreak of scarlet fever, Berezovsky district office of the Tobolsk diocesan uchilishchny council it was recommended to stop classes at Muzhevsky school [GUTOGAT. T. 700. Op. 1. 32. L. 20].

In the first years of existence of Muzhevsky school by teachers priests consisted generally. From 1888 to 1890 with children the psalm reader Leonid Panov [Kozlov, was engaged 1903. The priest Vsevolod Milovsky [GUTOGAT was page 404], from 1890 to 1902 a religious teacher. T. 156. Op. 24. 439. L. 46; 448. L. 45; 457. L. 43]. The term of work of teachers at Muzhevsky school usually there was a small, teaching staff was constantly changed. From 1890 to 1891 as the teacher the psalm reader Zosim Kozlov, in 1891-1893 — Konstantin Donorsky, in 1893-1898 — Nikolay Timofeyevich Karpov who got an education in the Tyumen district school worked [GUTOGAT. T. 156. Op. 24. 482. L. 73ob.; Kozlov, 1903. Page 404]. In 1899-1902 the son of the foreigner of the Kondinsky volost Alexey Grigoriev Okhranov who ended a course of model school was a teacher; the psalm reader Zosim Kozlov who became later the deacon [GUTOGAT was the assistant to the teacher from 1898 to 1902 again. T. 156. Op. 24. 439. L. 46; 448. L. 45; Kozlov, 1903. Page 404]. In 1902 the priest's daughter Maria Vsevolodovna Milovskaya who ended a course in Diocesan women's school edified [GUTOGAT. T. 156. Op. 24. 457. L. 43]. In 1904-1909 the manager of school and the religious teacher was the priest Evfimy Petrov Oboltin, the official's son who had a rank of the teacher of initial schools after Berezovsky of district school [In the same place. 473. L. 43; 482. L. 43-43ob.; 491. L. 39; 501. L. 42; 511. L. 64; 520. L. 28]. In 1904 the daughter of the high-ranking treasurer Berezovsky of district treasury Elizabeth Dmitriyeva Sokova studying in the Turin pro-gymnasium and having a rank of the teacher of parish schools [Became the teacher in the same place. 473. L. 43]. In 1905-1909 the official's daughter Olga Vasilyeva Andreyeva who ended courses in the Turin pro-gymnasium and having the certificate on the teacher's rank was engaged in training [In the same place. 482. L. 43-43ob.; 491. L. 39; 501. L. 42; 511. L. 64; 520. L. 28], from 1911 to 1913 — Vera Kharitonova Pervova who got an education at Berezovsky second-class school [In the same place. 559. L. 28ob.]. In 1912 Evfimy Kononov Sharmay who ended a course of four-great city school was a teacher, he taught the Scripture [In the same place. T. 700. Op. 1. 32. L. 37ob.]. In 1913 Dmitry Pavlov Gurin who had a course of church teacher's school [Was a religious teacher in the same place. T. 156. Op. 24. 559. L. 28ob.].

Among teachers there was also a Komi-Zyrian — Pyotr Fedorov Rochev who was born in 1892 in family of the local peasant F.N. Rochev [GUTOGAT. T. 700. Op. 1. 20. L. 88]. By 14 years it finished a course at Muzhevsky school and from 1906 to 1913 was the assistant to the teacher, and then and the teacher [In the same place. T. 156. Op. 24. 501. L. 42; 511. L. 64; 520. L. 28; Reference book., 1913. Page 17]. Perhaps, P.F. Rochev worked at school and in the next years, but, unfortunately, in klirovy sheets of Mikhailo-Arkhangelsky church of page. Men since 1914 the teacher's structure of CPS was not specified.

the Total number of pupils of Muzhevsky school gradually increased every year, and in 1918 increased in comparison with 1900 almost twice — from 64 to 124 people. Among pupils there were very few girls, it was explained by unwillingness of parents to send daughters to the mixed school and absence among teachers of women [Kozlov, 1903. Page 404]. I.M. Voropay [1900. Noted page 44] that in 1908 young zyryanka, female residents of the village. Men, did not speak Russian. Emergence in 1902 at school of the teacher promoted increase in number of students

girls — with 11 in 1900 up to 49 people in 1916-1917, or from 17 to 33% of total number of pupils during the period from 1900 to 1918 (tab. 3).

The school of the diploma in the village of Shchekurya was open at Church of the Epiphany in 1893 [GUTOGAT. T. 156. Op. 24. 448. L. 59]. There children of Komi-Zyrians from the Saranpaulsky settlement studied generally. In 1902 the school of the diploma was transferred to the village of Saranpaul [In the same place. 482. L. 53]. The school was in Saranpaula on the maintenance of country society, for it from 40 to 48 rub were released a year [In the same place. 559. L. 84ob.; 564. L. 91 about.], in 1915 the sum of the allocated funds increased to 60 rub 60 kopeks [In the same place. 576. L. 18ob.]. The school of own building had no, for classes it was necessary to employ the room. So, in 1911-1913 training was provided in the house of the peasant Filippov [In the same place. 540. L. 106ob.; 559. L. 84ob.]. In klirovy sheets of Church of the Epiphany of the village of Shchekurya it was regularly noted that premises of school "malopomestitelny and very inconvenient" [In the same place. 564. L. 91 about.]. It interfered with increase in number of pupils, for example, in 1914 was refused enrollment of pupils to 15 children, in 1915 — to 5 children [In the same place. 564. L. 91ob.; 576. L. 18ob.].

The manager of school, the local priest and residents of the village of Saranpaulskoy petitioned before the Tobolsk diocesan uchilishchny council for construction of own school building on 50-60 pupils in view of "urgent need" [GUTOGAT. T. 156. Op. 24. 564. L. 91 about.]. In 1915, construction of own school building on 50 pupils was authorized. On these purposes the Council released 1345 rub 50 kopeks of state means that made a half of estimated cost of construction; other half was collected by inhabitants from own means [In the same place. 576. L. 18ob.].

Table 3

Total number of pupils of one-great parish school of page. Men

Year Boys Girls All

1900 53 11 64
1901 63 6 69
1902 69 7 76
1904 60 20 80
1905 48 14 62
1906 64 13 77
1907 54 19 73
1908 55 18 73
1909 77 13 90
1910 89 18 107
1911 90 23 113
1912 103 34 137
1913 91 29 120
1914 95 37 132
1915 90 30 120
1916 83 49 132
1917 86 49 135
1918 83 41 124

Note. The table is made on: GUTOGAT. T. 156. Op. 24. 439. L. 46; 448. L. 45; 457. L. 43; 482. L. 43-43ob.; 491. L. 39; 501. L. 42; 511. L. 64; 520. L. 28; 526. L. 28; 540. L. 45ob.; 559. L. 28ob.; 564. L. 31 about.; 576. L. 44ob.; T. 700. Op. 1. 32. L. 37ob., 59ob., 65ob., 70ob.

At school of the diploma in the village of Shchekurya in 1898-1899 the duties of the teacher and the religious teacher were carried out by the priest Vasily Gerasimov who studied in the Tobolsk theological seminary [GUTOGAT. T. 156. Op. 24. 439. L. 60]. In the next years the priests trained only in the Scripture: in 1900-1905 — the priest Nikolay Timofeev Karpov who ended a full course of Berezovsky of district school [In the same place. 448. L. 59-60ob.; 457. L. 57; 473. L. 59], from 1905 to 1910 — Pyotr Georgi Zemlyanitsyn' priest studying in the Ishim spiritual school [In the same place. 482. L. 53; 491. L. 49; 501. L. 52; 511. L. 47ob.; 520. L. 63ob.; 526. L. 65]. Vasily Gerasimov, in 1901 — the psalm reader Nikolay Maximov Nevalov, the son of an ostyak of Obdorsky arrival from Tobolsk exemplary Kirillo-Me-fodyevskoy of school [Was a teacher in the same place in 1900. 448. L. 59-60ob.], in 1902 — Alexander Pavlov Kotovshchikov [In the same place. 457. L. 57]. In 1904-1906 Anastasia Vasilyeva Andreyeva [Became the teacher in the same place. 473. L. 59; 482. L. 53; 491. L. 49], in 1907-1911 replaced her Pyotr Georgi Vylkin, "from Samoyeds" [In the same place. 501. L. 52; 511. L. 47ob.; 520. L. 63ob.; 526. L. 65; 540. L. 107ob.]. In 1913 at school Dominica Serapionova Anufriyeva, the Komi-Zyrian who ended a course in initial school [The reference book..., began to teach 1913 the Scripture. Page 17]. In 1914-1915 Yefrem Polikarpov Popov who had a rank of the teacher of church one-great school was a teacher, he was also a religious teacher as "the local priest behind remoteness of school cannot be engaged in the Scripture" [in GUTOGAT. T. 156. Op. 24. 564. L. 91ob.; 576. L. 18ob.].

In Saranpaula the number of the children wishing to get an education increased every year — from 12 people in 1900 to 45 in 1915, the studying boys was several times more, than girls (tab. 4). Komi-Zyrians of the villages of Saranpaul and Shchekurya paid special attention to development of school, it was shown in allocation of monetary pay for its functioning by country society which was made generally by Komi-Zyrians, granting the private house for study, fund raising for construction of the building of new school.

Table 4

Total number of pupils of school of the diploma of Church of the Epiphany of the village of Shchekurya

(village of Saranpaul)

Year Boys Girls All

1898-1989 11 1 12
1900-1901 16 4 20
1902 45 4 49
1904 29 10 39
1905 30
1906 27
1907 24
1908 20
1909 23
1911 35
1913 39 12 51
1914 30 8 38
1915 36 9 45

Note. The table is made on: GUTOGAT. T. 156. Op. 24. 439. L. 60; 448. L. 59-60ob.; 457. L. 57;

473. L. 59; 482. L. 53; 491. L. 49; 501. L. 52; 511. L. 47ob.; 520. L. 63ob.; 540. L. 107ob.; 559. L. 84ob.

The first mention of school in the village of Nyaksimvol at church for the sake of the Prelate and Wonder-worker Nikolay belongs to 1898 [GUTOGAT. T. 156. Op. 24. 439. L. 63ob.]. In the next years in kliro-vy sheets school it was not mentioned. In 1910 in parish of church the existence of parish school is noted again [In the same place. 526. L. 33ob.] though officially opening of CPS belongs to 1911 [In the same place. 564. L. 37ob.]. The school had no own building, in 1913 it was located in the house of the priest Alexy Okhranov and was on the maintenance of church [In the same place. 559. L. 34ob.]. In 1915 on its contents it was released from church of 50 rub [In the same place. 576. L. 99ob.]. According to residents of the village of Nyaksimvol, the house of the priest was two-storeyed and very spacious [PMA, Berezovsky the area, 2003].

In Nyaksimvola in 1898/99 academic year the priest Jonah Beshkiltsev [GUTOGAT was a teacher and the religious teacher at school. T. 156. Op. 24. 439. L. 63ob.]. In 1911-1913 the priest Alexy Grigoriev Okhranov became the manager of school, he carried out duties of the teacher and the religious teacher, in 1914 he trained only in the God's Law [In the same place. 540. L. 51 about.; 559. L. 34ob.; 564. L. 37ob.]. A.G. Okhranov was born in 1876 in family of the foreigner Berezovsky of the county of the Kodsky volost of Nangakarsky yurtas, in 1894 graduated from second-class model school at the Tobolsk theological seminary; upon termination of a course consisted the teacher of CPS in the village of Sherkalskom till 1899, from 1899 to 1902 was at a position of the teacher of CPS in page. Men, since 1902 — in the Obdorsky mission in the deacon's position [In the same place. 482. L. 73ob.]. He remained a priest in Nyaksimvolsky church before its closing [PMA, Berezovsky the area, 2003]. In 1911 the psalm reader Nikolay Nevalov, the foreigner's son [GUTOGAT was a teacher of singing at school. T. 156. Op. 24. 540. L. 51 about.]. Since 1914 at school the teacher Dominica Serapionovna Anufriyeva consisted [In the same place. 564. L. 37ob.] which in 1913 worked as the teacher at Saranpaulsky school. She was a daughter of the psalm reader Serafion (Serapion) Terentyev Anufriyev transferred to Nyaksimvol in 1915 [In the same place. 576. L. 51 about.]. The quantity studying at school was small and was in different years from 5 to 15 people (tab. 5). It is known that in 1914 at the end of the academic year the "foreign" boy and the girl the Estonian was admitted to school [In the same place. 564. L. 37ob.].

Within the Sosvinsky volost since 1904 there was a school of literacy in the village of Sosvenskom (Sartynya) which was placed in the private house [GUTOGAT. T. 156. Op. 24. 473. L. 53]. Late opening of school was explained by "absence of means and not demand from foreigners" [In the same place. 126. L. 38]. From 1906 to 1912 the school was located in church a witness mark, by 1913 for it the special building was built [In the same place. 491. L. 43; 559. L. 64ob.]. The prior, the priest Fedor Alekseev Meshcheryakov, Berezovsky's son of the petty bourgeois who ended a course in Berezovsky district school in 1887 [Was a teacher, the religious teacher and the manager of school in the same place from the moment of its opening till 1913. 482. L. 47ob.; 491. L. 43; 501. L. 46; 511. L. 42; 520. L. 56; 540. L. 86ob.; 559. L. 64ob.].

Table 5

Total number of pupils of parish school of the village of Nyaksimvol

Year Boys Girls All

1898-1899 3 2 5
1910 2 5 7
1911 4 4 8
1913 6 1 7
1914 10 5 15
1915 8 4 12

Note. The table is made on: GUTOGAT. T. 156. Op. 24. 439. L. 63ob.; 526. L. 33ob.; 540. L. 51 about.; 559. L. 34ob.; 564. L. 37ob.; 576. L. 99ob.

In 1919 in the Sosvinsko-Lyapinsky territorial justice of Berezovsky of the county. T. 156. Op. 24; T. 735. Op. 1. 1. L. 4]. The Komi-Zyrians who lodged in the basin of the river Nadym had smaller opportunities for education. In parish of Obdorsky missionary church the mobile school of department of national education (ministerial) in a missionary camp in the settlement He was registered [In the same place. T. 156. Op. 24. 576. L. 103ob.]. It was supposed that it will pass each two years into the settlement Nore, and then again to return to He. In 1914 in it 14 people [Mavlyuto-va, studied 2001. Page 90].

Development of education among Komi-Zyrians was followed by growth of need for reading books. Because of low literacy in the last quarter of the 19th century in Obdorsk the books at the population were a big rarity, for example, only "tales of Eruslana Lazarevich" [Polyakov, met 2002 at Zyrians. Page 163]. At the beginning of the 1890th, according to V.V. Bartenev, Komi-Zyrians read books of spiritual contents, and in many "small huts", even despite illiteracy and ignorance of Russian, "some life of Saints" which was read sometimes aloud by someone from competent [Bartenev, 1998 was stored. Page 139].

The large role in distribution of reading was played by libraries. The first libraries in Berezovsky edge appeared at church and educational institutions. In Beryozovo there was a library at Resurrection Cathedral [GUTOGAT. T. 156. Op. 24. 310. L. 2], besides, in Berezovsky district school at the initiative of the regular inspector N.A. Abramov the library which in 1845 contained 378 compositions in 586 volumes, in 1849 — 1200 volumes, in the 1860th — up to 1500 volumes [Minenko, 1975 was created. Page 121-122].

In Obdorsk at the beginning of the 1890th the library was quite poor, the majority of books were children's editions and annexes to illustrated magazines, in the middle of the 1890th there were about one thousand books [Bartenev, 1998. Page 126; Village of Obdorsk..., 2003]. Children pupils were the main readers in library, and of them the most part was made by Zyrians [Bartenev, 1998. Page 126, 139]. At the initiative of the prior of the Obdorsky mission I.S. Shemanovsky in August, 1898 at the Obdorsky mission the library was created, in 1904 she was given to Obdorsky missionary brotherhood for the sake of the Prelate Gury [Ilyunicheva, 1992. Page 71-72; Mavlyutova, 2001. Page 9596]. The library constantly was replenished with new editions, completing of books was conducted in several directions, the Northern department was the main of them; in September, 1907 the children's office which fund made 350 books [Ilyunicheva, 1992 was open. Page 72-76; Mavlyutova, 2001. Page 96-98]. The library served 18 of 30% of the competent population of Obdorsk among which there were also Zyrians [Ilyunicheva, 1992. Page 75].

At Mikhailo-Arkhangelsky church of page. Men there was also a library, in 1876 it was noted that "books are not enough, they very shabby" [GUTOGAT. T. 156. Op. 24. 216. L. 5ob.]. In 1915 in church library there were 30 volumes of books for reading, there were also periodicals and magazines: "Sunday reading", "Helmsman", "Russian pilgrim", "Church bulletin", "Wanderer", "Christian", etc. [In the same place. 576. L. 44ob.]. It was specified in klirovy sheets of 1905 of Church of the Epiphany of the village of Shchekurya that at church there was a small library where there was "a cycle of prayer books", and new books of "religious and moral contents" annually arrived [In the same place. 482. L. 53]. In the village of Nyaksimvol at church there was also a library [In the same place. 576. L. 49ob.].

Komi-Zyrians not only addressed library stocks, but also subscribed to periodicals. So, in 1893-1894 in Obdorsk four Komi-Zyrians subscribed to the Sibirsky Listok newspaper and the different illustrated editions, two of them ordered the illustrated editions for the children [Bartenev, 1998. Page 126-127]. Zyrian I.A. Rochev was the only thing according to all Berezovsky to edge the subscriber to "The bulletin of fishing industry", he wrote out for obdor-sky library of Bulletin of Education and "The Russian school" [In the same place. Page 126, 142].

The inquisitiveness was one of characteristic features of Komi-Zyrians, and after leaving school some of them continued to be engaged in self-education by means of "reading different useful books and

even periodicals" [Irinarkh, 1903. Page 24]. Some, having got an education, came on service to church institutions (generally regular psalm readers), carried out duties of churchwardens. Among Komi-Zyrians the group of the intellectuals contributing to preservation and cultural development of edge was formed. So, Ivan Aleksandrovich Rochev, the resident of Obdorsk who got home education was known as the fishery manager and one of the first obdorsky photographers, he considered Russian native and was among "not paid" counters during the first All-Russian population census of 1897 [GUTOGAT. T. 573. Op. 1. 3. L. 189ob.]. I.A. Rochev collected and gave in 1896 to the Tobolsk provincial museum a herbarium, besides, from it donations by objects arrived [The report of the conservative., 2003. Page 381]. He was a full member of the Tobolsk provincial museum in Obdorsk [The Siberian leaf., 2003]. The rural teacher of Berezovsky of the county D.S. Anufriyev reported to the Tobolsk museum the "stone and other things" packed by her on coast of North Sosva [The history of Khanty-Mansi Autonomous Okrug., 2000. Page 326].

It?

Willie Harrison
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