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Teoretiko-metodologichesky aspects of studying the military personnel policy in armed forces of Russia (XVIII beginning of the XX century)



I.I. belous

TEORETIKO-METODOLOGIChESKIE ASPECTS of STUDYING the PERSONNEL POLICY IN ARMED FORCES of RUSSIA (18th century - the head of the 20th century)

Transition of army and fleet to a professional basis demands reconsiderations of many realities of the military personnel policy, its reduction in compliance with requirements of time. Implementation of the reasonable military personnel policy is in close interrelation with strengthening of defense capability of the state, increase in level of combat readiness and fighting capacity of army and fleet.

In process of accumulation of knowledge connected with various aspects of activity of the state in the field of military and personnel construction the need of studying the personnel policy for armed forces of pre-revolutionary Russia ripened. The historical analysis of influence of the personnel policy on military science is important not only in the sense of objective assessment of the past, but also for determination of prospects of development of army and the fleet at the present stage. The conclusions, historical lessons and recommendations made on the basis of a research of this subject can be used in activity of public authorities and military management.

Carrying out an objective research of historical experience of influence of the public personnel policy on development of army and the fleet of the Russian Empire will promote high-quality improvement of the organization of staffing of armed forces. The appeal to studying the personnel policy in armed forces of the Russian Empire allows to understand better the nature of historical processes, a role of a subjective factor in public transformations, to investigate activity of eminent state and military persons more deeply.

The technique of carrying out a historical research includes three main stages: statement of a problem, definition of a task and object of research; accumulation of the actual knowledge on the basis of study various istochni-

k, selection and analysis of the archive material; obtaining certain results.

It is important to consider it also when studying the military personnel policy in the Russian Empire as very difficult, many-sided social phenomenon which study is most fruitful on the basis of an integrated, cross-disciplinary approach, with use of conclusions and estimates of many industries of humanitarian knowledge.

The theoretical and methodological base of a research defines a scientific position of the researcher. As the general paradigm the author is inclined to be guided by system understanding of history which, without concerning primacy of any given layer (material or spiritual order) in genesis of a civilization, assumes that separate layers can be the leading party in its development. However their value can, both to amplify, and to be weakened by increase or reduction of specific weight of various components. Such approach does not challenge any of scientific macrotheories, rejecting only absolutization any of them, applying for a role only of scientifically proved explanation of the historical phenomena.

Use of basic provisions of the theory of scientific knowledge allows to consider historical process in all its versatility. Proceeding from it, the author uses polydisciplinary approach when along with use of the principles and the research tools which developed within a classical paradigm of methodology of a historical research (scientific character, historicism, objectivism, methods of a periodization, a komparativizm, updating, extrapolation, synchronous and diakhronny) "elements of the philosophical, political, sociocultural, psychological analysis, theory in which "understanding" acts as key category get into gear".

As a result, methods of rational interpretation and criticism of sources, creation of historic facts and the positivistic theory of a mnogofaktornost of historical process are combined with the aspiration of the author to understand the state and military figures of the past, to get into their consciousness and psychology. Thus, the motivation of actions of historic figures is detected, the mechanism of adoption of important historical decisions and their process of implementation in practical activities is reconstructed.

Use of the conventional principles of a classical paradigm, such as scientific character, historicism and objectivity, promotes examination sushchno-

st of the historical phenomena, leads to understanding of their deep reasons, identification of objective regularities.

Following to the principle of determinism leads the author to deep understanding that all historical phenomena and processes are connected and often interact among themselves. Proceeding from it, the researcher in the work is guided by disclosure of relationships of cause and effect of events, identification of various influencing factors for formation of the personnel policy in armed forces of the Russian Empire. At the same time it is considered that extremely seldom historical phenomena are caused by one or two reasons.

Implementation of the principles of a historical research is connected with application of certain methods. The value of a method in a historical research is defined by the fact that "the scientific theory is closely connected with methods of scientific knowledge" 1, and method "it is inseparable from the corresponding theoretical ideas" 2.

The problem of a method of a research is central in history methodology as connects the theoretical level and practice of a historical research. The author shares the point of view of the academician I.D. Kovalchenko who considered a method not only in connection with the general statement of a research task, but also depending on a concrete stage of work of the researcher. According to him, "the scientific method represents set of the ways and the principles, requirements and norms, rules and procedures, tools and tools providing interaction of the subject with a cognizable object for the purpose of the solution of the set research task". Developing understanding of a method, I.D. Kovalchen-co emphasized that it includes operations as some simplest research actions and procedures as sets of operations. Summing up the result expressing his understanding of a method he noted that "the scientific method represents theoretically reasonable standard informative

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means".

At implementation of a research of the military personnel policy in pre-revolutionary Russia various general scientific methods such as comparison, generalization, methods of the analysis and synthesis, abstraction and idealization, tipologization and classification, modelirovaniya5 are applied. The author applies the called methods at different stages of research process. Quite often they are used not in itself, and enter a component other methods. So, methods of idealization and abstraction make a part of such general scientific method

as transition from concrete to abstract, and from abstract to concrete. The same methods and also a method of modeling are of great importance when using a logical method of reproduction of the personnel policy when the author seeks to understand logic of personnel processes and to present it in the model form. Communication between a comparison method, or komparativistiky, and an istorikosravnitelny method, method of a tipologization and a historical and typological method can be examples of communication of general scientific methods with special. Deep and thorough characteristic of general scientific and spetsialnoistorichesky methods is given in I.D. Kovalchenko, V.V. Kosolapov, V.V. Ivanov, A.N. Nechukhrin, V.N. Sidortsov's works 6.

It should be noted that application of axiological approach in a research of the military personnel policy is found in close connection with anthropological methods. Any given lines of psychology and the identity of the person of the past find comparison to a certain system of values to which the historian adheres in a research. But at the same time it is necessary to consider a possibility of withdrawal from implementation of the principles of objectivity and historicism from positions of any given system of values, on the substance of positions subjective.

It is known that between the principles and methods of scientific historical research there is a difficult interaction. In the course of this interaction the defining role is played by both parties. Following to the principles of scientific research assumes use in it certain scientific methods. However methods of a historical research are subordinated to its principles. The principle in a method is the fundamental beginning of the solution of any given scientific problem, and its contents consists in following to the certain requirements having standard and regulatory character.

In relation to our research the scientific methodology helps to learn the historical nature and essence of the personnel policy, the concrete personnel relations and processes, to reveal among them the main, most socially important, defining integrity and dynamics of development of a personnel system of pre-revolutionary Russia. And at the same time modern methods of a research allow to see the phenomena which are accidental and are not characteristic of essence of the military personnel policy. In this regard appropriate to note that the essence, from the philosophical point of view, is the internal maintenance of a subject of the phenomenon which is expressed in steady unity of all diverse and contradictory forms of its life, the phenomenon is external, more changeable party

the reality representing a form of expression of essence. The ratio of essence and the phenomenon depends on specific historical conditions.

In theoretical study important aspect of the personnel policy are problems of a combination of the general and special, objective and subjective.

The moment of the general, its manifestation inherent in all forms is most important for understanding of essence of the military personnel policy. The state interests act as this general. All the rest is derivative of it, i.e. special (definition of tasks and ways of their decision, the organization of regulation of personnel processes; development of the mechanism of preparation, education, selection and arrangement of military shots; improvement of forms of work with military shots).

At the same time the personnel policy of the state in armed forces is defined by a number of social and economic and political factors. In many respects it is objective by the nature. Its maintenance and commitment, the choice of forms and mechanisms of realization considerably depend on the level of socio-political and economic development of the country, geopolitical realities, degree of perfection of a system of the government, the level of development of a regulatory framework, science, formation, the culture, development of demographic and other processes; interactions or oppositions of socio-political forces (estates, court groups, etc.); conditions of armed forces in general. Formation and implementation of the military personnel policy are influenced also by such factors as a qualitative condition of personnel capacity of army and fleet, level and efficiency of use of its professional experience, development of military and technical progress. In other words, the personnel policy is objectively caused by the nature and proceeds from a real historical situation.

However, the sociologism which is shown in studying the above-mentioned factors in consideration of legislatively regulated activity of government institutions and formations does not allow to open completely the maintenance of an objective historical picture of the past.

Conducting a research it is necessary to consider that the military personnel policy is subjective when determining its content, the principles and mechanisms of realization. It depends on positions and views of the top political and military authorities, durability of positions of the government, her authority in the Russian society.

The analysis of subjective structures plays an important role in a research of the military personnel policy of the Russian Empire. A lot of things in its formation, in definition of tasks, the choice of mechanisms depended on subjective actions of the head of state (monarch), representatives of the highest state authorities (The senate, the State Council, the State Duma, the Cabinet, etc.) heads of the Defense Ministry (Presidents Voyennoy and Admiralty boards, Ministers of War). Especially it is necessary to consider a role of separate outstanding personalities: outstanding military leaders (commanders and naval commanders) and also the favourites and persons who are brought closer to an autocratic throne. The direct interests of each personality directly or indirectly can interfere in process of development and decision-making at what these interests can be not only material, but also spiritual.

For objective assessment of activity of representatives of the government it is necessary to understand what was a basis of their outlook what key concepts of their living position are based on. At the same time it is necessary to consider that nearly all traits of character of the statesman in certain situations gain the value which is far going beyond its personal destiny. "Any human activity is subjective" the academician V.G. Afanasyev 9 noted. At the same time activity of the state and military heads, being subjective in a form (is defined by specific features of the subject), at the same time it is subject to the impact of the objective processes happening in society during any given historical period.

Thus, it is possible to draw a conclusion that the military personnel policy, reflecting regularities of social and economic development of the state, is objective by the nature, and at the same time is subjective as it is realized and carried out by specific people, reflecting their subjective, subjective approach.

In the methodological plan it is important to reveal and consider communication of the personnel policy, its implementation with a ratio of social and political forces in society and at a separate stage of historical development, and taking into account a specific socio-political situation including with fight for deduction of the power or repartition of the power. (Activity of military shots during an era of "palace revolutions" in the 18th century; suppression by "Ekaterina's eagles" by generals Pan-other P.I. and A.V. Suvorov of E.I. Pugachev's revolt.; participation in -

unlimited shots in preparation of a Decembrist uprising and in its suppression in the 19th century).

The history of formation and implementation of the personnel policy in armed forces of the Russian Empire cannot be investigated without formulation of the basic concepts characterizing the major signs, qualities, the parties of personnel activity, the place and a role of the state in it. Certainly, concepts are relative, conditional. A part of concepts is borrowed from other sciences (philosophy, political science, sociology, pedagogics, psychology) though sometimes a bit different contents invests in them. Therefore new retrospective approach to the known concepts, their disclosure, for example, to characteristic of content of personnel processes, to disclosure of the principles of selection and distribution of military shots, their preparation and use, to the choice of criteria for evaluation of shots, etc. is quite often necessary

Development of the conceptual and categorial device and methodology allows to build a scientific and research paradigm and to apply it in practice of studying historical processes. Proceeding from statement of a problem, before the researcher there is a question of specification of a conceptual framework and correctness in use of some modern terms in relation to the analysis of the historical processes happening in the Russian Empire.

Methodologically important when using categories, concepts, terms to define their ratio, hierarchy, systemacity. It is impossible to analyze personnel processes and the relations, to reveal regularities and without having realized a trend of the military personnel policy that such concepts as "shots", "personnel policy", "the personnel relations", "personnel processes", "personnel work", "personnel potential", etc. express in modern understanding and in a retrospective, in relation to consideration of military personnel matters during the imperial period of development of the Russian state.

The categorial device allowing to consider the problems connected with the military personnel policy has two main components: "shots"

>- as the social phenomenon and "policy" - as management skill the state, the activity connected with ensuring the state interests in any area of activity strany10.

We will consider one of basic concepts (i.e. categories) - the concept "shots". In modern works the shots are presented, as a rule, as the social and economic category defining them as the main constant (the state -

ny) the list of workers having ability to carry out tasks of the organization state uchrezhdeniya11.

From the point of view of some scientists this concept can be considered collective and multilevel. Collective it is because unites

representatives of various professions, specialties, types of work (hozyayst-

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shots wine, scientific, medical, military, etc.). The multilevelness of a concept means that the structure of shots reflects both structure of governing bodies and hierarchy of employees in department, the organizations (from a position of consideration of a vertical of the office relations). From this point of view the division into categories of heads and performers is made. In turn it is possible to range leadership team as representatives of the highest, average and lowest link, and performers on the basis of subordination.

In the light of the above approaches in relation to a subject of the real work it is expedient to consider etymology of this word. The term "shots" appeared in Russian at the beginning of the 19th century (in the middle of the imperial period of development of the Russian state) from French and was originally used only for designation of the military personnel of constant structure of armed forces (in modern understanding - military professionals). And only during the Soviet period of historical development of the country this term received free interpretation, and broad application in various fields of activity and also in litas-rature13 was found for it.

Created in the middle of the 19th century under edition of professor lieutenant general L.I. Zeddeler. "The military encyclopedic lexicon" gives the first in the Russian historical literature definition to the considered term: "Shots (cadres i.e. framework). Shots are called officers, corporals and the flank ranks necessary for drawing up a basis of a regiment, battalion or other army... Who wishes to have good troops, that, first of all, has to attend about a condition of good shots, give them the device, peculiar with requirement, improve them in knowledge of obligations of service and vkorenit in them the most strict discipline. Influence of shots on spirit and a tactical condition of troops is extremely big; they make, so to speak, nervous system of a military body which soul is the chief. With unreliable, unsteady shots in the business no army, at the most ardent desire, can make anything important" 14. The explanatory dictionary by V.I. Dahl offers similar on sense, but shorter definitsiyu15.

Thus, on the basis of the above, under "military shots of the Russian Empire" first of all it is necessary to consider command (commanding, leading) the structure of armed forces. And the unter-officer corps were a fundamental basis of Armed forces of the Russian Empire officer. It as the most qualitatively professionally prepared part of army and fleet, successfully strengthened defense capability and protected national interests from external and internal threats of the Russian statehood.

From teoretiko-methodological positions for clarification of an essence and the maintenance of this scientific problem the understanding of categories is essentially important: "military policy" "the personnel policy in armed forces", their ratio and interrelation, identification of all set of contradictions during their realization.

In scientific literature various approaches to interpretation of a phenomenon of the personnel policy are presented. The author believes that the personnel policy in armed forces exists as the phenomenon of the general policy and can be comprehended only in volume of wider, going beyond area of personnel activity, a concept of public policy. At the same time the personnel policy in army should be considered as a component of military policy of the state. Here action of such ontologic categories as "a part - whole" is shown. In the methodological plan such approach allows to use logical reception of a formulation of a concept of the studied phenomenon which essence, as we know, consists in bringing defined under another, wider (or narrow) a concept.

The term "personnel policy" rather was included recently into an official lexicon. In the Soviet literature the first works devoted to problems of formation and implementation of the personnel policy appeared in 70 - the 80th years of the XX century. Generally they considered the personnel policy of the CPSU which can be characterized as party государственную16.

In the 90th years the development of problems of the personnel policy continued. There was a number of the works devoted to its study. But all of them develop problems of the modern personnel policy and formation of concepts of policy of the future. In the majority of works the personnel policy is considered from positions of sociology and legal disciplines that assumes application of a synchronous method and carrying out "the analysis of the functional and timeless relations", in that

time as historical science uses more "a diakhronny method

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>- synthesis and explanation of historical process. In separate works takes place philosophical and politological podhody18.

At the end of XX - the beginning of the 21st century there were researches in which the first attempts of consideration of the separate directions of the public personnel policy including the military component and also studies experience of the personnel policy for rubezhom19 are made.

The research of a historiography of a problem conducted by the author showed that there are several dozen definitions of the personnel policy and several definitions of the military personnel policy. So, in modern works the personnel policy in army is considered as set "the purposes created and received legislative fixing, priorities, the principles and forms of activity... in the field of preparation, selection, arrangement and the movement of military shots", as "scientific-theoretical and the organizational practical activities of the state, its security agencies directed to selection, training, education, completing by the military by professionals of modern army and fleet"; as "strategy. public authorities on formation, mobilization, development and rational use of military and personnel potential... at the corresponding stage of development of the country and its military organization" 20.

Further there is a question of that, it is how lawful to speak about a concept of "the personnel policy in armed forces" in relation to the history of the Russian state till the latest time. At the same time it is necessary to consider some convention of this concept. Concerning that time it is impossible to talk the personnel policy the states, as evidence-based, officially recognized direction of its internal activity according to modern predstavleniyami21.

Representatives of the highest government of the empire did not assume that descendants in the future should create scientific theories of development of the personnel policy and technology of its realization. In the Russian Empire there were no theoretical developments and the state documents formulating bases of the personnel policy of autocracy. However deep study personnel processes by modern researchers in the empire in general, and in the military organization in particular, allows to reveal top trends of development, the principles and mechanisms of implementation of the military personnel policy.

The analysis of archival documents and the published sources which is carried out by the author allows to come to conclusion that the personnel policy arose even at the time of emergence of the Russian state. During formation of the empire the foundation in the sphere of the organization of military and civil service, staffing of the office of bodies of authority and management was laid. In spite of the fact that the term "personnel policy" at that time was not, the foundation for the personnel policy in army and on the fleet for ages was laid then. In the laws, regulations, decrees created during existence of the empire were

basic provisions of the personnel policy are formulated: purposes, tasks, sposo-

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and ways of realization in practical activities.

During formation of the Russian imperial power, from our point of view, the foundation of the military personnel policy was laid. Evident manifestations of such policy, it is possible to present: formation of officer corps, activities of the government for creation and development of a system of military education, the first experiments on creation in armies of national formations, including from the subject foreign states, improvement of a system of completing.

You should not forget also that circumstance that strengthening of the device of public administration of the empire at all levels was made checked and

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the military shots betrayed to the Fatherland, well prepared. Tradition of wide use of military shots as the reliable social force which is the main support of a throne it is possible to consider an important prerequisite of strengthening of the political system of the empire.

Insufficient theoretical development of the considered problem, complexity of introduction of a modern conceptual framework of the personnel policy to studying personnel processes in the Russian Empire caused need to give definition of the personnel policy in army and on the fleet in historical conditions of XVIII - the beginnings of the 20th centuries. Generalizing modern definitions of the military personnel policy, it is possible to note that it is purposeful activity of the state according to officially accepted installations and precepts of law. According to the author, in Armed forces of the Russian Empire it is necessary to understand formation and realization of a strategic direction of the autocracy directed to formation, improvement and reasonable fruitful use of military shots in military and peace time for the benefit of strengthening of defensive power of the empire as the personnel policy. According to contents the military ring road -

the rovy policy is the system of the proclaimed and legislatively issued purposes, tasks and priorities of activity of the government on regulation of the personnel relations and personnel processes.

Further we will stop on a question of understanding of personnel processes and the relations in armed forces of the empire. The famous sociologist of the Russian origin P.A. Sorokin noted that he "understands any kind of the movement, modification, transformation, alternation or evolution as process, to put it briefly, any change of this studied object during certain time, whether it be change of its place in space, or modification of its quantity or quality characteristics" 24.

In modern understanding the personnel process is, as a rule, objectively caused, socially important shift, advance of a condition of the personnel relations and communications, personnel operation, quantitative and qualitative parameters of the personnel case. In other words, it not so much action, how many result of influence of objective and subjective factors leading to significant change of shots, their communications and the relations.

By consideration of history of the military personnel policy it is important to reveal regularities (as the system of the essential, repeating, stable personnel relations and the relations giving to personnel work qualitative definiteness, systemacity and integrity) and trends of formation of personnel processes and personnel corps of the Russian armed forces (as the directions of development of the phenomenon of personnel process). And trends can be socially caused, but their development can be slowed down or on the contrary - to stimulate; this mobile social phenomenon. It is not less important to reveal and understand the maintenance of the personnel relations as steady interaction of two subjects of the chief and subordinate, commander and headquarters, relationship between various officials. Here it is required to track dialectics of interaction objective and subjective, cause and effect conditionality of the social phenomena; development of personal interests of the person, interests of the military organization, state; to reveal difference of the personnel relations from office, legal, political, economic and at the same time to show their interpenetration.

The author adheres to the point of view of professor V.A. Sulemov that ". personnel processes do not proceed separately from external factors of influence, out of reaction to requirements state and public razvi-

Tia. Therefore it is important to reveal dependence of the elements "shots-Wednesday-activity" to establish objective and their subjective interaction" 25.

As personnel processes, in relation to the history of the Russian army and fleet, such phenomena as career, turnover of staff, their training and education, updating and stabilization of personnel, change of vocational structure, etc. can be considered

The history of Russia shows that military shots, and, first of all officer corps, are nation-wide property. The state defines the strategy of formation, mobilization, development and rational use of personnel capacity of army and fleet for the benefit of strengthening of the political system. Carrying out the effective personnel policy in armed forces at all historical stages was an important factor of safety of the country from intervention of external forces and from internal conflicts. Owing to this fact the personnel policy in armed forces was and continues to remain an important element of implementation of military policy of the state on strengthening of national safety.

Proceeding from the above it is possible to draw a conclusion that the research of history of the personnel policy in Armed forces of the Russian Empire represents creative process. Taking into account development of modern scientific knowledge he assumes implementation of polydisciplinary approach to studying the personnel phenomena and processes of the past. Such approach promotes the optimum choice of the corresponding methods and receptions at various investigation phases for achievement of the most objective results of scientific work.

I I.D. Andreyev. Theory as form of the organization of scientific knowledge. M, 1979. Page 227.

V.V. Ivanov. Methodological bases of historical knowledge. Kazan, 1991. Page 57.

3 I.D. Kovalchenko. Methods of a historical research. M, 1987. Page 28.
4 I.D. Kovalchenko. Decree. soch. Page 227.
5 See: KohanovskiyV.P. Philosophy and methodology of science. Rostov N / D, 1999. Page 255 - 290.
6 See: V.V. Kosolapov. Methodology and logic of a historical research. Kiev, 1977; Ivanov

B.B. Methodology of historical science. M, 1985; V.V. Ivanov. Methodological bases of historical knowledge.; I.D. Kovalchenko. Decree. soch.; A.N. Nechukhrin, V.N. Sidortsov. History methodology: studies. a grant for students. Minsk, 2000.

7 See: I.D. Kovalchenko. Decree. soch. Page 32 - 33.
8gryadovoy D.I. Filosofiya. Structural course of fundamentals of philosophy: studies. grant. M, 2000.

C. 76; New philosophical encyclopedia. M, 2001. T. 3. Page 682.

9 V.G. Afanasyev of People in management of society. M, 1977. Page 46.
10 See: Frames personnel: dictionary thesaurus. M, 1993. Page 91, 184.

II Personnel management: encyclopedic dictionary. M, 1998. Page 114; The Encyclopedia of public administration in Russia: in 4 TM, 2005. T. 2. Page 164.

12 Cm: A.S. Pashkov, T.V. Ivankina, E.V. Magnitskaya. Personnel policy and right. M, 1989. Page 39.

of 13 Cm: Ya.M. Bineman, Heynman S.A. Shots of the state and cooperative device of the USSR. M, 1930; A.E. Beylin. Shots of experts of the USSR: their formation and growth. M, 1935; Managerial personnel of RCP(b) and their distribution. M, b.; Gerberas G., G. Jung. Shots in the system of socialist management M.,1970; Ue.A. Rosenbaum. Formation of administrative shots. Social and legal problems. M of 1982; S.R. Rizayev. Shots: professionalism and competence. Tashkent, 1991.

14 The military encyclopedic lexicon published by society of military writers and devoted to its Imperial Highness to the successor to Crown Prince to the grand duke Alexander Nikolaevich: In 14 t. SPb., 1854. T. VI. Page 371.
15 V.I. Dahl. Explanatory dictionary of living great Russian language: in 4 t. SPb., 1881. T. 2. Page 72.
16 Martinus R.V. Social management: shots and personnel policy. M, 1979; Sh.S. Ziyamov. The personnel policy of the CPSU in operation (Activities of the Communist Party of Uzbekistan for improvement of selection, arrangement and education of the managerial personnel in the conditions of the developed socialism). Tashkent, 1980; M.I. Umakhanov. The Lenin principles of selection, arrangement and education of shots in the conditions of the multinational republic. Makhachkala, 1982; M.P. Trunov. Lenin principles of the personnel policy of party. M, 1981; Cooper V.Ya. Modern personnel policy of the CPSU: Lenin theoretical bases. M, 1988; A.D. Gorbul. Scientific bases of the personnel policy of the CPSU. Kiev, 1989. A.S. Pashkov, T.V. Ivankina, E.V. Magnitskaya. Personnel policy and right. M, 1989.
17 Papadopulus T. Metod social sciences in historical researches. M, 1970. Page 15.
18 Frames: questions of the theory, public policy and practice. M, 1993; G.F. Krasnozhenova. The personnel policy and its role in formation of intellectual potential of HIGHER EDUCATION INSTITUTION: Yew:... edging. psikhol. sciences. M, 1994; V.V. Skuratova. Personnel policy of the enterprise: Yew.... edging. econ. sciences. Ulyanovsk; 1998; V. V. Problems of the personnel policy in government. M, 1996; A. A. Personnel management. Personnel and social policy in the organization: studies. grant. M, 2004; V. V. The personnel policy in the conditions of social transformations. Oryol, 1999; V. Anisimov the Public personnel policy in questions and answers: studies. grant. Rostov N / D, 2004.
19 V.M. Anisimov. Military personnel policy: essence. maintenance, civil control. Social and philosophical analysis: Yew.... Drs. Phil. sciences. M, 2000; H.H. Loit. The public personnel policy in Russia and its realization in law enforcement agencies (historical and organizational and legal aspect): Yew.... Drs. yurid. sciences. SPb., 1998; G.I. Sidunova. Innovative strategy of formation of the personnel policy of social and economic systems: Yew.... Dr.s econ. sciences. Volgograd, 2004; S.E. Davydov. Personnel bodies of Armed forces as institute of implementation of military policy of the state: Yew.... edging. watered. sciences. M, 2003; V.F. Kuzhilin. Leading personnel capacity of the Armed Forces of the Russian Federation: essence, state, ways of formation and realization: Yew.... Cand.Phil.Sci. M, 2001; N.N. Dimitrov. The personnel policy of the Soviet state in the Air Force. (1954 - 1964). Historical research: Yew.... edging. east. sciences. M, 1999; N.A. Govorova. Current problems of the personnel policy of the state organization: strategic and practical tasks. (On the example of Social Insurance Fund of the Russian Federation): Yew.... edging. sots. sciences. M, 2003; L.A. Kharlamova. Social and economic features of formation of shots for bodies of public service (on the example of tax authorities of the Russian Federation): Yew. edging. sots. sciences. M, 2002; T.V. Lazareva. The personnel policy in the national regions of the People's Republic of China (1949 - 2001): Yew.... edging. east. sciences. M, 2002.
20vozhakin M.G. The personnel policy in the Russian army as object of sociological study. M, 1997. Page 11; S.E. Davydov. Decree. soch. Page 70; V.M. Anisimov. Decree. soch. Page 49 - 50.
21 V.M. Anisimov. Decree. soch. Page 49 - 50; S.E. Davydov. Decree. soch. Page 70 - 71.

22 Cm: Complete collection of laws of the Russian Empire. SOBR. the 1st SPb., 1830; SOBR. 2nd SPb., 1830 - 1862; Army regulations about a position of general field marshals and all generals and other ranks which at army ought to be, both these military affairs and povedeniye that to everyone has to repair. M, 1826; Set of military resolutions. SPb., 1834 - 1839; Set of military resolutions. SPb., 1869; The Provision on a proceedings order in the Military of mines?

Thomas Jonas
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