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Materials of the Ust-Tartassky outpost



vestnik of archeology, anthropology and ethnography. 2001. Issue 3

OUTPOST MATERIALS UST-TARTASSKOGO

S.V. Kolontsov, A.A. Vorobyov

The article gives a description of the materials collected by different authors from 1976 to 1989 on the ruinating Russian Ust-Tartas outpost founded at the beginning of the XVIIIth century on the Tartas river. Basing on the analysis of the available ceramics, authors come to a conclusion of certain similarities existing between the ceramic craftwork of the Ust-Tartas outpost and that of the other Russian stockaded towns (like Mangazeya, Ilim, Chauss, and others) located in West and East Siberia. On the other hand, authors indicate lack of local ceramic traditions of the Barabinsky Tartars about the Ust-Tartas pottery. The materials presented in this paper enable us to get an idea of the material culture of the Baraba Russian population in the period of conquering Siberia.

One of monuments of the Russian development of the Barabinsk forest-steppe is Ust-Tar-tassky an outpost (UTF). It was founded in 1722 among three outposts providing protection of local community against attacks of stepnyak and also for protection of the path connecting Tara to Tomsk [Minenko, 1989, page 90-91; 1990, page 32; Molodin, Novikov, 1998, page 122]. In UTF the garrison was formed of the sluzhily people sent from Tara. In 1750 the constant garrisons in outposts were liquidated, and they turned into ordinary villages [Minenko, 1989, page 91].

The outpost was located in the mouth of the Tartas River at its confluence with the Om River at page. Old Tartas of Vengerovsky district of the Novosibirsk region. The monument is opened in 1976 by V.I. Sobolev [Troitsk, Molodin, Sobolev, 1980, page 31]. Now on the place of an outpost there are ill-defined relief signs of the land constructions which were once existing here. The monument is also fixed on powerful deposits of a cultural layer in break of a terrace of the Om River [Molodin, Novikov, 1998, page 62].

Archeological excavations on a monument were not made, but the lifting materials collected by V.I. Sobolev in 1976, A. V. Novikov and And. Items Borodovskim1 in 1986, S.V. Co-lontsovym in 1989, made considerable kollektsiyu2. Its input in a scientific turn is the purpose of the real work.

The complex of finds is presented by the whole and fragmented products from iron, glass and a stone, ceramics, separate pieces of leather and krichny iron.

1

Authors thank A.P. Borodovsky for kindly given opportunity to use materials of his researches in the publication.

Collections are stored in UKM NGPU, NOKM, children's archaeological clubs of "IKAR" and "SLANG".

Iron products — a key (fig. 1, 1), the skobkovidny handle (fig. 1, 2), a fragment of a sickle (fig. 1, 3), the handle with revetings (fig. 1, 4). The last, most likely, fastened to a frying pan. The ring passed in shpenek with traces of a carving (fig. 1, 5) is interesting. Possibly, it was twisted in some thing and served for suspension. Parts of a horse harness was an annulate bit (fig. 1, b) also catch -

Fig. 1. Ust-Tartassky outpost. Stock.

1-8 — iron; 9, 10 — a stone; 11 — glass (7 — according to V.I. Molodin and A.V. Novikov).

on a bit with straight lines psaliy, connected to a ring (fig. 1, 7). Served as means of getting of fire a flint-kresalo of a kalachevidny form with a high shock plate and close handles (fig. 1, 8) and also a piece of flint (fig. 1, 9). Dating kresat, developed by B.A. Kolchin [1959, page 98-103], according to V.I. Molodin, cannot be defining for Siberia. On B.A. Kolchin's typology kalachevidny a kresala are the earliest and occur from X to the 12th century inclusive. On the materials Kyshtovsko-go of the burial ground and the burial grounds from Pritomya and Prichulymya explored And. The items Dulzo-nom similar to a thing are distributed in the 16-18th centuries [Molodin, 1979, page 86]. There are they and among finds of the 17th century from Staraya Ryazan [Darkevich, 1994, page 186]. Kalachevidnye of a kresal occurred in Siberia till 19th century [Kroenke, 1984, page 144]. Most likely, this category of things is dated widely within the II millennium AD. Large pieces of krichny iron belong to the remains of forge production. On one of them copper oxide traces are traced.

The evidence of flour-grinding production is the lower stone found by A.P. Borodov-sky (lezhnyak) of a flat mill millstone with a vertical axis of rotation (fig. 1, 10). It is made of gray coarse-grained granite, according to preliminary data, perhaps, the Ob origin. The working surface is considerably bent, has the teamwork traces corresponding to circular motions. External diameter is equal to 43-45 cm. Section of a millstone is from 3 to 3.5 cm. Diameter of the central opening — 9 cm. It should be noted that zhernovy stones with a diameter more than 40 cm had considerable weight and demanded more thorough efforts for rotation, than one muscular strength of the person [Borodovsky, Troitsk, 1993, page 85]. In Siberia, flour-grinding trade from the moment of its emergence at the end of XVI — the beginning of the 17th century accepted commodity character that was caused by huge need in bread not of the pashenny population. Trade on production of mill millstones appears and grows [Vilkov, 1990, page 292].

A part of a cut shtof of dark green translucent color (fig. 1, 11) belongs to glass products. Other fragments belong to tanks which it is difficult to define forms. One of them is decorated with oval edges. Color of glasses — blue, black, brown with cher-

a ny covering, transparent with a white covering.

The most numerous group of finds is made by ceramics. There are practically no whole vessels, are only two reconstructed completely. On nimbuses there are about 93 vessels, there is a large number of walls, benthonic parts and several bottoms. A.V. Novikov [1990], having used the most part of a collection, reconstructed skills of production of ceramics of UTF. Its researches allowed to establish that in general potter's production of UTF is characterized by uniform technological traditions. So, as raw materials one type of clay (ozheleznenny) was used. Are fixed uniform structure of forming weight in one and all vessels (clay & #43; manure), uniform or very close methods of designing (tape, in rare instances tape and cordlike, ring stuck with use of a ground or ground and capacitive nachin). Processing methods of processing of a surface come down generally to various forms of smoothing down. The circle was used only for smoothing down of surfaces though an opportunity and partial profiling of the top part of some vessels is noted [In the same place, page 179181].

The materials which are not considered in A.V. Novikov's work do not make significant changes to this scheme; there are only two fragments of the chernoloshcheny ware which is not met earlier. However new materials give the chance to expand UTF ware typology and also to consider a question of interaction of figuration of the Russian and native ceramics. A.V. Novikov allocated only three types of ware: korchag, banks, bowls and plates [In the same place, page 175-176]. The main preference is given in the typology used by us to a form of vessels that is caused by uniform technological signs for all allocated ware types. Existence of chernoloshcheny ceramics specially makes a reservation. Nine types of ware are allocated:

1. Pots (fig. 2, 1, 2). Diameter of a throat is about 16 cm. The nimbus of a straight line or will be unbent outside, rounded shape. The drawn image of a human figure is applied to one of vessels before roasting (see fig. 2, 1). There is an assumption that the strip to the left of a figure is the image of a spear [Troitsk, Molodin, Sobolev, 1980, page 178]. Most likely, treats the same type small sosudik with a concave nimbus, ornamentiro-

bathing on a coat hanger the crosswise figures knifed (see fig. 2, 2). By the sizes this vessel is most similar to small pots which, according to ethnographic data, were called "toplyushka-m" and were used for preparation of children's food [Tataurova, 1998, page 96-97].

2. Korchag (fig. 2, 3, 4). Gorshkovidny form. Diameter of a throat is more than 20 cm. The nimbus is unbent outside, rounded shape. The trunk is strongly inflated. In one case the nimbus is decorated two rows of fillets (see fig. 2, 3). One of vessels has the acting platform on a coat hanger (see fig. 2, 4). Most likely, the fragment of a benthonic part with an opening for discharge belongs to korchaga.

Fig. 2. Ust-Tartassky outpost. Ceramics.

3. Vessels of a can form (fig. 2, 5-8). Two subtypes are allocated: with the walls extending up (see fig. 2, 5) and with almost vertical walls (see fig. 2, 6). Cuts

nimbuses in most cases roundish, straight lines meet. The nimbuses unbent outside or bent (see fig. 2, 7). On the outer edge there can be a small roller. One of vessels was chernoloshcheny. Another — is ornamented on a nimbus with two drawn horizontal lines bordering wavy (see fig. 2, 6). The third had the mouth for discharge (see fig. 2, 8). In general vessels of this type correspond to the patches and kvashenka known for ethnographic materials [Tataurova, 1998, Page 98-101].

4. Cups flat dishes (fig. 2, 9-11). Diameter of a throat is up to 15 cm. Height is up to 6 cm. Two subtypes are allocated: with the walls extending up (see fig. 2, 9) and with almost vertical walls (see fig. 2, 10). It is curious small sosudik which could be a children's toy, be used for paints or as the lamp (fig. 2, 11).
5. Frying pans (fig. 2, 12). Diameter of a throat is more than 25 cm. Walls are narrowed to a bottom.
6. Jug (fig. 2, 13). It is a vessel with a short neck, the roundish slightly priostrenny nimbus which is slightly unbent outside. Abrupt coat hanger.
7. Vessels of a kuvshinovidny form (fig. 2, 14). The neck high and accurately expressed, on edge of a nimbus can have a fillet. By the remained part it is possible to assume that the trunk was inflated. One of vessels was chernoloshcheny.
8. Plate (fig. 2, 15). In a form and the sizes it is similar to modern copies. It is from the inside covered green field, ornamented with two straight lines and one bent by corners the drawn lines.
9. Technical vessel (fig. 2, 16). The mouth of a suboval form with two departing broken-off handles. Has no obvious traces of use. It could be used as a lyachka or the lamp.

Is available several fragments of irrigation ceramics of green and red colors and an oval oblong piece of the red calcinated clay. Several fragments of ceramics which reference to certain types is difficult are ornamented. In the first case it is the wavy drawn line, from above which lentiform vdavleniye (fig. 2, 17) are located, in the second — the wavy line bordered with the direct drawn lines (fig. 2, 18) in the third — prints of a face part of a key (fig. 2, 19), in the fourth — sticks and lentiform vdavle-

a niya, some figures (fig. 2, 20) put with a sharp object, making. On one of fragments there is a stuck shishechka. In total seven motives of an ornament and one image are recorded.

The preliminary research of the ornamented ceramics from monuments to the Novosibirsk region is already conducted [Troitsk, Vorobyov, 1999]. But materials UTF in this research were not considered. All ornamental motives, except for two straight lines bordering wavy are new. The analysis allows to consider them purely Russian. Such motives are not characteristic of late medieval ware of the Barabinsk and chatsky Tatars. At the same time they are traced in the territory of the European part of Russia, both on archaeological, and according to ethnographic data [Rozenfeldt, 1997; Kititsyna, 1964, page 162; etc.]. It demonstrates to lack of influence of local traditions on figuration of the Russian vessels in the territory of Baraby. Probably it is necessary to see an explanation that at the neighbourhood of two cultures standing on different steps of economic development, more developed groups ignore the culture of neighbors. On earlier materials it was convincingly shown by T.N. Troitskaya [1999]. Local ornamental traditions could not influence the Russian pottery and for the reason to which some researchers [Melnikov, 1992, page 109 incline; 1996, page 43; Ta-taurova, 1997, page 15]: rasprostrane-

ny more perfect potter's ceramics led in the XVII—XVIII centuries to disappearance of local modelled ware.

In general the ceramics types which are allocated for UTF are quite various. By comparison to the ethnographic data provided by L.V. Tataurova [1998, Page 97-119], their appointment is defined. It is possible to speak about existence of ware for preparation of hot food, children's food, drinks, semi-finished products, storage of products and use in the household purposes.

There is a number of coincidence of ceramics of an outpost in various parameters with ware from Mangazei, the Ilim, Chaussky, Sayansk jails and other monuments [Ovsyannikov, 1973; Dobzhansky, 1979; Belov, Ovsyannikov, Starkov, 1981, page 37-39; Molodin, Borodovsky, Troitsk, 1996, page 160-161; Skobelev, 1999].

Thus, in the territory of UTF, traces of ironworks, flour-grinding and potter's production are fixed. The last can be carried to transitional from house to craft level [Novikov, 1990, page 181].

All this material, along with finds from other monuments, gives the chance to approach closely characteristic material and partly spiritual culture of Russians of Baraby of the period of development and also consideration of issues of cultural interaction with local community.

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