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Social security of the military personnel of the Red Army in days of the Great Patriotic War: essence, contents and modern value

K.A. nason


The Great Patriotic War of 1941-1945 became the hardest test for all Soviet people. The victory over fascist Germany demanded the enormous tension of all forces of the people and cost to it the huge, unprecedented victims in world history. The situation of wartime caused the necessity of transformation of the country into the uniform military camp and reorganizations of all its economy. Warfare demanded large expenses that strongly changed the government budget. Nevertheless, issues of social security did not recede into the background, and, on the contrary, throughout war were in the center of attention of the country leaders. Social security had stable character, and provision of pensions during this period not only did not worsen, and on the contrary, norms of providing with higher became more preferential. In the country the events for comprehensive providing citizens providing were held: increase in the amount of pensions and grants; distribution of effect of the legislation by some types of social security on more general population; introduction of new types of providing, etc.

Social security always borrowed and occupies one of the key, defining places in life of the state and society. It directly depends on development of national economy and is closely connected with policy and wellbeing of that part of people which works, and unemployed population groups.

The concept of social security is treated ambiguously and still is not standard. In the Big Soviet encyclopedia social security in the USSR - the system of social and economic actions for material security of citizens installed by the state in old age and at disability, on comprehensive providing mothers and children, on medical care and treatment [2, page 245].

In the latest encyclopedic dictionary social security is treated as the system of assistance at the expense of the government budget to the needing categories of citizens in the form of pensions, grants and also maintenance and service aged and disabled people in special facilities (nursing homes), prosthetics; vocational education and employment of disabled people, etc. [9, page 1173].

In relation to the military organization the author of article understands the system of activity of public authorities and military management, commanders, chiefs of all levels, public organizations on realization as social security of the Red Army established for military personnel and also persons equated to them, the citizens discharged from military service and to members of their families of the legal, political, economic and other events held for the benefit of the guaranteed providing material living conditions, privileges and their legitimate interests.

In the sphere of social security treated public authorities: Council of People's Commissars (CPC) of the USSR, SNK of federal republics, National Commissariats of social security of federal republics, regional (regional) departments of social security, regional and city departments of social security. To bodies of military management - state treasury bills, the Rate of VGK, Oborona's Oil Company, the Councils of War of fronts and armies which depending on the powers besides military matters, were engaged in settlement and social problems of the military personnel and members of their families.

Main types of the state social security of the military personnel and members of their families in days of the Great Patriotic War were:

>- pensions, grants in the form of periodic or single monetary payments;

>- release of certain categories of citizens from taxation;

>- privileges on obligatory deliveries, housing privileges, privileges in the field of national education, a privilege in the field of health care, a privilege on social and mutual insurance and on providing mothers having many children with welfare payments, privileges on transportations, post privileges, privileges on material consumer services, privileges in the field of civil law, a privilege on preservation of an experience and other privileges for come back from military service;

>- material and household and cultural service of disabled veterans and families of the died military personnel.

Besides above-mentioned positions it is necessary to carry the questions connected with logistic support to the social sphere such as: food and ware supply; granting premises and also medical and trade consumer services, i.e. those moments which are directly connected with satisfaction personal needs of the military personnel and members of their families.

Irrespective of a source of money the state social security was carried out in different types:

1. Monetary payments (pensions, grants, compensations, financial support, etc.).
2. The natural help (clothes, footwear, food, donor blood, technical devices for disabled people are crutches, artificial limbs, etc.).
3. Services and privileges (keeping in nursing homes for disabled people, in orphanages, social service at home, etc.).

Pensions and grants were one of the main payments in the period of the Great Patriotic War.

On the eve of the Great Patriotic War - on June 5, 1941 - SNK USSR adopted the resolution "About Pensions and Grants to the Faces of the Highest, the Senior and Average Commanding Structure, to the Faces of the Younger Commanding Structure of Long Service, Experts of Ordinary Structure of Long Service and Their Families" [4, page 150-159] improving provision of pensions of the said persons for long service on disability and on the occasion of loss of the supporter.

The amount of pensions to the military personnel of conscription service, irrespective of the disability reasons, and to the members of their families who lost the supporter were considerably increased by the become disabled people.

The issue of payment of pensions and grants to military personnel and their families, disabled veterans and members of families of the died soldiers in the regions freed from the enemy was positively resolved. Only when concerning certain citizens there was damaging evidence about their behavior during occupation, pensions and grants were not paid to them [5, page 438-439].

In a circle of people to which privileges, advantages and which were equated on provision of pensions to the military personnel, zakonoda-extended

the telstvo included the guerrillas, workers of railway, sea, river transport and workers of communication working in war zones, workers of civilian structure of linear bodies of the military messages which were in front-line sites of the railroads within the army back of field army, the workers of civilian structure occupied in construction of defensive works, defensive boundaries and naval bases, participants of local air defense, the workers occupied in airfields and military constructions [5, page 85-94].

Many do not know that in the period of the Great Patriotic War the monetary allowance and a number of additional payments was paid to the military personnel. June 23, 1941. Were instructed by financial management of Narkomat Oborona that to pay a monetary allowance to staff of the Red Army on norms of peace time, however important feature of policy of the state in this area was its incentive character [13, page 260].

It is known that Hitlerite command laid great hopes on the tank troops - the main striking power. According to the order of NPO No. 0528 of July 1, 1942 double salaries of monetary pay were established to a nachsostav of destructive and anti-tank regiments one-and-a-half, and to the ordinary and younger commanding structure. Payment of awards for each padded tank of the opponent was at the same time established: to the commander of the tool and the tipper-of - on 500 rub, other structure of gun crew on 200 rub [10, page 264].

For improvement of fighting work of flight personnel of prospecting aircraft since October, 1942 the salaries of their monetary pay were established 40% above salaries of blizhnebombardirovochny aircraft [10, page 311], and for flight personnel of aircraft of distant action since May, 1943 the salaries were increased by 30% [11, page 95].

Additional payments to the military personnel depended on results of fighting activity. For example, 1,000 rub were paid to the fighter pilot for each downed aircraft of the opponent. To crew of dalnebombardirovochny and tyazhelobombardirovochny aircraft it was paid for each successful bombing of industrial and military facilities of the opponent - 500 rub, at actions on the capital of the opponent 2,000 rub were paid to each crew member [10, page 6468].

Also the system of encouragement of the military personnel of the best parts and connections which caused a stir in fight against fascist aggressors was used. On September 18, 1941 four rifle divisions were entitled Guards. Payment one-and-a-half, and to ordinary structure of double salaries of monetary pay was established to all nachsostav of these divisions.

During war terms of a period of service in military ranks for the faces of command and political structure of the parts and connections operating at the front with transition of these military personnel to the next highest rank were considerably reduced. The resolution state treasury bills No. 929 of November 20, 1941 established the following terms: for the second lieutenant, the lieutenant and the junior political leader - 2 months; for the first lieutenant and the political leader - 3 months; for the captain and the senior political leader - 3 months; for the major and the battalion commissioner - 4 months; for the lieutenant colonel and the senior battalion commissioner - 5 months. To the faces of the commanding structure of headquarters of armies and fronts and also army and front-line units, connections and institutions terms of a period of service for receiving the next military rank increased twice.

To persons of all called categories, wounded in fight or awarded with awards for difference in fight against fascist aggressors, the term of a period of service in the next military rank was cut by half in comparison with the term established by the resolution for the corresponding category of the commanding structure [15].

Huge care the government, the All-Union Communist Party (bolsheviks) and workers of rear regions of the country showed

about wounded veterans and disabled people of the Great Patriotic War. It was one of the most important national objectives of wartime on which successful solution the fate of millions of soldiers in many respects depended.

Charities for the sake of in hospital came many volunteers, the best activists - Komsomol members who gave all free time to care for wounded and sick soldiers. They read newspapers to wounded, orally retold reports and the major materials, collectively read art and political literature, stories about heroes of the Great Patriotic War, led discussions with wounded on the subjects established by the commissioner of hospital assisted wounded in sending letters home, to the companions in a part or read the received letters, the help to the commissioner of hospital in targeting of discipline and in the organization of cultural service of wounded, participated in ra-

boat of club, library, Lenin room [16]. They were on duty at beds of seriously wounded, helped all of them, than could. Thousands of patriots free of charge transferred in hospital various furniture, bed linen, towels, footwear, etc.

Money came to fund of the help to wounded veterans in a large number from the civilian population. Even at the very beginning of war in offices of the State Bank and savings banks of many areas, edges and republics special accounts to which the money coming to fund of wounded veterans was transferred and translated were opened [14, page 244].

The order of provision of pensions of the military personnel who came back disabled people from captivity was especially regulated, conditions of award of pension at discharge from hospital were defined. On May 6, 1942 SNK USSR adopted resolution No. 640 "About the labor device of disabled people of Patriotic war". In it it was indicated on the need of the organization of mass training in new specialties of disabled veterans which for health reasons could not work on the former specialty. In December, 1942 in the country, labor boarding schools for disabled veterans began to be created [9, page 89-90]. In labor boarding schools the disabled people studied various specialties. For rather short terms they acquired profession of projectionists, telegraph operators, operators, photographers, accountants, cashiers, accountants, tailors, cooks, mechanics, typesetters, etc.

Care of families of veterans was an indissoluble part of care of the state of the Red Army. Huge amounts of money were allocated for providing families of the military personnel with grants. To their families numerous privileges on taxes, on obligatory deliveries of agricultural products were provided to the state, on a rent, a tuition fee of children, etc.

From the beginning of war it was required to settle a question of the state providing families of the military personnel of ordinary and non-commissioned officer's structure at the call of. The order of the state ensuring this category of citizens was provided by the Decree of Presidium of the Supreme Council of the USSR of June 26, 1941 [6, page 110]. Families of the military personnel of ordinary and non-commissioned officer's structure who is called up for the Red Army and the Fleet acquired the right to grants from the state. The sizes of grants were defined depending on the number of disabled family members and their residence in city or rural areas.

The question of providing families of the officers who did not have monetary certificates and communication with the head of the family was resolved. According to the order of NPO No. 242 of July 23, 1941. "About an order of issue of monetary pay to a part to families of the commanding structure and sverkhsrochnosluzhashchy, and sverkhsrochnosluzhashchy grants in the sizes depending on official capacity of the serviceman and on the number of disabled dependents were paid to the families of generals, officers which did not receive certificates" and in the subsequent resolution state treasury bills of May 14, 1942: from 75 to 500 rubles [20, l. 260]. This statute was caused by special difficulties and considerable losses in staff of the Red Army during the first period of war. After clarification of fate of the serviceman the given grant kept from its monetary pay or from pension. The right to a grant was determined by military registration and enlistment offices by the place of residence of families after preliminary careful verification of necessary documents.

In many cities and villages various voluntary organizations, the commissions, councils for assistance to families of veterans were created. For example, in Moscow the council of wives of veterans in which there were more than 1,500 people worked. With their help within only one year over 16,500 members of families of the military personnel were employed, 14,500 children are attached to dining rooms, about 4,000 are suited in day nursery and kindergartens, more than 850 the most needing families free of charge received children's footwear and clothes [14, page 270].

The party and the government for all years of war gave great attention to improvement of food of children, maintaining their health. Norms on separate food on children's food-cards were equated to norms of supply of workers and employees, and in some cases were above norms of supply of adult dependents. Children up to 12 years received norm of bread the same as adult dependents.

Norms of delivery of food to the children who were in kindergartens were considerably increased. To school students 50 g of bread and 10 g of sugar were daily released in addition. In 1942 4 million pupils received at schools children's breakfasts [14, page 278].

During the Great Patriotic War it was organized for children of soldiers of the Red Army and Fleet and also children - orphans whose parents died from hands of fascist aggressors, network of Suvorov and Nakhimov Naval Schools, special orphanages and children's receivers distributors (postanov-

leny SNK of the USSR and the Central Committee of the All-Union Communist Party (bolsheviks) of August 21, 1943. "About urgent measures for restoration of economy in the areas freed from the German occupation").

The military personnel took advantages in connection with encouragement for military work and fighting differences. The system of measures of mass encouragement and honourable difference for participants of the Great Patriotic War was developed and approved: the statement of military awards, medals and breastplates, granting rewarding to military command of the right of awards and medals, introduction of awards for long service and faultless service, establishment of a wide range of the persons which were subject to rewarding and the concrete list of fighting progress for which soldiers received awards, rewarding of soldiers of the Red Army with special medals for defense of hero towns, for capture of the enemy cities - fortresses, for release of the capitals of Union States, granting side benefits to the awarded military personnel and their families [12, page 260].

In wartime in the Red Army and the Fleet the system of preferential transportations of the military personnel, persons liable for call-up and their families in connection with any given circumstances provided by the legislation was applied.

The Soviet state provided free rendering legal aid by the serviceman, to members of their families and disabled people of the Great Patriotic War on the questions connected with privileges and material security on maintaining in court of their affairs, by drawing up complaints, statements and other papers [1, page 64-69].

Besides privileges and grants to the military personnel of the Red Army and Fleet all efforts of the country leaders and ordinary Soviet citizens were aimed at comprehensive providing the front. The organization of the grass-roots donor movement among the population of the country as in many cases only donor blood as highly effective remedy could save hundreds and hundreds of thousands of lives was one of such directions. A blood test for wounded was taken by all population groups, but the leading role in it belonged to staff of the industrial enterprises. They were initiators of the patriotic undertakings which enhanced scope of mass agitation work on development of donorship in the country. In Moscow, for example, the foundation for this movement was laid by workers of automobile works. They appealed to join from pages of the factory newspaper the ranks of donors that the blood to save life of wounded. Patriotic initiative moskov-

sky auto makers were supported by workers of many other enterprises.

For example, in 1943 in Moscow there were 341,282 donors. Thanks to big organizing work of the party, Soviet, trade-union and Komsomol organizations, bodies of health care and defensive societies, mass patriotism of Muscovites of the station of transfusion and blood donor centers of the capital prepared in the years of war more than 520 thousand liters of donor blood [7, page 32-41].

The broad scope in the years of war was received by the patriotic movement for collecting and sending to the front of gifts for soldiers. This movement was developed almost at the same time through the whole country. In 1941 assembled gifts for veterans tens of millions of people participated in all areas, edges and the republics.

The party organizations, public authorities and military management conducted collaboration in uniform distribution of gifts between fronts what archival documents of the Head Political Department of RKKA [17, l confirm. 317 - 318].

As a rule, together with gifts to soldiers, collective or individual letters came, but, unfortunately they were not enough and they were not in all parcels. And though they from various regions of the Soviet Union, the cities, villages were written, thoughts and feelings in them were some: an appeal to fast extermination of fascist invaders.

So, for example in one of battalions of the 3rd shock army of the Kalinin front in 300 parcels received from workers of the Ivanovo region, fighters only 3 letters, except for the letters of the secretary of the Ivanovo regional committee printed in printing house were revealed. Answers to them wrote over ten people including a number of commanders [18, l. 267].

Almost along with collecting gifts for veterans the collecting among the population of various warm clothes and footwear was widely developed in the country. This movement also arose at the initiative of workers of masses and was fixed by the resolution of the Central Committee of the All-Union Communist Party (bolsheviks) and the directive of the chief of the Head Political Department of RKKA No. 240 of September 21, 1941 [19, l. 78].

Collecting warm clothes and linen passed across the whole country with unprecedented growth. Only in three autumn months 1941 the workers collected for the front more than 15 million various warm clothes, including 1,175 thousand pairs of valenoks, 1,800 thousand to a floor -

shubk, cotton jackets and trousers at the expense of which it was possible to dress and put on more than two million veterans [14, page 195-196].

Thus, in days of the Great Patriotic War the monetary payments, privileges and advantages to the military personnel equated to them persons and members of their families by war laws were seriously expanded and differentiated; providing soldiers and their families with pensions and grants assumed expansion of a circle of people which had the right for the corresponding payments; the rendering the various help to the front and members of families of the military personnel which was expressed in the patriotic movement of the Soviet people assembled of gifts, warm clothes for Red Army men, the help to their families, began in our country in the very first days of war accepted mass character. Care of families of veterans became really a matter of national importance, the law of life of wartime.

Without historical experience of the past war to create new, high-maneuverable, capable to quickly solve objectives Armed Forces, along with many problems which are available for most of the servicemen of the Russian army and the fleet it is impossible. It is necessary to consider experience of activity of public authorities and military management in the sphere of social security of the military personnel and members of their families promoting achievement of a victory in the most cruel and bloody war in the history of mankind.

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Ivan Williams
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