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Staroveriye in Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania and Poland: the second half the XVII beginning of the 19th century


UDC 271:94 (474) & #34;16/18"

G.V. Potashenko



History a staroveriya in the modern territory of Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania and Poland from the second half of the XVII in beginning 19th century is considered

The article explores the history of Old Retualism in contemporary territory of Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania and Poland from the second half of 17th to the beginning of 19th.

History bespopovsky the staroveriya in Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania and Poland in the second half of XVII — the beginning of the 21st century is an inseparable part of history of Christianity in these countries. Staroveriye always was religious minority here, but the value is beyond it far, limited, apparently, to relentless statistics. Ogfedelyayushchim there was not a number of believers, and that deep, surprisingly versatile impact which made starovery on religious and cultural life of the Baltic societies. Thanks to centuries-old creative activity it became an integral part of reli-giozno-cultural heritage of the Baltic countries.

Staroveriye makes rather uniform region in religious and historical and cultural otnoshenii1 here. It is necessary to recognize that still, unfortunately, its history is studied insufficiently. However interest in the multiethnic past in the Baltic societies is led, according to one Latvian historian, to comprehension of "mysterious history" local by a staroveriya.

Desire to track milestones of its difficult history in the gfibaltiysky countries and Poland was the main reason which induced the author

1 In process of change of borders of the states in the XVII—XX centuries also the concept of the Baltic region, his political affiliation, internal boundaries and components changed. In the XVII—XX centuries the Estonian and Latvian lands were under the power of the different states: Sweden, Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth, then Russia, Germany, Estonia and Latvia. To 1772, 1793 and 1795 were a part of the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth different parts of modern Latvia (southern and its east part), Lithuania and Belarus where too tens of thousands of conservatives (bespopovets and Old Believers) lived. By the end of the 18th century all this region departed to the Russian Empire, and in 1815 — the most part of the Polish lands. In 1920 — 1939. The Vilnius region and the Western Belarus were a part of Poland of that time.

The RGU bulletin of I. Kant. 2008. Issue 12. Humanities. Page 47 — 53.


to write a short story local the staroveriya. In the present article the period from the second half of the XVII in beginning 19th century is considered

Split of the Russian church and the beginning of emigration of conservatives on the West: 1659-1710

Emergence a staroveriya in the Baltic was if not the investigation, then reflection of a cultural revolution which marked transformation of Russia "ancient" to Russia Novaya Gazeta. Actually Old Belief movement generated one big historical phenomenon — split of the Russian church during Nikon (1652 — 1658) patriarchate at the tsar Alexey Mikhaylovich (1645 — 1676) [1 — 3]. An ego one of the most drama events in the history of the Russian society, and according to some of his researchers, most tragiches which event in the history of Church [4, page 333].

Appearance of the Russian conservatives abroad became an important result of church split in Russia 17th century. Already in the second half of XVII — the beginning of the 18th century conservatives, escaping from prosecutions from the temporal and church powers of Russia, directed on the West — in the East Baltic possession of Sweden and the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth which vassal was also Kurland. However this flight had also other not less important reasons — social.

According to "the Degutsky chronicler", the first conservatives appeared in the duchy Kurland in 1659 [5, page 55]. In 1660 "drevlepravoslavny lyudy" in the village of Liginishki (nowadays the city of Daugavpils, Latvia) constructed the first in Kurland (and it is possible, and in general abroad) a house of worship where in 1677 from the Moscow diocese of profit svyashchennoi-ery Terenti with the son. In 1678 — 1704 pt. he was a confessor of Liginishksky and Baltruksky arrivals. Terenti Svyashchennoiyerey became the first famous conservative of the Baltic [In the same place, page 55 — 64, 70].

In 1679 the first conservatives appeared in the Vilnius voivodeship of the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth (nowadays near Rokishkis in Lithuania [In the same place, page 64 — 65]), and at the end of the 17th century — in the Black grange, near the city of Narva in the Swedish Estlyan-diya (nowadays northeast part of Estonia [6, page 11]).

All in the territory of the modern Baltic countries during the period from 1659 to 1710 not less than seven Old Belief parishes worked, apparently: Ligipishksky (1660), Voynovsky (1659 or 1670), Leningrad Region-movsky (1673 or 1675), in the Black grange (till 1692), Balgruksky (1699; near Ilukste), Volodinsky (1660 or till 1704; near Daugavpils [7, page 387; 8, page 4]) and Lipushksky [9, page 229]. Among the conservatives who located abroad and also conservatives of the Novgorod and Pskov region of Russia soon bespopovets obviously began to prevail, and at a boundary of the 17th and 18th centuries the strong influence of fedoseevets was found.

Fedoseevsky period: 1710 — 1823

Fedoseevtsa — one or the other the main societies of conservatives-bespopov-tsev, the received name by the name of Feodosiy Vasilyev (the 1660th —

1711) — famous mentor, theologian and polemista2. The main feature of the doctrine of fedoseevets, as well as in general all bespopovtsev3, the idea of "the last time" and idea of the interrupted grace of priesthood and the termination of church hierarchy in the Russian church in the middle of the 17th century is. Most of representatives of bespopovets preaches accession of the spiritual Antichrist treated by them as set of the various heresies ggronikitgy in Rutsky church owing to Nikon's reforms. From here the doctrine about depletion of priesthood and a general bessvyashchenoslovny state follows. The forced absence of priesthood at early bespopovets caused impossibility to make a number of sacraments. They divided sacraments on degree of their importance for rescue into "nuzhnopotrebny" (a baptism, repentance and "a spiritual communion" 4) and "required" (marriage, extreme unction, priesthood, anointing); the last "on need" could not be made. Recognizing need of throne, many bespopovets excluded from a church service a prayer for the tsar as the power not only followed "nikoniansky" Church in which, according to fedoseevets, Antichrist set in, but also patronized it.

In close connection with the public relations there was a question of marriage which since the 1730th pt. became one of most important in internal polemic of bespopovets. As administering the Sacrament of marriage was impossible without priest, early bespopovets of marriages did not recognize and preached a general celibacy that left a mark and on their way of life.

A mass outcome on the West and its reasons

Resettlement of Russians on the West in 1700 — the 1720th pt. became mass. It was considerable and for all the 18th century. As well as during the previous period, in the 18th century the flows of Russians directed mainly to Grand Duchy of Lithuania — a part of the Union Polish-Lithuanian State as a part of which were Inflyanta (till 1772) and Kurland. Ran also in Estlyandiya and Liflyandiya, after Nishgadgsko2 Dogmatic and the religious cultural heritage of F. Vasilyev, his closest pupils and followers for most of modern Baltic conservatives lost the direct practical value over time. In terms of Drevlepravoslavny D of church (DPC) XXI of the Baltic States century, it has only historical value and is considered as property of one of early stages of development of religious society which can be valuable to researchers of historical divinity and history of Church.

3 Division of conservatives into bespopovets and Old Believers is usually referred to a boundary of the XVII—XVIII centuries. Already on the Novgorod cathedrals 1692 and 1694 of basic provisions of bespopovets were proclaimed: accession of Antichrist, impossibility of acceptance of priesthood, celibacy and so forth. Old Believers considered that though the patriarchal Church and a povreyaddena heresy passing from it in starovery priests continue to remain grace carriers.
4 As commission of an Eucharist without priest is impossible, bespopovets learned about "a spiritual communion". Later similar practice of a communion at them stopped.

go contracts of 1721 finally departed from Sweden to Russia and enduring economic recovery, especially at the end of the 18th century

At the end of the 18th century the first conservatives lodged in Suvalksko-Seynen-skom and August regions of Poland [10, century 78 — 86, 99; 11, century 18 — 19]. In the first quarter of the 19th century hundreds of conservatives annually with the permission of the authorities, landowners or on own initiative (often illegally) moved from one place in another within the Baltic region or arrived from the internal provinces of Russia here [12, op. 1, 22, 114, 132]. Areas where the Pskov, Novgorod, St. Petersburg, Smolensk and Tver provinces entered were the main regions of Russia delivering Russians on the Baltic lands in the second half of the XVII—XVIII century northwest and partly central.

Church split, social discrimination and political motives, economic discontent, mistrust to state leadership, fear of arrest and tortures, animosity against boyars and noblemen, personal offenses, desire to avoid soldier's "strap" 5 — all this significantly influenced growth and development of Old Belief emigration from Russia. But the policy of tsar's authorities in relation to Old Believers was one of its most important factors after 1721. From the middle of the 17th century prior to the beginning of the 1760th squares, especially in the last quarter of the 17th century, it had pronounced repressive character. At Peter I the government pursued more flexible and pragmatic policy; the period since the beginning of the 1760th in 1826 is noted by weakening of irreconcilably rigid attitude towards conservatives [13, Section 2].

Also the fact that in old Baltic societies the tolerant attitude towards conservatives based on the acceptability for these societies of Old Belief religion, the status of emigrants, the economic and political interests of the Swedish, German, Polish-Lithuanian noblemen dominated was important. The rationalism dominating in Western Europe in the second half of the 18th century and anti-clericalism had beneficial effect.

According to contemporary records, in the 1820th pt. about 17 — 18 thousand conservatives [12, op lived only in the Vilnius province. 1, 1 — 133]. And, these data are obviously underestimated, conservatives could be here is much bigger — from 35 to 40 thousand people. In the territory of modern Latvia, apparently, them was not less [14, page 29 — 32]. In total bespopovets on the Baltic and Polish lands in the 1820th pt. could be approximate these from 75 to 85 thousand people.

Emergence of new arrivals and monasteries. Spiritual centers

Staroveriye began to extend on the Baltic lands in the second half of XVII — the first half of the 18th century, a kotd spiritual mentors Terenti, Feodosiy Vasilyev, Afanasy Terentyevich, Evstrat Vasilyev, Fedor Samansky and other opponents of new ceremonies and books forced to run from prosecutions of the Russian authorities and/or

5 In 1738 the recruitment was for the first time widespread in Russia on conservatives, but in Liflyandiya and Estlyandiya it began to be made only since 1796

emigrating on these lands, began fight for revival and a statement old traditions, dominating in Russia, among the Russian refugees and emigrants. Their efforts were not fruitless: in the 1760th not less than 26 acted on the Baltic lands, and in the 1820th pt. — not less than 71 fedoseevsky arrivals (taking into account arrivals on the Polish lands) 6.

For a staroveriya in Russia and abroad monasteries and monasteries which became the centers of spiritual life had invaluable value. From there was a management of Church, from here mentors were dispatched on arrivals, in some monasteries there passed cathedrals. During the fedoseevsky period there were several such spiritual centers on the Baltic lands. Such centers as Ryapina the grange, Riga and Deguti became famous for Gudishki for the church activity.

In 1710 near the Ryapiny grange (ppvedsky Liflyandiya, nowadays southern Estonia) the fedoseevets founded the monastery [15, page 85 — 90]. In Ryapinsky monastery and probably in its vicinities about two thousand conservatives were concentrated [16, November, page 697]. According to P. Iusginov, in 1712 — 1719 pt. this monastery was the semolina and only center of a fedoseevstvo. Evsgrat Vasilyev, Feodosiy's son, and his uncle Egor Vasilyev directed it. The Ryapinsky monastery prospered until in 1719 to the monastery on a false denunciation not a ptribpla the Russian military team. Evsgrat Vasilyev and his closest edinomppplennik ran in the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth, "to a ponezha tamo drevle-church laws of a soderzhata the newcomer will dayashesya" [15, page 92]. Ryapinsky monasteries were finally destroyed by B1722 of.

(Till 1771), in general the Gu-dishksky monastery (1728 — 1755/1758), the Vilnius voivodeship of Grand Duchy of Lithuania was the important religious center of fedoseevets of the Baltic region, in particular and all early fedoseevstvo (nowadays And drove also a certain district of Lithuania). There was it when Evsgrat Vasilyev "with brotherhood" suited "monastery about-gtsego lives" on this place. In 1752 to monasteries there went the fedoseevsky cathedral on which the "Polish charter", known in the history of a bespopovstvo, was adopted [17]. Fedoseevtsp-bezbrachniki strengthened religious discipline among the parishioners, introducing requirements of "angelic life" for all then when in other part of a bespopovstvo search of ways a ptrinyatiya of church marriage began.

In 1760 one of prominent mentors Fedor Samansky (1696? — 1771) the Riga obptsina was based. At the beginning of the 19th century it became the noticeable spiritual center of the Baltic fedoseevets known also among the Russian fedoseevets, and in the 20th century — the world's largest Pomor obptsiny and the DPC authoritative spiritual center. In 1826 in Riga there were 5424 conservatives (5% of all urban population). Thanks to support of merchants conservatives of an obptsin had at the order extensive economy, the big stone temple (in the St. Petersburg and Moscow forpggadt there were egets two temples), various workshops, including icon-painting, hospital, almshouse, school and a manor Grizenberg. An essential role in some industries was played by the capitals of Old Believers merchants of S. Dyakonov,

6 Among them in Estonia — 10 arrivals, in Latvia — not less than 30, in Lithuania — not less than 27, in Poland — not less than 4.

N. Artemyeva, N. Ivanova, etc. For management of church life and economy after the Russian-French war of 1812 special "Rules" which in 1827 were approved by the Riga governor general F. Pauluchchi were made. This legal document allowed the Riga conservatives to operate freely the community [18, river 75 — 83]. As it turned out, for a while — at the beginning of the 1830th burst repressions.

The Degutsky monastery existed since 1756 (or 1758) on the 1840th it. The de gutsky arrival which became rather big already since the end of the 1780th pt. in the first third of the 19th century was the recognized spiritual center of bespopovets Vilnius, Kurland and partly Liflyandsky provinces. In 1822 the choice and blessing on degree fatherlike" and "A marriage chinodeystvo" was written to Degutyakh "[5, page 105.168].

List of sources and literature

1. Zenjkovsky S.A. Russian Old Belief: spiritual movements of the seventeenth century. M, 1995.
2. I.K Smolich History of the Russian Church (1700 — 1917). M, 1997. Part 2.
3. M.O. shahs. Philosophical aspects staroveriya. M, 1997.
4. B.A. Uspensky. Split and cultural conflict of the 17th century//Uspensky B.A. Chosen works. T. 1: History semiotics. Culture semiotics. M, 1994. Page 333 — 367.
5. Dcguciu metrastis [Chronografas, arba Kurso ir Lietuvos metrastis — Hronopraf, that is the Chronicler Kurland-Lithuanian] / the Russian text of an entrance of N. Morozov; the lane for language litas of I. Potashenko; comment. to litas to G. Potashenko's text; vved. N. Morozova and G. Potashenko. Vilnius, 2004.
6. G. Ponomareva, Blinders T. Conservatives of Estonia: short historical reference book. Tartu, 2006.
7. The list of the Old Belief communities of Latvia / / Russians in Latvia. From history and culture a staroveriya. Issue 3/sost. Silt. I. Ivanov. Riga, 2002. Page 382-393.
8. I. Zavoloko. About Old Believers of Riga: historical essay. Riga, 1933.
9. Nikonov V. Staroobryadchestvo Lattalii: hronoloppa questions / / Starovery Latvia / editions and sost. Silt. I. Ivanov. Riga, 2005. Page 312 — 316.
10. Iwaniec E. ziemiach polskich pas Z dziejow staroobrzgdowcow. Warszawa, 1977.
11. Jaroszewicz-Pieresiawcew Z. Starowiercy w Polsce i ich ksiggi. Olszlyn, 1995.
12. State historical archive of Lithuania. T. 752.
13. Potashenko of G. Staroveriye in Lithuania: the second half of XVII — the beginning of the 19th centuries. Researches, documents and materials. Vilnius, 2006.
14. A.A. Zavarina. The Russian population of Latvia (to the history of the settlement) / / Russian in La of a tviya. From history and culture a staroveriya. Issue 3/sost. Silt. I. Ivanov. Riga, 2002. Page 10 — 47.
15. The life of Feodosiy Vasilyev, the founder of fedoseevsky consent written by his son, Evstrat in the 7250th year / / Readings in Imperial society of history and antiquities Russian at the Moscow university. M, 1869. T. 2 (5). Page 73 — 92.
16. Iustinov of the Item Fedoseevshchina during lifetime of its founder / / Christian reading. 1906. Feb. of Page 256 — 281; March. Page 391 — 414; Apr. of Page 604 — 615.
17. The charter Polish//the Collection for Old Belief history. M, 1864. Page 10-21.
18. Podmazovs A. Vecticiba Latvija. Riga, 2001.

About the author

G.V. Potashenko is Dr. an east. sciences, dots., the Center for studying non-state cultures at department of history of Vilnius University (Lithuania).

UDC 930.23


Degree of scientific interest of pre-revolutionary, Soviet and modern Russian historians in the political biography of the prime minister of Great Britain of 1830-1834 Charles Gray is investigated, estimates of his reformatory activity are considered.

The article investigates the scientific interest of pre-revolutionary, soviet and contemporary Russian historians to the Prime Minister of Great Britain Charles Grey in 1830-1834. It also explores the evaluation of his reformative activity.

The name of the vigsky prime minister of England Charles Gray, lord Govi, in ordinary consciousness is associated with a famous brand of tea, and among historians — with the first in the British history electoral reform of 1832 Being still a young man, Gray in 1793 one of the first started talking about need of democratization of an election system in the English parliament. At 66-year age he headed the cabinet and managed to achieve adoption of the bill of 1832

In a pre-revolutionary historiography N.I. Kareev, P.G. Mizhuyev, S.F. Fortunatov, V.F. Deryuzhinsky, OO dealt with problems of the British history of the first half of the 19th century. Kowalewski, I.V. Luchits-ky, etc. A certain place in their compositions is allocated also to Ch. Gray.

In a social and political field they connected his debut with the 90th it. 18th century. At this time in England radical and republican moods amplified that found the expression in creation of a number of the societies and clubs preaching need of political reforms. Among them there was "Society of friends of the people" founded in 1792 with active participation of Ch. Gray.

This period in Gray's life did not receive special lighting in a pre-revolutionary historiography, however its participation in "Society of friends

The RGU bulletin of I. Kant. 2008. Issue 12. Humanities. Page 53 — 56.

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