The Science Work
Site is for sale:
Category: History

Historical fate of a galitsky and Bukovina rusinstvo. Final



In recent years the interest of researchers in the historical fate of the Carpatho-Russian population of Galicia and Bukovina increases. The ancient ethnonym the Russinian who was used throughout centuries disappeared from official documents and daily national language for only a few decades. To it another came to change autoetnony - Ukrainians. It is impossible to force out the habitual self-name from national consciousness any legal act: it is enough to remember feeble efforts of the Turkish authorities to deprive of Kurds of their historical self-name. Attempts to change ethnonational consciousness only by means of external pressure, as a rule, provoke escalating resistance and, finally, only stimulate origin of extreme forms of nationalism among the victims of this pressure. Therefore it is incorrect to consider mass refusal galichan and bukovinets from the old self-name only as result of an external intrigue (Austrian or Polish, stimulated Vatican). Such extremely simplified approach does not allow to estimate the difficult ethnic processes happening in real life with a due depth. Ignoring of internal factors of these processes inevitably leads the researcher into a blind alley.

When there is a consolidation of the nation, old ethnonyms are quite often succeeded by new. It is enough to remember that at the beginning of the 20th century in official documents of the Russian Empire names the Baku Turks, Tatars, Turkic peoples for representatives divided between Russia and Persia of ethnic group which himself was called by the Azeri-baydzhanalylar were used and during disintegration of the empire on May 28, 1918 proclaimed creation of the independent Azerbaijan Republic. The fragmentation of the Uigur ethnos which came to be under the power of various conquerors was caused by emergence of ethnonyms kashgarlyk, hotanlyk, that is Ranchi, etc. Only association of Uyghurs finally approved in their environment the general autoetnony. The ethnonym Ukrainians which succeeded the traditional self-name Russinians had a similar destiny also. Development and strengthening of ties between various parts of this ethnic group, first of all, by its intellectual elite, promoted acceleration of a natsiogenez of the modern Ukrainian nation.

From our point of view, the final stage of history of a rusinstvo of Galicia and Bukovina connected with tragic events of two world wars is of a particular scientific interest. To the middle of the 20th century from the daily use earlier habitual for galichan and bukovinets terms the Russinian, Rusnak, "Luda's rusk" gradually disappear. However they remained in the lands which were earlier under the power of Saint Istvan's crown: ethnic processes in Transleytaniya considerably differed from those that happened in Tsisleytaniya. Therefore the fate of a rusinstvo of modern Transcarpathia, Pryashevshchina, the Maramures, Tanks, Srem and Slavonia in the present article is not considered.

Introduction of a new autoetnonim Ukrainians began in the east of Austria-Hungary only at the end of XIX - the beginning of the 20th century, but this process took place slowly and first covered only the population literate - teachers, lawyers, officials, engineers and doctors and also students, seminarists, a part of Greco-catholic and orthodox priests and especially grammar-school boys and school students in general. Gradually city dealers, businessmen, handicraftsmen and workers passed to it. The main part of the peasantry used the habitual self-name. And on Bukovina the most patriarchal environment until the end of the 19th century even kept the ancient self-name "volokh" used not only Moldavians, but also a part of Slavs.

To understand an essence of this paradoxical phenomenon, some explanations are necessary. In spiritual life of the Moldavian principality under the power of which till 1774 there was Bukovina the dominant positions belonged to Orthodoxy. And in the next Galicia which till 1772 stayed as a part of the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth with active support of the authorities the Brest union of 1596 took roots owing to what Catholicism of east ceremony forced out Orthodoxy almost completely. Some part galichan looked for rescue from intolerable pansky oppression in the neighboring Moldavian principality where position of peasants was noticeable the best. Moving to Bukovina, galitsky Russinians remained faithful to Greek-Catholicism which bukovinets called "Carpatho-Russian belief": unlike the Bukovina brothers to the galichena accurately realized the Carpatho-Russian origin. Many bukovinets were natives of the ethnomixed families and knew, at least, two languages - their national consciousness differed in a certain blurring, illegibility. Confessional consciousness dominated over it, as well as in the Middle Ages. And the general for the East Slavic and East Romance population of Bukovina Orthodoxy traditionally was called "voloshsky belief" here. From here and the self-name "volokh" containing not so much ethnic, how many

confessional sense. It was zealously maintained by Romanian priests who were appointed in the ethnomixed villages for the purpose of rumanisation of Slavs.

Only in the period of the accelerated modernization of society, come after the revolution of 1848-1849, ethnonational problems come under the spotlight of the Bukovina public. The East Romance population of the region, first of all its elite layers which had close ties with Transylvania and Romania which just gained independence already in the second half of the 19th century passed on autoetnony "Romanians". And in the environment of the East Slavic population around a question of national self-identification the deep conflict accrued. Fight between the Russophiles who were guided by Russia (or "Moscow-kvofilami" as they were called by political opponents) and narodovtsa-m - supporters of unity of east and western Ukrainians by the beginning of the 20th century reached apogee. In it the political component already dominated, overshadowing language and cultural aspects. Covering patriarchal "volokh" of Bukovina, this fight strengthened the ethnodifferentiating processes in their environment, accelerated transition pyoaaug to a pyota ^апое T baat pyoaag Te Taya of ëí and to a yoba of í and a pas! TG of an ada of a yoarusina, and then - and Ukrainians.

Narodovtsa emphasized: the Ukrainians living in the Russian Empire (who in the 17th century called themselves "Russinians", then in official terminology turned in "maloross", and in living national language - in "Ukrainians") and the Russinians living in the Monarchy of Gabsburgov represent the uniform people. Here what arguments in confirmation of this thought were given by the anonymous author to the book published in Chernivtsi at the beginning of the 20th century "Russinians and & #34; voloshsky вера": "It happens to our person to get from Bukovina or Galichina to Ukraine in Russia, to the cities of Kiev, Odessa or up to Kharkiv further away; and there he will meet the people who will start talking to it a native word, will start singing the same shchedrovka, Christmas carols and other songs, as we which also hold weddings, a christening, a funeral; and all other customs at them such, as well as in our native land" [1. Page 5-6]. And further: "we, Russinians, also are called Ukrainians" [Page 8].

Russophiles approved other: members of the party Great Russia, malorossa and Belarusians are the uniform Russian people "from the Carpathians to the Pacific Ocean". In the second half of the 19th century of their idea were very popular among the galitsky and Bukovina peasants crushed by excessive tax burden and who were exposed to violent assimilation. A considerable part of the peasantry of Galichina and Bukovina perceived the powerful Russian Empire as the potential defender from an arbitrariness of the Austrian authorities. One of active figures

the narodovsky movement Longin Tsegelsky wrote: "The hope of the man for "the white tsar" who just about will come to Galichina was a social basis of a moskvofilstvo among a people at large, will teach a good lesson "Polish sirs and bloodsuckers kikes", "will cancel taxes" and will divide landowners' estates among men" [2. Page 392].

Orientation of Russophiles to Russia threatened territorial unity of Austria-Hungary therefore the Vienna government was supported the people-tsev. Avstrofilsky moods were widespread among those population groups which were involved in the market relations and were able to protect the rights through institutes of civil society and advantages of parliamentarism. Narodovets - ideologists of an ukrainstvo in the Monarchy of Gabsburgov also leaned on them. Official Vienna expected to use Ukrainians in the aggressive plans for a war case with Russia, and St. Petersburg, in turn, hoped for support of the Carpatho-Russian population of "Red Russia" for the introduction of the troops on the territory of Galicia, Bukovina and Transcarpathia. The Rusofilsky organizations received significant assistance from Russia including material.

World War I became ordeal for Russophiles. And representatives of this social and political movement apprehended its beginning as the victory. In the battle of Galicia which began on August 5, 1914 the imperial and royal army of Austria-Hungary suffered crushing defeat, and parts of the Russian imperial army seized Lviv and Chernivtsi.

The Russian press of that time was filled with reports on a joyful meeting of the Russian soldiers the Carpatho-Russian population. Leaning on these materials, our contemporary Alexander Karevin writes: "Locals in every possible way promoted the Russian army, informed it on movement of the opponent, if necessary served as conductors of the Russian parts where could, damaged Austro-Hungarian communication lines. Violently mobilized in Austro-Hungarian army to the galichena as soon as possible were given in captivity. All this promoted defeat of avstro-Hungarian and fast advance of the Russian troops. The population solemnly met liberators. In many villages towards to them there were country deputations with bread salt. At the entry into Lviv the huge crowd showered soldiers with flowers. The considerable number of residents of Galicia joined volunteers the Russian army" [3].

The analysis of other sources allows to get rid of excessive unambiguity in the description of those events. In captivity not only Russinians gave up: the shelves of Austro-Hungarian army crushed in border battle receded, is frequent in a disorder, it is a lot of military personnel

various nationalities in despair laid down arms. Russinians served in 26 infantry and shooting regiments and also in 15 as cavalry

>- from 102 regiments of an infanteriya and 44 regiments of a cavalry which were available in regular army of Austria-Hungary. From 37 infantry regiments of a landshturm (area defense) in 11 many Russinians also served, as well as in 3 cavalry regiments of a landshturm - from 16 being available. There were they in artillery, technical parts, etc. Together with Russinians, Poles, Jews, Romanians, Hungarians and representatives of other nationalities of Galicia, Bukovina and Transcarpathia served. They too, having appeared in a desperate situation, often were given in the Russian captivity. In total in Galitsiysky fight the imperial and royal army lost over 300 thousand people, from them more than 100 thousand captured [4. Page 99]. The weakness of Austro-Hungarian army was a consequence of weakness of the most "scrappy monarchy" Gabsburgov.

The Danube monarchy after defeat in war of 1866 with Prussia lost the status of the great power, it was corroded from within by the ethnic contradictions which are not overcome by the system of dualism at all. The purposes of the begun war were unpopular among many representatives of the oppressed nationalities which were not wishing to shed blood for the emperor Franz Joseph. But some social and political movements tried to use war for implementation of the plans: for example, Polish and Ukrainian nationalists. They started formation of voluntary parts as a part of Austro-Hungarian army - so-called "legions". In August, 1914 about 28 thousand volunteers in Galicia sought to enter the Ukrainian parts, however enlisted in the Legion of sechevy Sagittariuses only 2.5 thousand people [5. - Page 18]. The Huzul volunteers united in the Huzul and Bukovina legion (about 1.5 thousand people) actively participated in the back of the Russian troops in the guerrilla war which ran high in the Carpathians [6. Page 41].

Russinians prisoners of war battled and on other side of the front, voluntarily entering the Russian parts (among them - the famous activist of the rusofilsky movement V.R. Vavrik (1889-1970)) or in specially created from deserters and prisoners of war of connection. The Karpatorussky division as a part of the Certain Czechoslovak building in Russia, for example, was created from them. And the German and Austro-Hungarian command created from prisoners of war of Ukrainians

>- citizens of the Russian Empire two infantry divisions ("Blue" and "Grey"), one more stayed in a formation stage. At the same time all parties roughly violated international law: provision IV of the Hague Convention on laws and customs of overland war of October 18, 1907 forbids similar formations from prisoners of war.

As for the joyful meeting of liberators described by the Russian journalists, it is necessary to consider events of summer of 1914

not separately, and in the context of all history XX of Galicia century In the same way to the galichena met the Red Army in September, 1939 and troops of Wehrmacht in June-July, 1941: in all these cases the local community hoped for considerable improvement of the situation at the new power. And every time soon felt deep disappointment.

For the first time to the galichena were disappointed in 1914-1915. In Galicia and Bukovina occupied "by the right of war" the Russian "occupational administration" was established (this term was used officially in its documents). The temporary Galitsiysky military Governorate-General which also just created Bukovina province was included was created. No ease of tax burden for peasants followed - the former, established by the Austrian power taxes remained in all their volume. About the partition of landowners' estates among peasants and the speech could not be. Besides the local community suffered from frequent withdrawal of horses, the cattle, food and other property by which movements of fronts were followed. Direct robbery and violence in which the Don Cossacks and horsemen of "A wild division" "differed" shook the population (Chechens, Ingushs, Dagestanis, Azerbaijanians, etc.).

Extreme indignation of bukovinets was caused by manifestations of vandalism of "liberators": plunder of Chernivtsi University [7. Page 73], defeat of the Kitsmansky Ukrainian-German gymnasium with destruction of a bust of T. Shevchenko (works of the sculptor Gavrilko) and the equipment of offices, destruction of valuable library of the 1st Chernivtsi German gymnasium, etc. Shock was felt by bukovinets, having for the first time faced the Russian soldiers. The writer and teacher Ivan Bazhansky (1863-1933) working in military years in the Bukovina town of Vashkovtsy wrote down in the diary of December 24, 1914: "Now terrible time has come for Vash-kovtsev. What was not destroyed by gun Moscow shells, Russians destroyed and robbed. As a flood, they became hollow to the city, plundering and breaking everything in houses and mocking at women and girls" [8. Page 38]. By the way, after thorough investigation of behavior of soldiers of other warring armies (his house was cleaned by "allies" - Germans), I. Bazhansky wrote down on December 3, 1917: "Are able to steal well and Germans, it is not worse than Russians".

And in "The Chernivtsi chronicle" which in the years of war was kept by the Greco-catholic priest the public figure and the writer Konstantin Balitskii (1880-1936), are such record. Telling about behavior of Cossacks, the author reports: "In Kitsman there was a case when the officer stole a stolen thing from the Cossack, and that stole from the officer again. Therefore a fight began. The officer beat with the Cossack's lash, forcing to give, but unsuccessfully because the Cossack, despite everything, did not give. At all this they are very immoral. To force in the afternoon, even publicly is at them an everyday thing" [9. Page 574].

Daily excesses such led to noticeable change of public moods. Many ordinary peasants Russinians made sure of illusiveness of the hopes for release from overseas oppression and improvement of life under the power of "the white tsar". It was necessary to feel disappointment and to considerable number of activists of the rusofilsky organizations.

Their educated part expected to receive key posts in new administration, but they miscalculated: visitors the Russian officials became managers generally. Residents of Galicia and Bukovina had to count only on the most insignificant positions, behind very rare exceptions. For example, they sometimes became consultants at the governor - as Alexey Yulianovich Gerovs-ky (1883-1972) who held a position of the senior official on special instructions at the Russian governor of Bukovina collegiate adviser S. Evreinov.

Together with the brother Georgy (1886-1959) Alexey studied in the 1st Chernivtsi German gymnasium earlier, over time was arrested by the Austrian authorities on a charge of espionage in favor of Russia, but ran, having bribed the prison official. Having returned with the Russian troops to the city which they perfectly knew, Gerovskiye's brothers rendered the invaluable help to ranks of the Russian intelligence agencies. On their denunciations in the region the wave of arrests of active figures of the Ukrainian organizations, first of all teachers swept [10. Page 86]. To the Narymsky region, in particular, Nikolay Spinul (1867-1928), the deputy of the Austrian parliament and very popular Bukovina teacher was deported. The Jewish riots (earlier unknown in the region) and executions of locals began.

Among executed on Bukovina for espionage in favor of the Austrians Ukrainians, Jews and Poles prevailed. On a denunciation of local moskvofil three residents of the Ukrainian village of Klivodin were shot, besides, in the Kitsmansky County shot 9 Jews, hung up two Jews and on one Pole and the Ukrainian [11. Page 54]. Activists of the rusofilsky organizations quite often reported to the Russian authorities about the political opponents as sworn enemies of Russia. Gerovskiye's brothers were out of competition here. On Bukovina many descendants of those who suffered from their informing nowadays live, and the bad memory of such activity in Chernivtsi still remains. But their elder brother Roman and the sister Ksenia far from policy, the Chernivtsi old residents still remember with warmth.

the New administration struck to

a blow to the Ukrainian public and political organizations (so-called "mazepinets"), to the Ukrainian education system. Fight against Ukrainian which was violently replaced with Russian literary (obscure to peasantry bulk), caused rejection of many galichan and bukovinets. To these provinces, poorly educated officials whose level of corruption was exceeded even with what showed earlier corrupt Austrian officials were appointed. An objective assessment of their activity was given by the modern Moscow researcher A.Yu. Bakhturina: "The greatest and quite fair complaints were caused by activity of local administration which educational level and methods of work left much to be desired. It (in combination with noisy declarations of the Russian authorities on accession of East Galicia to the Russian Empire as primordially Russian area, a number of orders on reforming of education and religion) appeared enough to cause negative reaction to the policy of the Russian military and civil authorities in East Galicia as from the galitsiysky population, the Russian liberals, and abroad" [12. Page 228].

There are a lot of galitsky and Bukovina Russophiles and sympathizing them experienced deep disappointment because of unfulfilled hopes. Their former confidence in identity of Russians and Russinians was shaken by personal acquaintance to the officials and military who arrived from Russia, - a naked eye the considerable difference not only in language, but also in mentality, household culture, etc. was visible. And the representatives of the Ukrainian intellectuals pursued by the Russian authorities in the opinion of local community received a martyr aura. However still big torments waited for them political baking sheets-kov-Russophiles when owing to military failures the Russian imperial army was forced to recede.

Austro-Hungarian troops came back to Galicia and Bukovina with assistance of allied kayzerovsky army. Official Vienna saw the main reason for the failures during an initial stage of war in "treason of Russinians", therefore the Carpatho-Russian population of Galicia and Bukovina on itself felt all weight of mass repressions from the Austrian authorities.

Court-martials pronounced death sentences not only to those who really helped the Russian troops, but also absolutely innocent people who became the victims of slanders. Among informers there were Poles, Jews, Germans, Romanians, etc. But Ukrainian earphones, their brothers were especially remembered by the victim. The boomerang thrown by mosk-vofila returned to him, and struck with repeatedly increased force. Personal scores were quite often settled owing to what thousands of people suffered. Murders of the innocent considerably undermined avstrofilsky moods among the local Ukrainian community. Often executed only for intimidation, but not for specific actions. Also executed without court - according to the decision of the officer or corporal.

For example, in October, 1914 in the Bukovina village Big Kuchurov the Austrian gendarme Johann Drescher (later recognized as mentally sick) after terrible mockeries hung up fifteen-year-old Konstantin Storoshchuk on far-fetched charge of espionage. On September 29, 1914 by order of the ober-lieutenant Franz Trobej the galitsiysky village Utoropy was burned and several its inhabitants are hung up: like, the community of the village is "rusofilsky" [13. Page 643-645]. A large number of documents on crimes of the Austrian chasteners is published long ago. It is enough to call four volumes of "The Taler-gofsky almanac" where certificates on mass executions, deportations, physical and moral tortures of innocent people are provided.

Total number executed under sentence of the court-martials killed during the rough extrajudicial handlings which died at expulsion in concentration camps Talergof, Terezin, etc. and also died of epidemics and severe conditions of stay in camps cannot be counted with a sufficient accuracy. As a rule, researchers determine it in 60 thousand persons. Among the dead there were many active figures of the rusofilsky movement though many Russophiles could survive, despite mass repressions of the Austrian authorities. It is unlikely in this regard it is possible to agree with the doctor of historical sciences, professor, the academician of Academy of legal sciences of Ukraine, the Honored worker of science and technology of Ukraine Dmitry Tabachnyk. He claimed that in the years of World War I "the vast majority of the "moskvo-filsky" intellectuals, the teachers, priests sympathizing them peasants "under war laws" was shot, hung up, tortured" [14. Page 323]. If "vast majority" to translate indistinct definition into language of concrete figures, then will leave that 60 thousand dead make about 1.5% of nearly 4 million Russinians of Galicia, Bukovina and Transcarpathia. In other words, on this logic of 98.5% of Russinians did not treat neither active "moskvofila", nor the peasants sympathizing them. Documents demonstrate that support of Russophiles in Galicia and Bukovina before large-scale Austrian repressions against "Russinians traitors" was much broader.

However mass terror of the Austro-Hungarian authorities really struck mortal blow to the rusofilsky movement. Many Russophiles died, were even more forced to depart with the Russian troops - part of them did not return home. The fear of repressions pushed away from this movement even those who could become his potential supporters. And most of Russinians finally made sure that in Austria-Hungary they have no future. As Russinians and in the Russian Empire where they are considered by an insignificant part of "the uniform Russian people" have no future and perceive only as the tool of own policy. And acquaintance to the Russian officials and soldiers showed to Russinians that they such part are not - distinctions are too deep. There was the only alternative: final transition to a new ethnonym Ukrainians and joint fight against politically active Ukrainians of Naddnepryanshchina for creation of own joint state.

In the conditions of disintegration of the Russian Empire there was the Ukrainian People's Republic, and then when Austria-Hungary broke up, independence was declared by the West Ukrainian People's Republic. At the very beginning of 1919 they united, and in the new state an ethnonym the Russinian completely lost former value. Though the history of this state was short, but for the approval of new national consciousness it was defining. After the final victory of Bolsheviks Ukraine became the Soviet Socialist Republic in which the ethnonym Ukrainians was approved and any more the term "malorossa" was not used, especially the theory of "the uniform Russian people" was not preached. If pre-revolutionary Russia supported Russophiles in the Austro-Hungarian monarchy, then in the USSR the thesis about "reunion of all Ukrainian lands as a part of the Ukrainian SSR" moved forward. Moskvofilstvo lost external support, and he lacked internal forces for survival. Red Moscow relied not on Russophiles monarchists, and on members founded in February, 1919. The Communist Party of the Western Ukraine and arisen in November, 1918. Communist Party of Bukovina. But those had to act in hard conditions of foreign domination, constant prosecutions and terror of the authorities.

Galicia, under the Riga peace treaty of 1921, was transferred to Poland, Bukovina in November, 1918 was occupied by the Romanian troops. The period of the 20-40th of the 20th century became the last in the historical fate of a rusinstvo of these lands. The Polish chauvinists - officials and average citizens - often did not hide hatred to an ethnonym the Ukrainian, instead of it using the word rusin which was usually said with undisguised contempt. In revenge to the galichena parodied the Polish national song, squeezing in it the mocking words "Jeszcze Polak Rusinowi czyscic b^dzie buci" ("Still the Pole to the Russinian will clean boots"). Galitsky youth expressly

called only Ukrainians. Autoetnonim Russinians massively remained only in Lemkovshchina and in the speech of elderly people. And that he was perceived rather as history tribute, gradually consigning to the past. Rough events of the 40th accelerated its total disappearance.

However before World War II in Galicia the organizations of Russophiles continued to work, still there were their periodicals and books, on their initiative in a number of settlements monuments to the victims of Austro-Hungarian repressions of 1915-1918 were constructed. From such associations were the most known the Russian national organization under the actual guide of V.Ya. Trush (1869-1931) and the Galits-co-russkaya matitsa who was headed by professor of divinity Tit Mishkovsky (1861-1939). The field of activity of Russophiles during this period was very narrow, many children of activists of this movement became active figures of the Ukrainian organizations. Among them there were as communists (for example, the bright publicist Yaroslav Galan (1902-1949), the prisoner Talergof's son), and activists of the Organization of the Ukrainian Nationalists (OUN).

The author of this article had to hear definition "mi, Russia people" even in the 1950th, but only from lips 70-80-year-old galichan. And they, as a rule, added that: "mi e Russia, but not moskalt. After resettlement more than 500 thousand lemk from Poland the USSR in their environment too are won by an ethnonym Ukrainians. Occasionally in oral speech or on the letter the self-name of a lemka is used. So, the All-Ukrainian population census of 2001 recorded 672 representatives of this ethnographic group, from them the native language called the Ukrainian 95.4% [see:

15. Page 169].

On Bukovina in 1918-1940 the Romanian authorities pursued policy of splits of the East Slavic population of the region for the purpose of its accelerated assimilation. Not accidentally in official population censuses there were columns "Ukrainian", "Russinian", "Huzul", etc. Bucharest adhered to the point of view which was accurately formulated by the Chernivtsi historian and the politician Ion Nistor: on Bukovina there are neither autochthonic Ukrainians, nor Russinians, and there are only Romanians who under the influence of galitsky immigrants "forgot the native language of the ancestors" [16. Page 274]. By 1927 in the region there is no Ukrainian school left [17. Page 230]. However violent rumanisation encountered the growing resistance in which more and more active role was played by underground OUN. Against gross violation of the rights of ethnic minorities by official Bucharest also communist underground workers fought, also members of the legal Ukrainian National Party, a number of the Ukrainian public organizations opposed such policy. Not leaders of the rusofilsky movement which descended from the historical arena, but politically active Ukrainians headed this fight. The real threat of denationalization forced to cooperate with the Ukrainian organizations and widely famous figures of once influential rusofilstvo.

In this context it is necessary to remember the archpriest Cassien Dmitrievich Bogatyrts (1868-1960) who during the period between world wars was decent the Dnestryansky district in Kitsman and made much to protect the flock from violent rumanisation. The highly educated and courageous person, he consistently protected the rusofilsky views on the Second Vienna process of 1916-1917 and courageously accepted the death sentence of the Austrian court. Pardoned by the emperor Charles I, Cassien Bogatyrets could return to Bukovina over time. It is still remembered yours faithfully by people of different political views [18. C. 275-280]. After release of edge from Hitlerite invaders of K.D. Bogaty-rets on August 1, 1944 with own hand filled out the questionnaire in connection with registration it in Council for affairs of ROC at the Chernivtsi regional executive committee as the prior of the Nikolaev cathedral in Chernivtsi. There specified in the column "nationality": "Ukrainian". This document which is nowadays stored in archive of the Ukrainian People's House in Chernivtsi [19. L. 4], it was published in translation into Ukrainian recently - the priest filled out the questionnaire in literary Russian [20. Page 606607].

Thus, replacement of a traditional ethnonym the Russinian on the new self-name the Ukrainian happened gradually, under pressure of circumstances even the convinced Russophiles began to recognize the new term. By the way, and in office-work of Austria-Hungary the change of these ethnonyms was carried out by slow rates: the Ministry of regional defense published the decree about official replacement of the ethnic names Ruthenen, ruthenisch by Ukrainer, ukrainisch only on April 13, 1918 [21. C. 124]. Events of World War II finally forced out from use galichan and bukovinets the old self-name in all its variations. Stalin repressions after accession to the USSR of East Galicia in September, 1939 and a northern part of Bukovina in June, 1940 gave up as a bad job former rusofilsky sympathies of local community. Members of political parties and activists of many public organizations including rusofilsky became the victims of terror. So, bodies of People's Commissariat for Internal Affairs took complete lists of members of the youth organization of Russophiles "Friend" then physically destroyed these young people [22. C. 5].

Modern to the galichena and bukovinets, including themselves Ukrainians, do not forget also about the Carpatho-Russian roots. The Lviv and Chernivtsi historians seek to estimate objectively the past of a rusinstvo, to openmindedly consider origin and development of contradictory ideological and political movements in his environment [23]. To this past quite often consign roots of a problem of today, and without its detailed study it is impossible to find a solution of such cardinal problem of modern Ukraine as formation of the modern Ukrainian political nation.


1. Russinian and "hair of a v_r". Look. the 2nd, additional Chern_vts і: Ruska Rada, 1911.
2. L. Tsegelsky. Z avstr_ysko ї Ukra§ni. Galitske a moskvof_lstvo in ostann_y yoga faz_//the L_teraturno-naukovy v_snik. T. L. Lv_v, 1910.
3. A. Karevin. Why the russophobia in the Western Ukraine is perceived as patriotism /
4. V. Shatsillo. World War I of 1914-1918. Facts. Documents. M.; OLMA-PRESS, 2003.
5. Ukra§nsk_ s_chov_ str_lts і, 1914-1920. Reprintne v_dtvorennya z vidannya 1935 rubles of Lv_v: Word, 1991.
6. P.P. Britsky, Dobrzhansky O.V. Bukovints_ on diplomatichn_y sluzhb_ UNR that ZUNR. Chern_vts і: Zolot_ to timpani, 2007.
7. Zapolovsky V. Chern_vetska of "Frants_sko Yozef_n" (fates of a v_yna of 1914-1918)//M_n_-kosmos Bukovini. Kulturn_ zdobutka to a reg_on. Mater_ali M_zhnarodno ї naukovo ї conference і ї, prisvyacheno ї 130-r_chchyu Chern_vetsky to an un_versitet. Chern_vts і: It is green Bukovina, 2006.
8. Bazhansky І. M. V_yna: Shchodennik-hron_ka of the Bukovina teacher that pismennik (Vashk_vts і; 31.8.1914 - 29.11.1917). Chern_vts і: It is green Bukovina, 2006.
9. Balitsky K. Chern_vetska of a hron_k of 1914 to fate//O.V. Dobrzhansky, Old man V.P. Bazha¾mo to Ukra§ni! Odessa: Lighthouse, 2008.
10. A. Zhukovsky _stor_ya Bukovini. Ch.2. Chern_vts і: Hour, 1993.
11. V.M. Zapolovsky Bukovina in ostann_y v_yn_ Avstro-Ugorshchini 19141918. Chern_vts і: Zolot_ to timpani, 2003.
12. Bakhturina.Yu. Policy of the Russian Empire in East Galicia in the years of World War I. M.: AIRO-HH, 2000.
13. Karbulitskiy_. Mo ї spomin [urivka about gendarme terror in 19141918 rr.]//O.V. Dobrzhansky, Old man V.P. Ukaz. soch.
14. Kryuchkovg. To., the Tobacconist D.V. Fashizm in Ukraine: threat or reality? Kharkiv: Folio, 2008.
15. Maly etnopol_tichny slovnik. To.: MAUP, 2005.
16. See: Naris z _stor і ї P_vn_chno ї Bukovini. To.: Naukova thought, 1980; Nistor I. 1) Der nationale Kampf in der Bukowina. Bukarest, 1918; 2) Istoria Bucovinei. Bucure§ti: Humanitas, 1991.
17. Bukovina: _storichniya naris. Chern_vts і: It is green Bukovina, 1998.
18. Yaremchuk S. Zhitt¾vy way of the orthodox priest Kass_an Bogatir-tsya//Pitannya _stor і ї Ukra§ni: Zb_rnik of naukovy articles. Chern_vts і: It is green Bukovina, 2003. T. 6.
19. Arkh_v UNDCh: F.K. Bogatirtsya. Op. 1. Spr. 1. ARC. 4.
20. K. Bogatirets. Questionnaire that avtob_ograf_ya//O.V. Dobrzhansky, Old man V.P. Ukaz. soch.
21. The dad S. Ukra§nts_ in Avstr і ї 1914-1918. Avstr_yska of a pol_tik in ukra§nsky pitann_ to a per_od It is big ї v_yn. Ki§v-Chern_vts і: Zolot_ to timpani, 1999.
22. Free word of the Carpathian Russia. 1966. No. 9-10.
23. Makarchuk S.A. Moskvof_lstvo: vitok that evolyuts_ya to a _da ї (middle of H_H of the article

>- 1914 rubles)//V_snik Lv_vskogo to an un_versitet. Ser_ya _storichna. VIP. 32. - Lv_v: LNU _m. І. Franc, 1997; Tur_y O. Galitsk_ the Russinian m_zh a moskvof_lstvo і an ukra§nstvo (to pitannya about so zvena "starorusinstvo")//Tret_y the m_zhnarodny congress ukra§n_st_v (Hark_v, 26-29 serpnya 1996 rubles). _stor_ya. Part 1. Hark_v, 1996; O. Arkusha, Mudry M. Rusof_lstvo in Galichin_ in seredin_ H_H - on an ear of the XX article: genesis, etapa rozvitka, sv_toglyad//V_snik Lv_vskogo to an un_versitet. Ser_ya _storichna. VIP. 34. Lv_v: LNU _m. І. Franc, 1999; Dobrzhansky O. Nats_onalny Rukh ukra§nts_v Bukovini of the friend ї to a half of H_H - to an ear of the XX station Chern_vts і: Zolot_ to timpani, 1999; The Old man V. V_d Sara¾va to Paris. Bukovina Interregnum 1914-1921. Chern_vts і: Rod, 2009, etc.

e-mai І:

Joseph Ramirez
Other scientific works: