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Problem of coexistence of the Cossack trade and business from another town on Dona at the end of the XIX century



PROBLEMA of COEXISTENCE of the COSSACK TRADE AND BUSINESS FROM ANOTHER TOWN ON DON at the end of X! X CENTURIES

BULYGIN YURY ALEKSANDROVICH,

graduate student of department of political history of department of history,

Southern Federal University

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In article on the basis of the historical and economic analysis the position of the Cossacks in all-imperial trade is investigated.

In the article the Cossacks position in the imperial trade is investigated on the basis of historical and economic analysis.

Codes of the qualifier of JEL: E22, F14, N90.

Attempts to find a fitting place to modern Cossacks quite reasonably have to be formed, considering experience of the researches concerning clarification of position of the Cossacks to Dona in pre-revolutionary time. Especially it belongs to judgment of an economic role of the Cossack. Roles, on the one hand, minor, and with another — necessary for podder-° a zhaniye of viability of any without any exception a social group. The soldier -

^о sky calling of the Cossacks and the duties connected with it long time not

gave to the Cossack of opportunities to be engaged in economy. At the same time, when they appeared, it turned out that for various reasons the Cossacks are not ready to head and lead commerce and industry life of edge. Poche-2 mu so occurred? The attempt to understand it represents relevant

a task also because since the beginning of the 2000th years the Don market actively joined large capital businessmen and retail chain stores. The analysis of a post-reform situation experience can give to modern Don region estimates of globalization trends of more than centenary prescription.

Permission the non-resident in the 1860th to lodge and have property within Army became an additional incentive for penetration on

© Yu.A. Bulygin, 2010

Don non Cossack entrepreneurs. Of course, Cossacks never played the dominating role in economy of Don region. At the end of H1H of a century they possessed only the fifth part of all commerce and industry enterprises of area, and it were generally small and medium-sized enterprises which share in the total commercial turnover of 1898 made 6.5% (Sushchenko 1997, 234—237). Other shares fell on foreign (nearly 29%) and the Russian not army capital. The hereditary Cossacks considerably gave way in scales of business activity to both the nonresident partners, and foreigners. In the numerical relation at a boundary of X1X-XX of centuries the non Cossacks and foreigners possessed three quarters of all commerce and industry enterprises of area with the total annual turnover more than 180 million rubles (Samarina 1992, 6-12).

The data taken from "The statistical review of commerce and industry activity of the Cossack population from 1894 to 1898" though allow to find out an approximate ratio of positions of the foreign, not army and Cossack capitals at the end of the 19th century, but do not give the chance precisely ^ to determine the number of the Don businessmen (Samarina 1992, 44-45). gn Domination of nonresident merchants was noted already by contemporaries (Nomi-^о slanting 1884, 552-554). S.S. Nomikosov said to the first that it is not possible to define the capital of the nonresident merchants and small traders living in borders of the area. According to him, trade of these persons is based by 1 most part on the credit allotted mainly out of limits about - § of a lasta — Moscow, Kharkiv or the Nizhny Novgorod fair. Indicators of Torahs - about govl in many respects had approximate character, and exact data on trade turnovers, especially for the beginning of the 19th century, it is difficult to find: especially as re-^

the alny state of affairs with declared at dealers never met (Nomikosov 1884, 552-554).

Post-reform penetration of the market relations on the Cossack Wednesday az

revealed and aggravated a contradiction between military and economic roles of the Cossack. Against the background of successful prosperous farms country (non-residents) the Cossack economy did not shine. Trying to improve the financial position, the Cossack quite often realized that the long military service in the conditions of capitalization is the heavy burden preserving its economy. Compensation in the form of cheap labor acting through "non-residents lodgers" was insufficient. The developed system of army land use could not save from property stratification. In the Cossacks there was a thought of "impoverishment" of estate which reasons seemed acting through more and more increasing koliche- about

stvo of non-residents (Shchetnev). "As soon as there passed the severe need in settling of edge and were found constraint in land use, inogorodets lost the former kolonizatsionny price" — the researcher F.A. Shcherbina notes (Shcherbina 1913, 688).

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The Cossack trade on the list of trade people was mononational so as far as the Cossack society was that. For decades of the attitude of Cossacks and non-residents in trade were ambiguous. Among the Cossack estate there was an opinion that trade people nonresident, alien from outside, "wash away" their trade way, as well as all tenor of life, encroach on "exclusive" position of Cossacks. It opinions found reflection and in the Cossack legislation. The system of privileges constrained both Cossacks entry into the All-Russian market, and penetration of trade experience from the outside. Rules of trade in relation to non-residents to the Provision of 1885 were mainly prohibitive. Perhaps, all this also defined that rather small share which the Cossack entrepreneurs had in the general enterprise weight.

The state archive still stores concrete manifestations of attempts of fight against domination of non-residents in the Don economy. At the end of H1H centuries representatives of Trade society addressed the ataman and achieved prohibition of sales and discounts with tovarov1. The entrusted Societies found, t — 1 that sales entice trustful public to incredible expenditure: without

^о analysis under the guise of cheap excess goods in damage before - are bought

to mints of prime necessity. "Hobby for false low cost reaches that trustful customers, exactly as hazardous players, 1 lower all cash, enter even debts, getting sometimes with -

§ all goods not necessary to them" 2.

about Entrusted agreed that such trade does not correspond you -

^ cell of the calling: the real goods have the price and to be on sale about a ledge -

^ Kami, i.e. according to such logic "fraudulently", just cannot. On -

formation of June 28, 1893 forbade

printing in local newspapers, distribution of sales in society, signs with the inscription "sale" & lt; B on shop-fronts and show-windows, sticking-up in different places on purpose privleche-

z a niya of bigger influx of buyers of announcements (advertizing) of sales in

£ shops, benches and warehouses of the remains of goods and discounts from the prices occasionally on -

kopleniye of goods. Only distribution of announcements without any appeals and designation of the prices was allowed: notices on receiving new goods, movement of trade or opening of trade again.

Cossacks explained such zeal in favor of buyers with the fact that these subversive activities went only from nonresident dealers. Radical negotiators, according to the entrusted, such methods did not know. Post-reform about time of the 1860-1870th opened for the non Cossack entrepreneurs it is possible to lodge a nost in borders of the area and to have property and the enterprises on ^ to the army earth. Attempts of Cossacks to influence a situation legislative _ | were in the way a peculiar conservative protection local the auction _

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1 See: GARO. T. 200 Op.1. No. 922. L. 7.
2 See: GARO. T. 200 Op.1. No. 922. L. 7.

whether from manifestation of globalization trends. In December, 1895. The regional government of army of Donskoy declared that Army nakazny the ataman N.I. Svyatopolk-Mirsky repealed the resolution on so-called "cheap sales" as not achieving the planned objective. However cancellation of the resolution did not shake the trade Cossacks who sent similar appeals and to the following Don ataman — to K.K. Maksimovich. In 1901 the prohibition of sales was restored, but further the archival fund of Trade society does not report data on problems with performance of this act.

The army Don did not stint the bans in relation to nonresident merchants. To the middle of the 19th century they were not allowed to get the real estate in Novocherkassk and across all territory of Army. Granting gildeysky commercial laws to trade Cossacks, about could serve overcoming alienation of trade Cossacks from all Russian trade estate

who in many respects would guarantee freedom of the Cossack trade and povysha- ^

whether its value in the business world of Russia. Corresponding inquiry by Cossacks ^

trade society it was made at the end of the 1830th, and in 1841 there was re- a ton

Shen polozhitelno3. However to tell that trade estate of the Don Cossacks ^о

after that massively entered the Russian market, will be big exaggeration. Archive materials prove that mass Cossack trade and business were aimed, first of all, at domestic market. 1

The Cossacks always were, first of all, military estate. However, §

free and freedom-loving on spirit, it could not but resist to flow about

and to economic domination of non-residents. Discussions on this subject began in pre-revolutionary time.

According to the Don public figure, the historian V.A. Kharlamov, about

the policy of the Russian Empire on creation from Cossacks of "a special caste of soldiers" resulted in "artificial isolation of the Cossacks", formation az at estate of hostility to "non-residents", "to the Russian society" (The State Duma. The first convocation. Session the first 1906, 63). Wishing to subordinate to himself "the free troops" is no time, the state replaced the old Cossack rights with new privileges, thereby, promoting isolation of Cossacks, formation in their environment of the ideas of own "peculiarity" (Morozova 2008). Moreover, any infringement of the rights and privileges, the actions of the authorities estimated as injustice gave to the Cossacks the grounds to consider itself "aloof from Russia".

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Foreign capital investments filled insignificant inflow in at

branches of the heavy industry of the domestic capitals, accelerating osvo- about

eniye of natural resources and growth of productive forces of edge. And even not- about

looking that, according to the Cossack authors, foreign and nonresident Ü

the capitals forced out local merchants, they took root into edge economy _i

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in a market joint-stock form (Kislitsyn and Kislitsyna 2007, 80). g

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3 Cm: GARO. T. 200. Op. 1 No. of 7 L. 1-17. R

At the same time if Cossacks were able to afford to argue in a narrow circle on a discrepancy of interests of Russia and Don, then to other layers, and in particular non-residents, they it did not allow. The Mariupol merchants, "Greeks and foreigners", during the Crimean war complained in the highest authorities of the chief of garrison Kostryukov that it allowed the firing of the city which caused destructions of their property. They could not understand why the garrison did not leave the city or did not enter with the enemy negotiations and did not hand over the city on favorable usloviyakh4. The Cossack officers, in turn, were revolted with unpatriotic behavior and the fact that foreigners still dare to voice the claims (Morozova 2008).

By the end of H1H of a century the wellbeing of Trade society and the Cossack business fell. Against the background of the growing richness of a part of non-residents, impoverishment of ordinary Cossacks looked more obvious. Become more frequent foxes appeals to restore economic welfare of Cossacks and to protect area from influx of the nonresident population, "integrally not related to Cossacks and extremely them operating". Activity in this direction of men of weight of Don and Kuban — the chief of staff Voysk of the Don prince A.M. Dondukov-Korsakov, the nakazny ataman of the Kuban Cossack army G.A. Leonov (Malukalo 2002), the assistant nakazny ataman Voysk of Donskoy by a civil part of A.M. of Grekova5 affected the course of events a little that only fixed deaf discontent among Cossacks (Morozova 2008).

In pre-revolutionary time other opinion on a role of Cossacks in the Don trade appeared. S.S. Nomikosov considered that the Cossack trade razviva-about las thus which was required for Don region. Analizi-

Rui opinion that to distribution of trade turnovers among Cossacks prepyat-

it the universal compulsory military service stvovat, S.S. Nomikosov did not consider this

factor main reason of poor development of the Cossack trade; and paid attention that the great number of nonresident merchants, t not obliged to serve and to special stesneniye not exposed lives in area. If

local conditions demanded bigger development of the Cossack trade, it would develop by itself. Rostov grew to the city with the hundred-thousandth population of Ee and multimillion trade turnovers, and in Novocherkassk trade

^ goes sluggishly and does not attract the large capital, but difference of these cities on

N to the relation to trade is explained by their geographical location, and from -

nyud not those that in Novocherkassk there live Cossacks, and in Rostov do not have them — on-8 the researcher lagged (Nomikosov 1884, 552-554). He noted that auction -

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4 See: HECTARE of RO. T. 243. Op. 1. 34. L. 446.
5 See: HECTARE of RO. T. 162. Op. 1. 13. 47 (Minutes of meetings of the commission on the reasons of impoverishment of the Don Cossack army and about measures to recovery of his welfare. 1899).

to local conditions also satisfies to needs of the population, and in trade mediation within area the capitals in a size nearly above the need for them address (Nomikosov 1884, 552-554). Thus, the Don researcher put forward practical, or market, approach to the Cossack trade. That is, including the level of participation of the Cossacks in the Don business by it what was required for the market at that time. The economic relations which developed in post-reform time poorly affected the Cossacks. There was a part of Cossacks which received lands and became land owners, but also they in the majority remaining householders, did not bring own farms to market level.

In this regard the position of V.V. Volchik considering army institutional conditions more prohibitive in relation to the Cossack commerce and industry activity, the main factors braking the Don economy is interesting (Volchik 2007).

Rational grain is available in positions of all researchers. At the same time, it is impossible to forget also the fact that the main thing calling of the Cossack always osta- ^

protection of boundaries of the homeland therefore a question about dominating , - N vatsya

commerce and industry influence of the Cossacks was minor everywhere, ^о

except community of trade Cossacks: as in the ranks of Regional board and an atamansky environment, and in the Defense Ministry at the highest, government level. These are trade Cossacks more than once wrote about put- 1 telny influence of Trade society on economic life of edge and UAV-§ gopoluchy the Regional board receiving large sums from collecting about at increase in structure of Society. Independently trade Cossacks strove on the gildeysky rights and demanded to eradicate domination of non-residents ^ in edge economy. Nobody, except them, apparently, was interested in с^ development of the Cossack trade.

Thus, it should be noted the contradiction connected about an asset- ^

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ache a position of the capital from another town in the Area. In spite of the fact that it filled necessary inflow of the capitals, the Cossacks blamed inogorod-ets for capture of commerce and industry superiority of area and because of it a weak condition of radical Cossack welfare. Attempts of fight against this domination from trade Cossacks had anti-market character and were expressed in attempts to solve a problem with the help of power structures.

Borders of the empire were removed on the South, post-reform processes washed away the Cossacks, but it remained, first of all, military estate. The problem of retraction of his members in economic life of edge remained own problem of trade Cossacks. about

The formed isolation of the Cossacks from all-imperial trade left the mark and long time. The Cossack trade could not join all-Russian. The economic ties which developed by then left to the Cossacks mostly traditional at -

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native (salt and mining) resources of Don region while the commerce and industry condition of edge did not leave the field which massively could join the trade Cossacks.

LITERATURE

Volchikv. Century (2007). Edge of the missed opportunities: institutional history of the Don agrarian and trade business. / Materials of the international scientific conference "The Russian business in XIX — the first third of the 20th century: persons, firms, institutional environment". St. Petersburg. October 19-21. (http://polittheory.narod.ru/lecturer.htm).

GARO. T. 162. Op. 1. 13. 47 (Minutes of meetings of the commission on the reasons of impoverishment of the Don Cossack army and about measures to recovery of his welfare. 1899) GARO. T. 200. Op. 1. No. 7. L.1-17. ^ GARO. T. 200. Op. 1. No. 922. L. 7.

^ GARO. T. 243. Op. 1. 34. L. 446.

§ State Duma. The first convocation. The first session. Stenografiche-

sky reports. SPb., 1906. T.1.

Kislitsyn S.A. and I. Kislitsyna about (2007). History of the Rostov region. (From the earth of Army of Donskoy up to now). Rostov-on-Don: SKAGS. ^ A.N. Malukalo (2002). Reform of the Caucasian Cossack troops of book of A.N. Don -

about Dukova-Korsakova//the Cossacks of Russia: history and present: Theses

^^ International scientific conference. Gelendzhik. October 8-11.

O.M. Morozova (2008). About self-identification of the Cossack population of Don

yo (18th century — 1920)//the YAEOL Scientific and culturological magazine. No. 13. 20

September. (http://www.relga.ru/Environ/WebObjects/tgu-www.woa/wa/Main7te xtid=2246level1=mainlevel2=articles).

Nomikosov of Page (1884). Statistical description of area of army of Donskoy. Novocherkassk.

about N.V. Samarina (1992). The Don bourgeoisie at the end of XIX — the beginning of the 20th century//

Problems of social and economic history and revolutionary movement on Don and the North Caucasus: XIX \head of the 20th century Rostov-on-Don.

V.A. Sushchenko. (1997). History of the Russian business. Rostov-on-Don: Phoenix.

F.A. Shcherbina. (1913). History of the Kuban Cossack army. T.P. Eka-terinodar.

r V.E. Shchetnev. Decossackization as sociohistorical problem.

(http://synopsis.kubsu.ru/new_n/004_97.htm).

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