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The system of encouragement of officials in local governments drill in the 19th Century.



Article is devoted to features of a system of material and moral encouragement of officials in local governments the Buryat in XIXv.

The article is devoted to the peculiarities of system of material and moral rewards of public servants in Buryat self-governing authorities in the 19th century.

steppe thought, foreign justice, patrimonial management, taysha, common law; "steppe duma", non-Russian municipality, generic administration, taisha (head of Buryat local administration), usual law.


Tsydypmunkuyevna — to. and. N, deputy director of the National irkhiv of the Republic of Buryatia, Ulan-Ude

Now the history of establishment and activity of local governments acquires special relevance in connection with implementation of the Federal law of October 6, 2003 No. 131-F3 "About the General Principles of the Organization of Local Government in the Russian Federation". Knowledge of historical experience will give the chance of its use by local governments in the work.

The three-stage system of local governments in the form of steppe thoughts, foreign justices, patrimonial managements was founded under "The charter about management of foreigners" of 1822 of M.M. Speransky and had to promote collecting taxes in treasury, to execution of instructions of higher bodies, conducting accounting of the population, etc. The system successfully functioned in the Buryat departments throughout XIX — the beginning of the 20th centuries. In total 12 Buryat steppe thoughts were founded: 7 — in the Irkutsk province (Alarsky, Balagansky, Verkholensky, Idinsky, Kudinsky, Tunkinsky, Olkhon), 5 — in the Transbaikal region (Agin, Barguzin, Kudarinsky, Selenga, Horinsky).

Treated officials of a steppe thought: taysha, assessors, clerk, his assistant; a foreign justice — the head, two elective, the clerk, his assistant; patrimonial management — the patrimonial head and his assistant. Their duties were in detail painted in "The charter about management of foreigners" and collections of common law drill. So, in the Horinsky Provision of 1851 it is noted: "Taysha in the Steppe thought solves, supervises and carries out state and public affairs, promotes diligence of the podatny population in arable farming and similar profitable aspirations, averts from dissolute and bad classes. If who files a complaint on litigatory and claim affairs, then, having received it, for the decision and implementation transfers to the websites of outflow or at the request of both tyazhushchikhsya the parties, according to Article 130 of the Charter, can resolve finally. If the subordinated Heads and assessors as a result of lack of diligence performed by a position do not carry out the charged affairs, then to collect on the basis of the general provision, and heads sech birches of the established sample... Heads and elective foreign justices, patrimonial heads and their assistants. have to care and supervise behind collecting state taxes, replenishment of bread in economic shops, to encourage the podatny population to wider circulation of arable farming, cultivation

the cattle and to aspiration to various profitable classes" 1.

Positions of Taishi, assessors, the heads, patrimonial heads could be both hereditary, and elective and were approved by the highest administration after the procedure of elections on public Suglan. According to the Charter of 1822 the officials, except the clerk and his assistant, "do not earn from rodovichy the any salary, but correct positions on these ranks as public service" 2 therefore the system of material and moral encouragement of officials for successful service was provided.

So, the public service of officials was legislatively encouraged by allocation of the best arable and haying lands in big sizes. Further in the Buryat steppe laws the concentration of a huge number of lands in hands of officials was legalized. Kudarin-sky the Buryat is specified in the Provision on steppe laws: "As the chief director in departments, assessors of a thought and patrimonial heads, the heads do not earn any salary, in a reward for their service special sites of the arable and haying best land several times more against the ordinary foreigner by common consent rodovichy the whole department or one sort" 3 are allocated to them.

Granting a tax benefit in the form of remission of a yasak was the following form of material encouragement of officials. So, in the Horinsky steppe thought in 1853 did not pay yasak 50 people, from them 8 — regular lamas both 42 — the headquarters and ober-officer children and personal dvoryan4. In the Selenga steppe thought in 1879 151 people — honourable citizens used tax benefits. Forms of moral encouragement of officials for successful service

1 The Horinsky Provision of 1851//Common law of horinsky is drilled. Monuments to the old Mongolian writing / lane with mong. — Novosibirsk: IN "Science", the Siberian book-publishing firm, 1992, page 94-95.
2 PSZRI-1, t. XXXVIII, Article 29126. - SPb., 1830, page 402.
3 The provision on steppe laws and customs between foreigners of the Transbaikal region of the kudy-rinsky tribe existing//Researches and materials on the history of Buryatia. — Ulan-Ude: Buryat book publishing house, 1968, page 201.
4 National archive of the Republic of Buryatia (further — NARB), t. 8, op. 1, 271, l. 429 — 430.

were the announcement of gratitude from the higher administration and rewarding with awards and medals of different advantage: for long service, "for diligence", "for full collecting taxes", "for successful assistance to distribution among foreigners of arable farming", for charity, etc.

Officials of the Buryat local governments usually borrowed in Tables of ranks of the Russian Empire with XIV on the XII classes (collegiate registrar, the senatorial registrar, the provincial secretary). Respectively, they could be awarded with the lowest awards from hierarchy of awards — Stanislav and Anne's awards of the 3rd degree. With the Order of Saint Stanislaus of the 3rd degree officials of the lowest classes, starting with the provincial secretary, the served not less than 15 years and having a cool rank could be awarded. The Order of St. Anna awarded the lower ranks for special feats and merits, not fighting, but connected to courage and self-rejection. Medal signs were supplemented with prize breast and nasheyny silver and gold medals "for diligence" and "all-useful activity" on Anninsky, Stanislavovsky and Vladimir films.

On the example of some officials of the Buryat local governments it is possible to see for what merits they were most often awarded.

Undoubtedly, huge interest is attracted today by the uncommon identity of the main Taishi of Barguzin drill the Sahara Hamnayeva. He was hereditary melt-shoy, Taishi Hamnaya Cangkirov's son. From 1834 to 1853 served at it as the assistant and successfully directed the Barguzin department in 1854 — 1875. For these years it made enormous efforts on arable farming distribution, development of crafts and improvement of the standard of living of Barguzin drill, he received official messages of thanks and was awarded with awards and medals. In 1845 S. Hamnayev offered the house under the Buryat parish school (to it educational institutions on department were not), for what it was awarded a silver medal on the Anninsky tape for carrying on a neck. In 1849 received "a sincere official message of thanks" from the Russian Geographical Society for bringing of data on climate Barguzin

departments in Sankt-Peterburg1. In 1855 the governor general of Eastern Siberia N.N. Muravyev-Amursky awarded S. Hamnayeva the gold medal on the Anninsky tape for carrying on a neck for "tireless diligence on service". In 1857 for "diligent service and special care to distribution of arable farming between foreigners" it is awarded on representation of the governor general of Eastern Siberia with the Order of Saint Stanislaus of the 3rd degree, in 1858 "for active works in joining of the Cupid to Russia" the Order of St. Anna of the 3rd degree. Except these medals and awards, it had many thanks from the higher administration for successful collecting taxes and duties.

We will note one more famous person — the main Taishu Agin Buryat Tugultura Toboyeva. He started the office career in 1816 from the clerk's position, then headed a foreign justice, served as the main thing as tayshy within 20 years. Except public work, T. Toboyev is known as the author of the chronicle "Last Story of Horinsky and Agin Drill" (1863) 2 which is and today for a valuable historical source. For these years it was many times noted by thanks of the higher administration: in 1824 received for diligent and good behavior from the Buryat of Horinsky society the certificate with gratitude; in 1837 — that is

1 In the same place, 409, l. 2 — 2 (about).
2 T. Toboyev. Last story of horinsky and Agin drill//the Buryat chronicles. — Ulan-Ude,
1995, page 5-35.

which certificate from the Buryat of the Agin society; for production and representation of an arsenal of a shaman dress — gratitude from the titular counselor Varanda; gratitude for special diligence to improvement of the Nikolaev parish school — from the Irkutsk civil governor; the certificate of appreciation and an award in 15 rub silver — from the minister of the state imushchestvo for considerable cultivation of potatoes and inducement of other foreigners; gratitude for rescue of the cattle at a small river Sartay flood — from the Irkutsk civil governor, gratitude of the managing director of the Irkutsk province for diligent service following the results of audit of the official of special orders of the Irkutsk general provincial department Mordvinov. In 1858 he was awarded with the first ober-officer rank for special merits. T. Toboyev is awarded with the Orders of Saint Stanislaus of the 3rd degree, Saint Anne of the 3rd degree, a silver medal for carrying on a neck, a silver dirk. In 1869 Toboyev got a bronze medal for assistance in the device of the Russian ethnographic exhibition in of Moskve3. For monetary donations to patients and wounded in the Russo-Turkish war it was noted by the sign of the Red Cross from the Russian society of the Red Cross.

A special incentive for execution of public service was the fact that in the Buryat society the respectful attitude towards authorities was cultivated.

3 NARB, t. 129, op. 1, 4487, l. 1.
Schulz Bernd
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