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M.M. SAKHYANOVA, AA. - D. RINCHINO I the MONGOLIAN REVOLUTION of 1921.



leonid KURAS

M.M. SAKHYANOVA, AA. - D. RINCHINO I the MONGOLIAN REVOLUTION of 1921

In article the uniform process of participation of the Buryat communists and Buryat national democrats in preparation and implementation of the Mongolian revolution of 1921 is considered

In the article the united process of participation of Buryat communists and national democrats in the preparation and realization of Mongol revolution in the 1921 is described.

Mongolia, revolution, M.M. Sakhyanova, AA. - Ts. Rinchino, communists, democrats; Mongolia, revolution, M.M. Sakhyanova,

E-D. Rinchino, communists, democrats.

If for 70 years the Mongolian revolution, process of the national movement and national-state construction of the Mongolian people was considered through a prism of Bolshevist dogmatics, then with the collapse of the USSR and change of a paradigm of existence of Mongolia there was a new historiographic situation which connects achievements of the Mongolian revolution only with development of the democratic movement and democratic traditions of the Buryat national democrats.

The Buryat is represented relevant to give us an objective picture of events of the past of Mongolia through activity of the most outstanding personalities of the national movement from number: representative of Komintern, Bolshevik Maria Mikhaylovna Sakhyanova and representative of national democrats Elbek-Dorzhi Rinchino. It, in turn, has to promote combination of efforts of all parties, both pro-communistic, and democratic, presented in Great Mongolian Hural and in the State Duma of the Russian Federation, for the solution of nation-wide and national tasks.

AA. - D. Rinchino stood at the origins of the Buryat statehood, the first the Buryat national committee, the delegate of the Baku congress of the people of the East, the head of the Mongol-Tibetan department of the Far East secretariat of Komintern, the adviser of the government of the Mongolian People's Republic, the chairman of Revolutionary Military Council of the Mongolian national and revolutionary army, the member of Presidium of the Central Committee of MNRP, the member of Great and Small State Hural of Mongolia, professor of the Communistic university of workers of the East headed. It is repressed in June, 1938. Rehabilitated in April, 1957 posthumously.

M.M. Sakhyanova — since 1916 the member of the St. Petersburg organization of RSDRP (b), the secretary of the 2nd city district committee of RSDRP (b) of KURAS Petrograd, one of defenders of "White House" in Irkutsk (vmes-

Leonid those with P.P. Postyshev and M.A. Trilisser), the head

Vladimirovich- the first Buryat group of Bolsheviks of Irkutsk, the secretary

and. N, professor; The Far East committee of RCP(b), one of organizers and a lead -

main scientific a ditch of the guerrilla movement in Primorye, the agent illegal immigrant of Komintern

the employee in China, the instructor of the Mongol-Tibetan section Far East

Institute the secretariat of Komintern in Irkutsk, the secretary Buryat - Mongolian

mopgololedeniye, regional committee of the All-Union Communist Party (bolsheviks), ranking officer of the office of the Central Committee

iuddologiya All-Union Communist Party (bolsheviks) and Commissions of party control at the Central Committee of the All-Union Communist Party (bolsheviks), scientific

and tibetologiya the employee of Institute of Marxism-Leninism at the Central Committee of the CPSU, perso-

SO RAI nalny pensioner of allied value.

Muraslv@yandex.m After the victory of Sinkhaysky revolution of 1911 — 1913 in China and

The October revolution of 1917 in Russia in Mongolia the national and democratic movement begins to develop actively. But social explosion in Mongolia had no chances of success that representatives of the Mongolian revolutionary forces perfectly understood. For this reason in formation of the Mongolian statehood they sought to receive comprehensive, first of all military, support from the Soviet Russia.

In August, 1920 in Russia illegally there arrived the delegation of the Mongolian People's Party — well-known Mongolian "seven" — D. Baudot, S. Danzan, D. Dogsom, L. Losol, D. Sukhe-Bator, D. Chagdarzhav, H. Choybolsan. The Mongolian delegation was met by E. - D. Rinchino. He presented to her chairman of the board of ministers of DVR and the secretary of Dalbyuro of the Central Committee of RCP(b), the secretary of the Far East secretariat of Komintern B.Z. Shumyatsky. Later, during stay of the Mongolian mission in Moscow, the meeting of participants of the Baku congress of the people of the East in the Politburo of RCP(b) of the Central Committee with V.I. Lenin was organized. E. - D. Rinchino, together with the famous Buddhist and public figure, the teacher of the Holy Father of Dalai Lama XIII Agvan Dorzhiyev, was invited for discussion of the Buryat and Mongolian questions. During the meeting with E. V.I. Lenin - D. Rinchino transferred him two reports: "A foreign question and tasks of the Soviet construction in Siberia" and "Conditions of statement and a task of revolutionary work in the Far East". Then the issue of need of creation of autonomy of the Buryat people was positively resolved.

In a modern Russian historiography it is emphasized that thanks to E. - D. Rinchino the Bolshevist management looked at Mongolia as on the base in advance of world revolution to the East in view of the existing close ties of Mongolia with Manchuria, the Chinese Turkestan and Tibet, and through the last — and with Indiyey1. At the same time were

1 Zhabayeva of L.B. Elbek-Dorzhi Rinchino and national and democratic movement of the Mongolian people. — Ulan-Ude, 2001, page 185; it. Role E. - D. Rinchino in formation of statehood of Buryatia and Mongolia//the Buryat national democrats and a social and political thought of the Mongolian people in the 20th century — Ulan-Ude, 2008, page 22.

agreements on military and technical and financial support, on activization of illegal revolutionary work on the Komintern line through the Mongol-Tibetan department of the Far East secretariat of Komintern, are reached upon mediation in the relations with China and the help in fight against Russians belogvardeytsami2.

Practically at the same time, in September, 1920, M.M. Sakhyanova on the instructions of Komintern as the illegal immigrant was sent to China — to Beijing, and then to Shanghai where she was till April, 1921

With restoration of the Soviet power in Siberia in its territory various structures whose interests and professional activity were directed to foreign countries developed work. It is the Siberian mission of Narkomat of foreign affairs, prospecting departments of the 5th army and the Siberian military districts, sections of east people of Sibbyuro of the Central Committee of RCP(b) and, at last, Tib - the that-Mongolian department of the Far East secretariat of Komintern formed in Irkutsk in January, 1921. Activity of all these organizations was directed as to natives of the countries Central and Southeast Asia, and to Japan, Korea, Tibet, China and Mongolia. If the first direction made undoubted success, then the second had serious difficulties. The main circumstances preventing realization of the ideas of world revolution are specified in a domestic historiography. It is lack of currency that led to complete cessation of secret-service work, and a hard line of ruling circles of Japan and China which prevented legal work of the Soviet representatives in the territory of these countries. The position of Moscow demanded the greatest care not to give a reason for resumption of the Japanese intervention. So, the head Sibrevkoma I.N. Smirnov according to the indication of Moscow was even ready to stop use of the territory of the Far East for training for revolutionary work abroad.

At this moment the Soviet residency in Shanghai where during this period M.M. Sakhyanova worked became more active.

2 B.V. Bazarov, L.B. Zhabayeva. The Buryat national democrats and a social and political thought of the Mongolian people in the first third of the XX century. - Ulan-Ude, 2008, page 192.

to Residents managed to establish close ties with the revolutionary organizations of Mongolia, Japan, Korea and China. Making on them ideological impact and obtaining the operational information which was of huge value for military intelligence they promoted the actual resuscitation of revolutionary work in the east. Management of illegal work of the Shanghai group was performed by section of east people of the Far East secretariat of Komintern, and since January, 1921 — the Mongol-Tibetan section led by E. - D. Rinchino. The chairman of executive committee of Komintern G.E. Zinovyev especially noted positive work of this section. Then according to the indication of Moscow the territory of DVR begins to be used actively in training of revolutionaries for work in the Far East abroad. The military department of section was created, the secret-service network and points of communication of executive committee of Komintern in the Far East is adjusted.

In April, 1921 from a foreign business trip M.M. Sakhyanova comes back. She becomes the instructor of mongolotibetsky section which E continued to direct. - D. Rinchino, without being a member of RCP(b). Exactly here the real policy pursued by the Soviet Russia concerning Mongolia was concentrated. Among the staff of department was many Buryat: G. Danchinov, C. - E. Dashepilov, Begzeev (Ts. Zhamtsarano), A. Vanchikov, M. Sakhyanova, B. Ishindorzhin, B. Tsy-renzhapov, D. Baldanov, S. Zhambalon, D. Ubugunov, Ch. Ochirov. All of them took active part in historical mon-

golsky events of 1921, and then worked for the benefit of new Mongolia. The victory of national revolution in Mongolia in 1921

became a wreath of work of all Soviet organizations whose activity was aimed at the development of revolutionary fight in the east,

After these events of a way of M.M. Sakh-yanova and AA. - D. Rinchino dispersed. The first headed the regional party organization of Buryat Mongolia, having made very much for formation and development of the Buryat statehood. Rinchino directed all the forces and knowledge to formation and development of the Mongolian statehood. And M.M. Sakhyanova, and AA. - D. Rinchino, regardless of party accessory, did one big and important serious work aimed at the development of the democratic movement, growth of national consciousness of the Mongolian people.

Thus, taking into account those discussions in which an assessment of revolutionary activity of the Mongolian people and national-state construction in Mongolia is given we made an attempt to impartially show a role and the place of communists and democrats in the political history of Mongolia, in implementation of revolution of 1921 through their leaders — to M.M. Sakhyanov and AA. - D. Rinchino. As a result we came to a conclusion that allocation of an either a communistic, or democratic component of revolutionary process of the first quarter of the 20th century not only violates the truth, but also interferes with the modern positive processes of social development both in Russia, and in Mongolia.

Markussen Ole
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