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Review of the textbook by A.I. Martynov "Archeology". Edition fifth processed. M.: The higher school, 2005



vestnik of TGPU. 2007. Release 3 (66). Series: HUMANITIES (HISTORY...)

REVIEWS

UDC 902

L.M. Pletnyova

REVIEW OF the TEXTBOOK by A.I. MARTYNOV "ARCHEOLOGY". EDITION FIFTH PROCESSED. M.: The HIGHER SCHOOL, 2005

Tomsk state pedagogical university

The textbook is written on archaeological materials of Europe, Asia and America. The archeology of Northern Asia and the European part of Russia to which it is devoted is a part of world history, and without statement of its events it is difficult to understand history regional. In some cases the author gives written sources, but for their ancient history it is not enough.

The textbook consists of six parts, 28 chapters, three applications. Total amount is 447 pages. Statement of material is conducted from the beginning of anthropogenesis and comes to an end with the Middle Ages. The reviewed textbook by A.I. Martynov sustained five editions: 1973, 1982, 1996, 2000, 2005. The first four editions carried the name "Archeology of the USSR". They began with Introduction where the subject of archeology was defined, its tasks (it was emphasized that it is historical science), the way of formation and development of archeology as sciences was briefly designated. Distinctive feature of the fifth edition is existence of the section "Part 1. Introduction to archeology" as independent part of the textbook. In it all above-mentioned questions are taken up and the emphasis on value of archaeological sources, for their increasing role in the present is placed.

Carrying out the short comparative analysis of all editions, it should be noted features of each of them. In the edition of 1973 (295 pages, 15 chapters, 4 parts) in the first part the stone era (as well as in the subsequent three editions), in the second part - all era of metal, in the third - archeology of the most ancient slaveholding and feudal societies in the territory of the USSR, in the fourth - archeology of Slavs was considered. In the edition of 1982 (270 pages, 16 chapters, 5 parts) Part second is devoted to an eneolit and a bronze age, the third - to the early Iron Age, the fourth - archeology of the most ancient slaveholding and feudal societies in the territory of the USSR, the fifth - archeology of Slavs. The third edition is divided by the author too into 5 parts, 24 chapters (415 pages). If a part of the V second edition was called "Archeology of Slavs", then from the third edition this part is called "Archeology sla-

vyan, finno-ugr, tyurok and people of the Far East". It is obvious that this part is complemented with new materials and in it the Middle Ages in the wide territory - not only Slavs, but also their neighbors are considered. In the previous editions, in the third part nomads were placed, were not allocated finno-Ugra at all. The fourth edition contained also 5 sections, the total amount of 439 pages

Already on the volume of editions it is possible to judge inclusion in each edition of new materials, entering of specifications into earlier stated.

Before emergence of the textbook of A.I. Martynov, from 1950th the training was conducted according to textbooks by A.V. Artsikhovsky of "Fundamentals of archeology" (1954, 1955) and D.A. Avdusi-na "Archeology of the USSR" (1967, etc.). They played the positive role those years. The main part of material was presented to them by the European part of Russia, the Caucasus and Central Asia, and extensive regions of Siberia and the Far East of attention were given a little that considerably was explained by a condition of archaeological sources on the specified regions. In the textbook by A.I. Martynov, especially in the fourth and fifth editions, materials across Siberia and the Far East found the worthy place.

From the date of a release of the first edition there passed more than 30 years. The archeology, as well as historical science in general, considerably enriched the istochnikovy base which expanded our knowledge of ancient history. The substantial contribution to studying origin of the person, his initial habitats and the subsequent resettlement, along with archeologists, is brought by anthropologists.

A good point in the new textbook is consideration of processes of historical development of the population in the territory of the CIS, its interrelations with Euroafroaziya's history during formation of the person. Considering the subsequent periods during an era of early metal, the author opens as the initial stages of development of metallurgy of bronze in the territory of Asia Minor, and its consecutive distribution up to subpolar oblas-

L.M. Pletnyova. Review of the textbook by A.I. Martynov "Archeology". Edition fifth.

Tay. And A.I. Martynov accurately formulates a thought that in development of human society there was not only a way in the line of ascent, but took place and regress, especially during the initial period of history. Besides, for the entire periods the unevenness of historical development in the southern and northern territories is shown. The important place is given to the newest opening of the most ancient monuments in Eastern Siberia and in Altai, monuments of pazyryksky culture, 20th century investigated in the 90th

In the textbook several scientific developments of the author are stated. So, A.I. Martynov is the author of the idea about different types of civilizations: 1 - agricultural, 2 - early nomads. In the 1980th A.I. Martynov in a number of works stated a hypothesis of the skifo-Siberian unity. Both provisions of the author are supported not by all scientists. But I consider correct inclusion in the textbook not only the provisions which settled in science, but also disputed issues, various hypotheses that reflects the current state of science.

In the last decades the archeologists widely use methods of reconstruction and modeling. All these achievements found reflection in the text of the fifth edition.

For successful development of material by students methodical material is widely presented in the book: schemes (12), cards (15), tables (7), reconstruction (10), drawings (124) and color photos (827), are given extensive lists of references according to each chapter. Also appendices are had: 1) "Archeology of Eurasia in the context of world history"; 2) "Archaeological eras and cultures in the territory of the CIS countries"; 3) "Dictionary of the main terms".

A.I. Martynov is the expert archeologist famous for the scientist-sibirevedom, the most experienced teacher with more than 40-year experience, the organizer of science and educational process (long time managed department of archeology). Everything stated in the textbook to them is repeatedly passed through the consciousness, checked by practice. Not accidentally the textbook sustained five editions: the author every time revised him and improved.

Summing up the result, it is necessary to tell that the sound, perfectly issued textbook is published. The edition of 2005 completely meets the requirements of state standard. According to the textbook by A.I. Martynov students of the state universities and state pedagogical universities from the Urals to the Far East study.

Came to edition 22.11.2006

Janet Carroll
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