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Features of information on educational institutions XVIII of Russia in



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07’2008

Anatoly CHEBOTARYOV

FEATURES of INFORMATION ON EDUCATIONAL INSTITUTIONS XVIII of RUSSIA CENTURIES

Formation of an educational system in Russia, since Peter's time, was actively continued by Peter I's successors and Catherine II. Many of educational institutions the Overland shlyakhetny military school, Academy of Arts and Educational society of noble maidens carried out information activities, in particular.

"The case organized in 1731 in St. Petersburg the cadet", later renamed into "Overland shlyakhetny military school" was one of the first closed educational military institutions for young men in Russia. Information on how cadets what their progress, found reflection in the capital newspaper — "St. Petersburg Sheets" study. The number of messages and announcements of activity of Overland shlyakhetny military school by years was various: on average from the date of formation of the case till 1760 the number of messages and announcements was 397; during activity of printing house from 1760 to 1765 on average there were about 481 messages in a year. In total messages and announcements during education (1731) till 1765 was 1481. From them 862 were printed repeatedly.

About contents and the number of announcements in the 70th it is possible to give data for 1774 as an example. This year 74 times were published in the newspaper of the announcement and the message about the Overland case. These are three announcements: about employment, the invitation of partners, about driving off, and the bulk of messages and announcements — 74 — concerned generally economic providing products with purchase. At the same time data on inclusion in corps of new pupils, on the rewardings which caused a stir in study continued to be published in the newspaper. As awards there were gold and silver medals. Not only the capital newspaper, but also Moscow wrote about activity of the case. "The Moscow sheets" in 1775 are published "By the letter on feeding in Overland corps of beggars and about a razdavaniye to misters cadets of rewardings which in a reasoning of matters consisting in it, adequately data of public".

In the 80th of the message about activity of the case consisted generally of the lists which finished training news of new reception and rewardings. Circulations of these messages constantly increased. So, the announcement of reception in 1790 was printed in number of 2182 copies

Pupils of this of "knightly academy" got an education which promoted further to do them large military and civilian career. In Overland shlyakhetsky military school the outstanding poet and the writer of the 18th century A.P. Sumarokov studied. The famous military figures P.A. Rumyantsev, the prince A.M. Golitsyn, gr were graduates of the case. P.I. Panin. Among "cadets" there were fans of poetry and theater.

Feature of information of Overland shlyakhetny military school is the regularity and the sequence in preparation of materials for the publication in the newspaper. It, undoubtedly, influenced society. To the end of the century it was already difficult to come to the Overland building without patronage.

CHEBOTARYOV

Anatoly

Mikhaylovich —

Tekan of faculty

dekorationo-

applied

toorchestvo

Chelyabinsk

gosudar_stoyenny

academies of culture

t of arts

07’2008
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A bit different nature of the message and the announcement were published in the newspaper about Academy of Arts. In 1763 on October 8 in Academy the solemn meeting and the general examination of Academy was for the first time organized. On this occasion in Academy the exhibition was organized. For "public" survey the works of pupils created since day of foundation of Academy were exposed. The best pupils were handed as a medal award on a blue tape. In addition to the newspaper for 1763 No. 56 published the message about an exhibition, the examinations which were taking place in Academy with delivery of awards for the best works and about visit of Academy by Catherine II1. At this solemn meeting were accepted in honorary members the count Stroganov as the fan of arts, the engraver Schmidt, the court painter Groot and the adviser M.V. Lomonosov who said long thanksgiving and eulogy in Russian in honor of Academy. This event found reflection in information of the Sankt-Peterburgskiye Vedomosti newspaper. In the newspaper the addition to No. 85 of October 23 in which it was reported about M.V. Lomonosov's election was printed and it is published it rech2.

In October, 1764 the director of Academy Betsky presented the draft of Regulations and the Privilege of Academy of Arts of the commission into which Shakhovskoy, Panin, Münnich, Olsufyev and Teplov entered. After approval by this commission Catherine II approved on November 4, 1764 Regulations of Academy of Arts with the state. In 1764, construction of the new building for expansion of Academy began. It was supposed to build first of all from East side the hall or long gallery which was intended for placement of collection of paintings and sculptures of Academy there. The beginning of construction was preceded by a solemn bookmark and consecration, the "an inavguration celebration" which was held on June 28. The main event of this celebration consisted in delivery of Academy of Arts of Privilege and the Charter. But, besides officially invited on "invitation", on a celebration osvyashche-

1 "St. Petersburg sheets", No. 56, 1763. Additions
2 "St. Petersburg sheets". Additions. 1763

a niya of the academic church and delivery of Regulations near Academy gathered to many people, wishing to examine Academy. The Academy was open for this purpose eight days. According to Ya. Shtelin: "Influx of the notable, average and ordinary people wishing to examine Academy was constantly so big that daily since morning before nightfall of the room and halls teemed with many people".

Messages about public meetings, examinations and an exhibition of works of pupils were the main information on activity of academy in the Sankt-Peterburgskiye Vedomosti newspaper. In 1766 the announcement of an exhibition of works of pupils of Academy of Arts, of rewardings and of assignment to graduates of a rank of the artist is published it was in detail told in addition to No. 56, and in addition to No. 59 of July 25 was reported about holding a public meeting of Academy of Arts. In June

to
1768 in addition to No. 58 it was reported about a solemn meeting on July 8, 1768 in Academy of Arts. Similar information was published also in
1769 , supplemented with the speech of the president of Academy I.I. Betsky was located in addition to No. 11.

Also announcements of enrollment in the "Educational school" organized at Academy of Arts were published in the newspaper, but such messages were rare. About the carried-out inoculations among pupils of Academy of Arts it was reported in additions to No. 82, 89 in 1768

Exhibitions which began to be held annually intended not only for assessment of the work done by pupils, but also for sale. So, in January, 1764 in Academy public sale of a large number of pictures which were painted as studies by pupils by means of their teachers took place. Prices of some pictures were high (some cost 40 — 50 rubles). The money gained from sale after compensation of costs of Academy was distributed among authors. In the same time in information and educational activity of Academy of Arts the new form — the catalog appears. In it plaster figures, bas-reliefs and studies of engravers were offered for sale. Feature of information of Academy

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arts the fact that unlike other educational institutions in it exhibitions which as a form of dissemination of information were very effective were organized is.

Catherine II convinced that education will push origin of the center of society which so was not enough in Russia and also will return strength of mind to the nobility and will strengthen thus all state, issues on May 5, 1764 the personalized decree "About education of noble maidens in St. Petersburg at Resurrection Monastery; with the appendix of the Charter and staff of this Educational Society" 1. This decree in Russia for the first time created a higher educational institution for women.

The Sankt-Peterburgskiye Vedomosti newspaper from the first day of the organization of Educational society of noble maidens gave various information on activity of this establishment. So, in addition to No. 70 of "The St. Petersburg sheets" the message about opening of Educational society of the noble maidens and the list admitted to Educational society was published.

In a year "The St. Petersburg sheets" print the list of pupils of Society of noble maidens, and in 1767 the newspaper informs public that in the society of education of noble maidens there was a holiday in honor of the introduction of the first pupils in the second age and reception on their places of the following maidens.

Information on activity of Educational society of noble maidens in the 70th of the 18th century was most often limited to messages about the taken place release and lists of winners for progress in study. The volume of such messages fluctuated from 4 to 5 pages and Sankt-extended as addition to "

1 Complete collection of laws of the Russian Empire. SPb., 1830. T. XVI. No. 12154

To the St. Petersburg sheets". So there were in 1774, 1775, 1776 and 1778

Considerable information and educational activity which was expressed in various ways of dissemination of information on Educational society of noble maidens and also the personal contribution of Catherine II with her numerous visits to educational institution was made from Smolny the real legend in which more and more families of the highest nobility trusted. From 80th was considered to be his graduate prestigious as it guaranteed the good place at court. In the 80th, messages about the termination of educational society of noble maidens are periodically published in the Sankt-Peterburgskiye Vedomosti newspaper. In the 1790th the circulations of additions with information on Educational society constantly increased, so, addition circulation to No. 74 for 1790 was 1100 copies, and in 1797 — 2532 pieces. In 1799 the message about the termination of older years by pupils of Society of noble maidens was printed with record circulation — 2746 pieces. These messages were printed separately and extended with the newspaper. Generally these messages as well as in other years, were limited to surnames of graduates.

Features of information of any given educational institution follow from features of educational process and specifics of educational institution. It should be noted, as the Military school, both Academy of Arts, and Society of noble maidens actively used the newspaper as the main means of dissemination of information on educational institution. If information in the Sankt-Peterburgskiye Vedomosti newspaper on Military school was more various, then the Academy of Arts, thanks to an exhibition examination, demonstrated results of the activity more. Most often information on educational institutions had information and narrative character with addition of insignificant elements of advertizing.

Samuel Viktor
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