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A.K. Puzyrevsky: general, scientist, military historian



UDK 026: 355 (091) (470 & #43; 571)

BBK 78.33 & #43; 78.34 (2)

A.K. PUZYREVSKY: GENERAL, SCIENTIST, MILITARY HISTORIAN

© A.M. Panchenko, 2007

Novosibirsk highest military command college (military institute) of the Ministry of Defence of the Russian Federation 630117, Novosibirsk, Ivanov St., 49

The short biography of the lieutenant general, professor, military historian [14] A.K. Puzyrev-sky is stated (1845-1904). The main attention in it is paid to its catalogs for army officer libraries and to collections of subjects for conversations of officers in army meetings. A.K. Puzyrevsky's catalogs long time served as practical guidances for managers of book-depositories of bodies of the Russian army at replenishment of book funds of libraries. The officers for preparation for conversations in military meetings used them.

Alexander Kazimirovich Pu-zyrevsky was born on October 3, 1845 in the Bessarabia province in family of the army colonel. Got initial military education in the 1st military school. After its termination, June 12, 1863, in the ensign's rank it was distributed in the 10th horse facilitated battery of the 5th horse and artillery crew. The young officer from July 31 to October 22, 1863 was involved in fighting against the Polish rebels. Further Alexander Kazimirovich arrived on September 30, 1870, and in 1873 by the first category ended a course of the Nikolaev academy of the General Staff. For excellent achievements in sciences A.K. Puzyrevsky is made on April 9, 1873 in captains and ranked as the General Staff. New appointment to the post of the senior aide-de-camp of the headquarters of the 1st Guards infantry division with transfer to the General Staff followed on October 25, 1875

During the Russo-Turkish war of 1877-1878 Alexander Kazimirovich was the chief of staff of the advance (Western) party at the general I.V. Gurko. Was involved in battle under the Mountain Oak forest, blockade of Plevna, at Telishskaya's capture and Pravets-koy of the strengthened positions, in transition through the Balkans, in Tashkissensky battle, in three-day fight at Filippopol's capture and defeat of army of Suleyman pasha. Rank of the colonel and award: Svya-

that Georgy of the 4th degree, Saint Stanislav the 2nd degree with swords and Saint Vladimir of the 4th degree with swords and a bow was become well-deserved rewards of A.K. Puzyrev-sky for fighting differences in the Balkan war.

After war A.K. Puzyrevsky consisted the officer for special instructions at the headquarters of troops of guard and the St. Petersburg military district. On representation of the chief of academy M.I. Dragomirov, without defense of a thesis, for successful teaching activity on October 29, 1881 to A.K. Puzyrevsky the rank of adjoints-professora1 of military art of academy of the General Staff was given. - the chief of staff of the 2nd Guards cavalry division Alexander Kazimirovich started execution of a new position on April 29, 1882. Since January 4, 1884 A.K. Puzyrevsky - taking up a position of the assistant to the chief of staff of the Ministry of Defence with transfer on the General Staff and with leaving in a position

1 The associate professor - the assistant to professor in military academy to whom reading a part of a course or its independent department and also management of a practical training together with professors was assigned. They were elected mainly from teachers of academy after protection of theses. After release of a vacancy of professor they replaced department without any test. The associate professor could be only at the leading departments of academy. In 1892 the rank of the associate professor was abolished.

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A.K. Puayrevsn1y. 1878

associate professors. A rank of professor of military art A.K. Puzyrevsky received on October 14, 1884 with simultaneous leaving it in a post on the Ministry of Defence. "During the professorial activity, - it was noted in article devoted to Alexander Kazimirovich's memory, - A.K. Puzyrevsky lifted teaching a subject, attracting audience not only with gloss of statement, but also freshness of scientific contents. The original tone of the speech shining with mind was combined with graceful simplicity, with live characteristics, well-aimed estimates and made great impression on listeners" [17]. From 1884 to 1890 Alexander Kazimirovich is professor of academy of the General Staff. Some time taught Alexander III the history of military art, was engaged with it in theoretical and practical studying cavalry charters. In 1890, according to the recommendation of the field marshal I.V. Gurko, A.K. Puzyrevsky arrived in Warsaw on an important post of the chief of staff of the military district of the same name - "vanguard of our armed forces". On May 28, 1894 Alexander Kazimirovich is elected by the honorary member of a conference of Academy of the General Staff. The last three years A.K. Puzyrevsky is the assistant to the top military commander of the same district. Having served in Warsaw 14 years, A.K. Puzyrevsky made for increase in education and education of troops of the district much, giving the diverse talent, extensive military and administrative experience. The officer corps of the district respected the general from an infanteriya (1901) of A.K. Puzyrevsky as talented professor, the brilliant military writer who had not only the academic, but also fighting experience. With assistance of the general A.K. Puzyrevsky in 1899 "The Warsaw military magazine" 2 began to appear. At the same time he made for promotion and distribution of military and scientific knowledge much: organized a meeting where officers read papers on various military matters at the headquarters, promoted many interesting and useful undertakings. Since March 28, 1904 A.K. Puzyrevsky is a member of the State Council. Died on May 10, 1904 in Warsaw.

Except numerous articles in magazines and newspapers, A.K. Puzyrevsky wrote military and historical works on various areas of the military

2 "The Warsaw military magazine" appeared monthly from 1899 to 1904. In number 80-100 of pages. Contents of the magazine articles of military and historical character, operational and tactical analyses of various military operations, data on the organization and tactics of armies of the foreign states made, reviews of the Russian and foreign literature. Editors of the magazine were: since 1899 - the General Staff the colonel Hodorovich, with No. 6 of 1901 - the General Staff the lieutenant colonel Monkevits, with No. 10 of 1904 - the General Staff the captain Yuzefovich.

arts [19]. Some of its works came out in translations in the German, French and Polish languages. Paying tribute to Alexander Kazimirovich as to the military historian and the writer, the manager of library of the General and General staff A.S. Latsinsky in the work "To the forthcoming 100 anniversary of library of the General and General staff. The short essay of emergence of library, development and the current state" put his name in one row with the famous military scientists of the Russian army. He noted that "... only for two last decades it (the library is founded in 1811 - A.P.) served as the materials to such representatives of the building of the General Staff who gained broad popularity in a military and scientific literatu-

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re, as Dragomirov, Handrail, Obruchev, Bogdanovich (M.N.), prince Golitsyn, Rittikh, Strelbitsky, IAC-sheev (A.I.), Przhevalsky, Maslovka, Bobrovsky, Puzyrevsky, Shilder, Lobko, Voyde and many other coryphaeuses of military science" [12]. Recognizing literary talent of A.K. Puzyrevsky, one of his admirers, having signed in the voyennobibliografichesky magazine "Vestovoy" under an initial [C], wrote: "With special pleasure having studied contents of the read articles for a long time again, involuntarily there are memories of the third author (the first two - M.I. Dra-gomirov and V.A. Sukhomlinov. - A.P.), articles, notes, prefaces, reviews, etc. which are always read with interest fascinating, indefatigable up to the end. We speak about works of the general A.K. Puzyrevsky. Why and to him not to undertake the edition of the collection of the articles? Are quite sure that for benefit which will be brought by reading any article of this highly talented and authoritative military writer the numerous admirers will tell it many thanks; and to count

these articles which are nowadays scattered according to many and very many magazines - means to give itself once again rare pleasure" [27].

A.K. Puzyrevsky took active part in drawing up "The encyclopedia of military and marine sciences" where under initials of "A.K. P." many articles on military art and military history are placed [5]. Alexander Kazimirovich had the personal, perfectly picked up library. As the Military encyclopedia, "to number of considerable last acquisitions noted (libraries of Academy of the General Staff. - A.P.) belongs receipt of the most part of library of the general A.K. Puzyrevsky" [4]. In 1911 came to a book-depository of the General and General staff "...1) several thousands of volumes from libraries of generals Puzyrevsky, Velichko and Dokhturov, a part offered, and a part bought by treasury" [3]. "Eloquent speaker, - the Russky Invalid newspaper wrote about A.K. Puzyrev-sky, - and at the same time the enemy of pretentious gab, the most talented professor and at the same time the ardent opponent of scientific poverty of intellect, the deep admirer of military science and at the same time the convinced antagonist of a rascherchivaniye of strategic monograms, the outstanding military scientist and at the same time the excellent field general-staff officer consisting within 10 years at the head of the headquarters of the most important of boundary districts, the benevolent person in the best sense of this word because wished well to business..." [18]. L. Leonidov devoted to A.K. Puzyrevsky as the military historian the article in "The military and historical magazine" [15].

Except as the military historian, Alexander Kazimirovich is known and as the military bibliographer. He prepared "The main catalogs for army officer libraries and collections of subjects for conversations of officers in army meetings". So, in 1883 at the request of the chief of General staff the colonel A.K. Puzyrevsky made the first edition of "The main catalog for army officer libraries and the collection of subjects for conversations of officers in army meetings" [20] which for many years became an irreplaceable practical grant for the centralized completing of book meetings of bodies of the Russian army. The index was considered and approved by Voyennoucheny committee

The main thing shtaba3 it is also entered for the address in troops by the circular of General staff No. 38 of February 25, 1883. In the circular it was about it noted that according to the order on the Defense Ministry of January 6, 1873 No. 8 to troops annually released a certain sum of money on improvement of public life of officers from which 25% intended for officer bibliotek4. The mentioned money has to be spent by army book-depositories only for purchase of military compositions. Wishing to facilitate military units and their librarians the choice of the books which are written out for regimental libraries, General staff

published "The main catalog". It was distributed free of charge in those parts which already had officer libraries.

The specified "Main catalog" included all the best, mainly Russian, books which were distributed on the following departments:

1) Military authorities (31 naimeno-
3 The military and scientific committee of General staff was formed on January 27, 1812 at the Ministry of Defence as the special establishment which is directly subordinated to the Minister of War. The purpose of establishment of committee consisted in "improvement of a scientific part of military art and in dissemination of military and scientific data in troops". Its structure and structure repeatedly were exposed to reorganization. In 1865. The head department of the General Staff and inspection department were connected together in one establishment - General staff which part also the consultative committee renamed in 1867 into Military and scientific committee of General staff was. The committee had to direct scientific activity of the General Staff and corps of topographers and to care for development of education in army. The chief of General staff was the Chairman of the Committee. At Committee consisted: office, military and scientific archive and library of General staff. After the Russo-Turkish war of 1877-1878 at Committee the military and historical commission was founded. In 1900. The committee was disbanded. During the existence the Committee brought a lot of benefit of the Russian army and to military science in general. It was involved in all large military reforms, and in "the military and scientific relation" his authority always stood highly. Blossoming of its activity is connected with names

N.N. Obruchev and F.A. Feldman.

4 To the order on the Defense Ministry of January 6, 1873 No. 8 there was "A schedule to the sums which are subject to a holiday in 1873 to parts of army troops regarding improvement of life of officers". So, to an infantry regiment of 4- and 3-battalion structure for library it was allocated - 300 rubles, to a cavalry regiment without reserve squadron - 150 rubles, to shooting crew - 400 rubles, to serf regiments of 3- and 2-battalion structure - on 225 and 150 rubles respectively, etc.

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vaniye); 2) Artillery (17); 3) Military and engineering art (24); 4) Military topography (7); 5) Geography and statistics. (Military and the general) (40);

6) Maps and atlases (19); 7) Strategy (12); 8) Tactics (68); 9) History of military art and military history (133); 10) Biographies (14); 11) Mix. (Collected works. Collections. Dictionaries. Help books) (16) and 12) Uchebniki5 recommended by programs for test of the officers coming to academies: a) Nikolaev academy of the General Staff (34); b) Mikhaylovsky artillery academy (27)6; c) Nikolaev engineering academy (37); d) Judge advocate academy (47)7.

For acquaintance of parts of troops with the appeared new compositions the General staff planned two times a year (in an early autumn and in the spring) to publish them in specially published circulars. The prices of editions were specified in "The main catalog" on Fenu8 bookstore H. O., but when invoicing books the troops were given free rain of the choice of the bookseller. For acquisition of the cards published by Military and topographical department of General staff their cost at which they could be acquired by military units, only according to the requirements sent to the specified department was given. The books making a rare book were specified in "The main catalog" by an asterisk. The price of them in each case could be determined only by the special arrangement with bookstores.

By drawing up the first "The main catalog" the colonel A.K. Puzyrevsky was guided by the following circumstances: 1) the military compositions obligatory for army libraries of all types of military forces were introduced in the catalog. On -

5 Acquisition of the guides making the last department of the catalog is obligatory for troops, on the basis of the circular of General staff of 1880 No. 102.
6 Circular of General staff No. 179 of 1880. Enacted "The list of books which need to be had in military libraries for preparation of officers for an admission examination for receipt in Mikhaylovsky artillery academy".
7 Circular of General staff No. 102 of 1880. Defined "The managements and grants for studying objects of an admission examination to receipt in Judge advocate academy". The general staff in the circular No. 64 of March 26, 1881 once again will inform commanders of all degrees on need of exact execution of earlier published circulars: No. 425 of December 30, 1878, No. 102 of April 1, 1880 and No. 179 of June 19, 1880 about obligatory acquisition for regimental libraries of the managements recommended as grants for preparation for admission examinations in military academies.
8 At the order of books for the sum of 5 rubles, under the terms of it magazi-

on, for transfer it was paid - 15%, at the order for the sum over 5 rubles - 10%. In case of the rest of money for transfer the bookstore made recalculation, and sent the remained sum to the customer.

the polneniye of any given department depending on a type of military forces (cavalry, artillery, engineering) could be made according to the order of their direct administration; 2) the index included the most important editions on each branch of military art, first of all in Russian and only in exceptional cases in French or German. Meaning big prevalence among officers of knowledge of French, in libraries compositions mainly in this language were recommended; 3) the department "Geography and statistics" included books not only military, but also general character, because of scarcity of military literature on this subject; 4) the greatest development in "The main catalog" was gained by department "History of military art and military history". The reasons of such decision were specified: a) importance and the importance of military history for officers and military science in general was considered; b) over time the value and popularity of military and historical works only increased; c) love of officers for historical reading. The specified department of "The main catalog" included the best compositions on the history of military art; 5) the compositions which appeared sale and making a rare book were also included in "The main catalog" on the ground that they could be in some libraries. It was optional to acquire such editions; 6) compositions for light reading as the main destination of the edition is to specify to the officer sources for replenishment it first of all military professional knowledge were not introduced in the index.

In 1882 the order on Defense Ministry No. 259 most highly approved "The instruction developed in the Main committee on the device and education voysk9 for classes with officers".

9 The main committee on the device and education of troops is formed in 1831 on Nicholas I's command. The royal decree of February 12, 1863 installed the program of activity of Committee and its structure. The following tasks were assigned to Committee: a) on the device of troops: 1) establishment of the correct order of management of separate parts; 2) research of the best ways of supply of troops from treasury all objects of an allowance which are the most providing their material device and benefits of treasury; 3) determination of the exact sizes of all state holidays as for a personal allowance of the lower ranks, and in all respects the general army economy, establishment of an order of renewal them and purpose of sufficient means for contents them in constant serviceability; 4) a research and a reason about the best and most convenient system of regimentals and equipment of troops; 5) internal life of troops: distribution of house classes, layoff from office classes. b) troops by training: 1) drawing up army regulations of infantry and cavalry service on all its industries: front, field, garrison and internal. The questions connected with application in artillery and engineer parts of the main

In it it was indicated on the need of preparation and carrying out in the company of officers of conversations on various military matters. For simplification of the choice of subjects for such conversations the colonel A.K. Puzyrevsky placed 134 names of such conversations in the above-stated "Main catalog".

When choosing by that for conversations it was guided by that they had a direct connection with service of officers, army life, with important historical events, instructive wars, not only from the general point of view, but also in "small details". Also that the specified subjects were rather well developed in literature was considered and were of interest at discussion in meetings of officers of various types of military forces. The following was the most interesting subjects, in our opinion: "Value of the theory in military science", "Nature of modern fight",

"Influence of new firearms on development and application in fight of tactical forms", "Guerrilla actions", "Mountain war", "Blockade of the big modern cities", "Transformation of the Russian army by Peter the Great", etc. To each subject offered for discussion the author of the catalog

rules of field, garrison and internal service, were subject to joint discussion of Committee or with artillery committee, or the head engineering department; 2) drawing up manuals for firing, fight by cold weapon and gymnastics. Reported on all the decisions and the resolutions Committee directly to the Minister of War. At the end of 1863 by reorganization of the Ministry of Defence the special Committee was renamed into the Main committee on the device and education of troops. In 1874 the general aide-de-camp G.I. Chertkov was appointed the assistant to the chairman of the Main committee. G.I. Chertkov's activity (died in April, 1884) at this post was so fruitful that Committee called Chertkovsky. May 9, 1884. The committee was abolished as independent institution, having been a part of the 2nd office of General staff. For 20 years' existence the Committee brought a lot of new to education and improvement of army, and this work was recognized as all. For ofitse - a ditch-heads the special program of classes was installed. At the general G.I. Chertkov the close attention was paid to distribution of literacy in troops: company, eskadronny and battery schools are founded and the program is made for classes in them. For the first time also the systematic catalog of the books recommended for reading to troops was made. The Russo-Japanese war of 1904-1905 put forward a number of new questions which carrying out in life demanded creation of independent institution with big powers again. By the order on the Defense Ministry of 1906 No. 123 it was declared creation at the Council of War of Committee on Education and to the device of troops. On December 15, 1909 the Committee was abolished by the order on Defense Ministry No. 567, and its office is transferred to the 2nd office of General staff. On reorganization of head departments in 1910 the questions connected with reprinting of charters, provisions and instructions, the announcement recommended for acquisition of books by troops and consideration of the latest inventions in the field of training of troops are transferred to the 6th office of department of the device and service of troops of Head department of the General Staff.

specified sources for its independent study. Except books, textbooks, the guides, charters, grants, manuals in "The main catalog" articles from periodicals, such as "Military collection", "Artillery magazine", "Weapon collection", "Engineering magazine" were specified. It was made not accidentally as the submitted magazines belonged to number of the editions, the most widespread in officer libraries of military units. The recommended journal articles:

• in an available form acquainted officers with the maintenance of a question and served kind of as the prolog for more serious and thorough independent study of a subject;

• on some questions periodic articles represented nearly only source;

• in articles were mentioned and the most topical issues of military science were in detail considered.

by

For conversations on some subjects the colonel A.K. Puzyrevsky specified a significant amount of sources. It was made for the reason that "... many books of magazines are ordinary mislaid in army libraries and, besides, journal articles, bigger hour-tiyu, are very insignificant on volume, are popular on statement, and therefore acquaintance to them will not demand a lot of work and time" [21]. At the same time the author of the index noted that ". the made collection does not pocherpyvat all questions able to serve as a subject for conversations in army officer meetings; it is appointed to serve only as a grant at this sort classes" [22].

Additions to "The main catalog" were periodically published. The first such addition came out in 1884 what it was announced in the circular of the Main thing the headquarters.

In it it was noted that "The general staff declares on troops issue of the first addition to "The main catalog for army officer libraries" enclosed herewith" [32]. For convenience of use of again come out addition in it all new recommended editions were located on departments of the catalog of 1883. The prices of books were also specified without cost for their transfer. When determining cost other

strange editions the course of bookstores was taken into account, namely: franc -

45 to., and the German brand - 60 to.

By preparation the author given articles did not manage to find out the second edition of "The main catalog for army officer libraries", but that it was, the words of the lieutenant general A.K. Puzyrevsko-go written to them in the preface to the second edition "The collection of subjects for conversations of officers in army meetings" where he noted that "in the next years it was necessary to publish several additions to the catalog demonstrate and also to publish two more updated editions" [24]. As one more confirmation of the aforesaid words serve simple arithmetic actions. So, for example, in the first publication of "The main catalog", in department "Military authorities" 31 names of the recommended editions were specified. Let's add 7 more compositions from "The first addition", we will receive 38 books. 52 names were provided in the third edition of the index in this department, i.e. is 14 compositions less. We take department "Artillery". There were 17 names of books, will add 1 more edition from "The first addition", we will receive 18. In the third edition of "The main catalog" in the specified department there are 22 compositions, i.e. is 4 books more. Following example. Department "Military and engineering art". There were 24 compositions. In "The first addition" 6 more is specified. In the third edition of the index already 40 compositions, etc. The presented calculations allow to agree with the words of the lieutenant general A.K. Puzyrevsky that an exit of the subsequent additions to "The main catalog" took place and to make the assumption that further they were summarized and came out as the second edition of "The main catalog". Z.P. Leva-sheva in the work "The bibliography of the Russian military bibliography", in the section "Indexes of Literature on Military Science in General", giving characteristic of the fourth edition of "The main catalog" of the lieutenant general K.N. Durop, notes that "the first three editions were made by the colonel

A.K. Puzyrevsky also left in 1883-1886" [13].

The third edition of "The main catalog for army officer libraries" [23] did not differ from previous on the system of statement at all. The index was supplemented with the latest compositions,

published till January 1, 1886, and some editions which were missed earlier. At the same time are added:

a) new department "Periodicals" where the most famous military magazines and newspapers are included;

b) the list of grants for training of the officers arriving on the course of east languages founded at Asian department of the Ministry of Foreign Affairs;

c) departments of biographies, stories of separate military units and mix are expanded. For convenience of use of the catalog, surnames of authors or the initial words of the new, again published and included in it books are allocated with a font.

In the next "Main catalog" the books were distributed on the following departments: 1) Military authorities (52 names); 2) Artillery (22); 3) Military and engineering art (40); 4) Military topography (11); 5) Geography and statistics. (Military and the general) (63); 6) Maps and atlases (26);

7) Strategy (17); 8) Tactics (99); 9) History of military art and military history (166); 10) Biographies, stories of separate parts of troops (41);
11) Mix. Collected works. Collections. Atlases. Help books. Calendars. Bibliographic indexes (33); 12) Military periodicals (16); 13) The textbooks recommended by programs for test of the officers coming to academies and on the course of east languages founded for officers at Educational office of east languages of Asian department of the Ministry of Foreign Affairs: a) Nikolaev academy of the General Staff (31); b) Mikhaylovsky artillery academy (27); c) Nikolaev engineering academy (37); d) Voyennoyuridichesky academy (47); e) Officer course of east languages (11).

In 1888 there was an addition to "The main catalog for army officer libraries" [6]. In addition the new books which appeared to the public till January 1, 1888 were placed

In "The main catalog" 1886 the colonel

A.K. Puzyrevsky left without change "Subjects for conversations of officers in army meetings" and their total.

Due to the sale of the first edition of "The collection of subjects" 1883 to the publisher and the bookseller

B.A. Berezovskomu10 from parts of troops became a post -

10 Vladimir Antonovich (1852-1917) Berezovsky was born in family of the general on April 14, 1852 in the Vladimir province. In 1862 at ten-year age it was sent to the 2nd Moscow military school. In 1869 came to Aleksandrovsky military college from which graduated in 1871. Service of the beginnings in leyb-guard the Pavlovsk regiment as the manager of educational team. In 1877 it was sent to the Pazhesky building to the tutor's position. At it was not for long in connection with departure of guard on

Pdva of item porridge. Ooshnt conceals highway of ohms" to photos (Shott-shch 1883 tsi *).

POENNAYA ADMINISTRATSEYA.

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stalemate numerous orders for this book. Vladimir Antonovich appealed to A.K. Pu-zyrevskomu with about the edition of the updated "Collection of subjects".

In 1895 the lieutenant general A.K.

Puzyrevsky made the second, processed edition of "The collection of subjects for conversations of officers in army meetings" where placed already 254 subjects. "The collection of subjects" appeared the free application to the Razvedchik magazine for 1895

In this collection Alexander Kazimirovich entered significant changes in the list of the sources recommended for studying subjects in voyennykhsob-raniye. Among sources he specified articles from "The military collection" in the first edition of "The collection of subjects" and other military magazines, some

the Russo-Turkish war, in 1877-1878 returned to the regiment and accepted a company. Under the Mountain Oak forest on October 12, 1877 it was wounded and contused. In April, 1878 returned to the field army which was then already under walls of Tsargrad. Soon after that it was appointed to the position of the senior aide-de-camp of the headquarters of the Guards case. At this position it remained till 1886 when retired in the captain's rank. The Russo-Turkish war showed that our army needs "various managements and grants". It was noticed by Vladimir Antonovich who was close adjoining to questions of service and training of troops. In 1879 he began the publishing which continued before the death. During this time he published more than 4 thousand editions among which there is a weight such, without which the army could not do. The benefit brought to army by publishing of Vladimir Antonovich was noted in the order on the Defense Ministry of March 4, 1904 in which to it it was thanked officially "for its useful and fruitful activity on advantage of troops within 25 years". V.A. Berezovsky is an initiator of issue of the Russia's first private military magazine "Razvedchik". To give to soldiers useful reading minutes of their leisure - V.A. Berezovsky began to issue for them the Vityaz magazine. For acquaintance of officers of military units and institutions to the military editions which are again appearing in the book market V.A. Berezovsky issues the special military and bibliographic magazine "Vestovoy". Company, eskadronny, battery schools and educational commands of all Russian army were given trainees of knowledge in most cases of V.A. Berezovsky's editions. All education and training of officers including preparation on military sciences for receipt in military academies, went according to books by Vladimir Antonovich. V.A. Berezovsky's warehouse ("V.A. Berezovsky" Association. - A.P.) developed in the huge establishment supplying with all necessary military units and institutions.

compositions in foreign languages and, at last, the works which became already rare book.

In the new edition the author of "The collection of subjects" paid attention that "... army libraries in general are quite poor on the structure, almost in one part there are no full copies of "The military collection", and military compositions in foreign languages are in them only as an exception, quite often happened that, despite abundance of the sources specified for studying any given subject, any of them did not appear in army library and acquisition met them almost absolute obstacles" [25]. For this reason A.K. Puzyrevsky, publishing this "Collection of subjects", specified in it only those compositions which were available in catalogs of the publisher and bookseller V.A. Berezovsky. In "V.A. Berezovsky" Association there was almost all the "military and book material" addressing in trade.

The author of "The collection of subjects" did not refuse articles at all from military magazines as "some interesting questions are developed only in war reporting". Included a little in the second edition of A.K. Pu-zyrevsky especially extensive character, and they concerned the most essential parties of military science. It was made for the reason that in a circle of officers the number of the faces which graduated from Academy of the General Staff gradually increased i.e. in troops enough the trained staff for development of this sort of questions appeared.

In our opinion, were among the most interesting subjects: "Hunting teams and their combat training", "Scooters and their application to the military purposes", "Aeronautics in application to the military purposes", "Application of electricity to the military purposes", "Explosives and their application to military science", "Training and application of military dogs to field service", "A heroic element in military history", etc.

The list of editions on which instructions in "The collection of subjects" were made was attached to the catalog detailed ". Editions were located in alphabetical order surnames of their authors. The catalog enjoyed wide popularity of the persons responsible for completing of book funds of army libraries, and was quickly sold.

Since a release of the last specified catalogs for army libraries passed near

11 O

thirteen years. For this period a number of valuable editions in various directions of military science appeared. Some compositions,

11 In this case Addition to "The main catalog for army officer libraries" means. Editions of 1886 (till January 1st, 1888) there is a SPb., 1888. - 16 pages

included in "The main catalogs", were outdated. At the request of the chief of General staff the member of Military and scientific committee of General staff lieutenant general K.N. of Durop12 started processing of the fourth edition of the specified catalog [7]. In it continuity of statement with former catalogs of A.K. Pu-zyrevskogo was kept. The added "Main catalog" was replenished with the latest compositions which were published till November 1, 1901. Only the new department which included the compositions relating to aeronautics military samokatnoy to service, ski spo is added?

Waldfogel Manfred
Other scientific works: