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To the history of interaction of East Slavic ethnography and dialectology in xix - the beginning of the 20th centuries



V.I. Makarov

In article the history of allocation of the Russian ethnography from anthropology and Russian dialebktologiiiz ethnographies in the 2nd half of XIX - the beginning of the 20th centuries. The considered types on material of East Slavic languages the history of studying national culture during the studied period. The role of the Russian linguistic geography and development of Russian and folklore during this era is established.

Rudiments of the Russian ethnography belong to Peter I's era when the intellectual horizons of society considerably extended when the information about other people and cultures extremely quickly began to collect and therefore in society there was desire to compare history, culture, science of the different people, and so, its interest in itself amplified. In the Petrovsky era, A.N. Pypin wrote In 1890, for the first time in the Moscow society succeeds the idea of national exclusiveness & #34; the valid national consciousness leaning a naznaniye..." [1, I, 14-15].

In the 30th years of the 19th century, forming the special subject of study, in Russia there was a special science - Slavic studies. In the middle of the century a certain theoretical foundation of ethnographic science with the wide field of problems and directions of a research was laid. As well as all other sciences, Slavic studies and ethnography needed more accurate definition of their borders, specialization of methods and receptions of a research.

Ethnography - as accumulation of the actual material about material and spiritual culture of the people and as the first scientific, theoretical generalizations - it was perceived as a part of more general science about the person - anthropology. In the 19th century & #34; антропологический" meant actually & #34; биологический" and such understanding took away the researcher from study social, idea of the person, was created without the world surrounding it, conditions, circumstances and to that similar. In 1824 in a lecture in Konigsberg the academician K.E. von-Baer said: & #34; For set of all that we know about the person it was impossible to find more suitable name, than anthropology as the word on the value covers all life человека" [2, 5]. Idea of ethnography as types of natural sciences remained even at the beginning of the 20th century [3], and a number of scientists carried it still to anthropology. F.K. Volkov giving lectures on ethnography at the Petrograd university included it in a cycle of sciences anthropological, in particular. At the same time others during this period already saw in it a part of history, the third - a part of sociology, etc. In 1916 N.M. Mogilyansky, though looked at ethnography as quite independent science, nevertheless included it in the system of anthropological knowledge [2.9], however 12 years later in literature we already meet the statements absolutely of other order - concerning ethnography as the science which separated from anthropology [4, 10].

Interest in studying the people and nationality began to be implemented in two activities of scientists: 1) in comprehensive study of the people: historical, cultural and community, moral, language, 2) in the aspiration to bring closer the literary language to language live, national: the new political ideas and trends demanded also their new literary expression.

Having headed these directions of cognitive activity of society, the St. Petersburg Academy of Sciences actively was accepted to strictly scientific development of the general history of Russia, at the same time she was an initiator of purposeful travel of scientists for study

geography, flora and fauna and also life of various territories of Russia.

Development of interest in history of the people and the state themselves resulted in need of studying monuments of writing as the most reliable as then it seemed, and a substantial source of information on the past of the people and language. A.H. Vostokov, having got acquainted with compositions of N.M. Karamzin who recently stepped on the historical stage, like inclination to ancient monuments to writing and actively was accepted to their study, systematization and the description. So scientific knowledge of history of Slavic philology began in Russia.

From 20-30 of the 19th century in Velikorossiya, in Ukraine and in Belarus there are first experiments of actually ethnographic studying the people setting as the purpose knowledge of its true character and which were expressed in collecting of songs, proverbs, fairy tales, in studying customs and customs of old times and the present, penetration in & #34; лабораторию" folk art.

At the end of the 10th of the 19th century (1819) of princes Tsertelev, the native from Cossack foremen in Poltavshchyna, published in St. Petersburg the collection & #34; Experience of a meeting ancient Little Russian песней". However, the low-Russian songs in it there were no more than ten (about Bogdan Khmelnytsky, Mazepa, etc.), but it was the important beginning in the description of creativity of the people. Then M.A. Maksimovich's works "Little Russian songs" (1827), "The Ukrainian folk songs" (1834), I followed. Snegireva "An ancient national Christmas-tide and a Christmas carol" [5], having laid the foundation for systematic collecting of the Ukrainian folklore and ethnographic material.

I.I. Sreznevsky was connected to a research of national Ukrainian old times in the early works. In 1831 he published & #34; Ukrainian альманах" in 1833-1838 published & #34; Zaporizhia старину" collection of the Ukrainian folk songs (thoughts).

In Belarus developed active collecting and systematization of materials about the Belarusian people and its I.I. Nosovich language. ORYaS and RGO AN were promoted by publications of its materials: "The Belarusian proverbs and sayings" in "News of ORYaS" (1852), "The collection of the Belarusian proverbs" in "RGO notes on office of ethnography" (1867). In 1863 I.I. Nosovich presented to ORYaS the manuscript of the "Dictionary of the Belarusian adverb" finished by it, the first unabridged dictionary of Belarusian. More than 30 thousand words of the Mogilev, Minsk and Grodno provinces were reflected in the dictionary and also dictionary extraction from folklore, the old Belarusian written monuments are presented [6, 1.173]. In the 50th of the 19th century of performing oral creativity of Belarusians (songs, riddles) one more Belarusian linguist S.P. Mikutsky actively collected and published.

In 1835 the minister of national education count Uvarov founded at the Russian universities of department of history and literature of Slavic adverbs. Tireless V. IDal submitted to the government the application on creation at Academy of Sciences of the Geographical Society as those that already existed in the Western European countries. Very skilled scientists came to the founded Russian Geographical Society and offices at it. As a part of Office of ethnography and statistics there were V. IDal, NINadezhdin, I. ISreznevskiy, PS. Savelyev, V.V. Grigoriev, etc. NINadezhdin who came in 1846 to the management of Office of ethnography made a main goal of Office studying life of the people inhabiting Russia. In 1846 the Office distributed the special questionnaire, more precisely the program of ethnographic researches through the whole country. It contained the questions concerning: 1) exterior of locals, 2) & #34; language, principal organ of nationality, in all variety of its local adverbs and говоров" 3) family life, 4) remains of life public, 5) intellectual and moral differences, 6) national legends and monuments. As we see, language was noted as & #34 here; principal organ народности".

Participation in work of Office as his founder member V.I. Dahl undoubtedly made the noticeable contribution not only to development of ethnographic researches, but also to further strengthening linguistic & #34; акцента" in activity of all Office. We mean not just collecting materials for preparing & #34; Sensible словаря" but the structure of dictionary entries which is absolutely realized by the collector: arrangement of proverbs and sayings, as well as all lexical material, not in alphabetic, and in nested and, so,

& #34; попредметном" order. In our modern lexicography began already a platitude to criticize V.I. Dahl for it & #34; гнездовое" arrangement of words in the dictionary, in conditions when the domestic philological lexicography actually left from the solution of problems of reflection in dictionaries of cultural history of the people, having been engaged only in fixing of word meanings within and a genre of so-called philological interpretation, thereby having torn off them from encyclopedic, regional geographic information, from background knowledge which did not begin to play a little significant role when using of dictionaries presently. Absolutely reasonably pointed P.A to it. Budagov [7]. Now change to the best is, however, noticeable.

The abundance of replies to the distributed questionnaire - the program was amazing. By 1850 in RGO about 300 separate monographic descriptions collected, and in only several their years already was 2000, in 1854 the descriptions of life and Roosiya's adverbs made 146 units of them.

At the beginning of 1845 N.I. Nadezhdin in one of meetings of Office of ethnography and statistics made the report & #34; About ethnographic studying nationality русской" (& #34; Notes РГО" prince 2, 1847) in which proved problems of ethnography as independent science.

History of any science develops of two components: 1) history of accumulation of knowledge and 2) history of development of views of an object and object of science. Accumulation of ethnographic knowledge began at east Slavs no later than creation & #34; Stories temporary лет" and & #34; Words about regiment Igoreve". Process of formation of science as history of evolution of views of a word, history of the text began with the middle of the 17th century (from the ideas and V.N. Tatishchev's works), and came to the end as ethnographers consider, in the 40th years of the 19th century [8].

From the point of view of N.I. Nadezhdin, the real science begins where, first, collecting the actual material is made systematically, in the certain order, communications and completeness demanded by the most this science; secondly, under & #34; chistitelny горнилом" strict criticism and material and results of its analysis. Continuation of science seemed. To Nadezhden in delimitation of science and in creation of the methodology and a technique of a research. And though all this actively was just formed within all the XIX century, borders of science remained still indistinct, amorphous, different scientists saw them differently: some concluded in its borders only what is connected with national life, and the ethnography was for them science tightly of scenes of everyday life, others infinately broadened its field, including in it both the life of people, and national literature and art, and language, and even national psychology as N.I. Nadezhdin made it.

Along with Office of ethnography and statistics at RGO problems of ethnography in the broadest sense began to deal and created at the Russian Academy of Sciences in 1841. The office of Russian and literature (ORYaS) which main objective of activity proclaimed comprehensive study of language, development of rhetoric, versification and performance of the main educational task - to serve at the same time science and society.

Materials on dialects began to come now not only to RGO where they were studied and systematized by the assistant to the chairman in Office I.I. Sreznevsky, but also in ORYaS where it was entrusted to systematize received to the only thing at that time to the philologist in Office A.H. Vostokov. Vostokov so with enthusiasm and actively worked that in 1852 was published made under its edition and constructed on these materials & #34; Experience of the regional dictionary great Russian языка" and in 1858 - under its editorial office "Additions to " Experience of the Regional Dictionary of Great Russian Language "". In 1849 I.I. Sreznevsky made a speech at a ceremonial meeting of SPb. - the university with the speech in which formulated, like Nadezhdin on ethnography, problems of science in the field of linguistics, having paid special attention to the purposes, forms and methods of a research of live folk speech [9]. In the same years he supported studying geography of language, & #34; linguistic географии" what, from our point of view, was given rise to it by ethnographic interests and the tasks set for ethnography N.I. Nadezhdin in the field of studying adverbs and

Russian dialects.

In 1852, having paid attention to that fact that a lot of material on & #34 comes to Office; ethnographic лингвистике" Sreznevsky suggested to be engaged in the publication of materials on geography of Russian, samples of regional dialects, folk songs, bylinas, dictionaries of adverbs of Russian. So appeared & #34; Monuments of the Russian national language and словесности" and since 1853, besides, the special collection began to appear.

The Russian Geographical Society prior to the beginning of the 50th years worked much more actively, than ORYaS. It was under favorable attention of the most reigning person, money considerable for those times were allocated for activity of RGO, in it the best scientific forces of the capital worked. Its offices arose also in the province: Kiev, Siberian/east and Western/, Caucasian, Orenburg.

Arrival to ORYaS at the very beginning of the 50th of I.I. Sreznevsky changed a lot of things in the atmosphere of establishment. Since 1852 on its initiative began to be published & #34; News of the 2nd Office of Academy наук" in which researches about ancient monuments of the Russian literature, work on classic and modern national language were printed, the bibliography on language, history, archeology, national poetry of Slavs was accurately kept. Soon to & #34; Известиям" joined and & #34; Materials for the comparative and explanatory dictionary of Russian and others Slavic наречий" and 1867 instead of & #34; Известий" began to leave & #34; Collection ORYaS".

In no small measure devoted to ethnographic work the activity also Moscow Society of history and antiquities, from 60th - the Moscow Society of natural sciences, anthropology and ethnography. Gradually this scientific direction became active to develop also at university departments of St. Petersburg, Moscow, Kiev, Kharkiv, Odessa.

The Ukrainian and Belarusian ethnography it was necessary not only to lift a public and moral condition of the people, but, besides, and to confirm with the science facts the primordial originality, cultural independence.

publications took direct and live part In the solution of these problems in Ukraine: & #34; Известия" Kiev university of St. Vladimir, & #34; Труды" Kiev spiritual academy and also Odessa society of history and antiquities, & #34; Чтения" Historical society of Nestor chronicler in Kiev, & #34; Сборник" Historical and philological society at the Kharkiv university and the magazine founded in 1832 by F.G. Lebedintsev & #34; Kiev старина" in which N. Kostomarov, V. Antonovich, P. Zhitetsky, I. Malyshevsky, I. Linnichenko, F. Sumtsov, P. Efimenko, etc. published the works

Since 1892 in Lviv began to leave & #34; Записки" Scientific organization of T. Shevchenko in which the large number of works on history and ethnography was published. In the III volume of the edition (1894) the first in this collection work on dialectology - I. Verkhratsky's article & #34 was published; Dialect of Zamshanshchv"", become continuation of its bigger work printed in the XIV-XVI volumes & #34; Archive Slavic филологии" V. Yagich, about a dialect of galitsky lemk. In 1834 was issued, also in Lviv, the new periodical & #34; Zhitte i the Word", played an important role in reflection of spiritual and material life of Ukraine. At the end of the 19th century same the edition special & #34 promoted; Ethnographic сборника".

Thanks to RGO and its Offices, ORYaS, university departments, society Kharkiv historical philological, in Russia the ethnography as independent scientific discipline actively develops. At the same time this science as we see, at once was implemented in the independent scientific directions, already in the sources considerably differing from each other: Belarusian, Russian and Ukrainian. Differences between them were caused, naturally, by differences in history, customs, customs, legends, folklore, language and many other.

Describing folk customs, traditions, holidays and ceremonies of east Slavs, researchers organically and strong connected together ethnographic and linguistic

(mainly lexicological). Works of scientists were richly equipped with terms, quite often were followed by special dictionary applications. The detailed picture of various manifestations of material and spiritual culture and language of east Slavs wide regionally, and comparison and establishment of the general and various in them in a projection to ethno was as a result created - and a lingvogeografiya (in understanding of this term by I.I. Sreznevsky) promoted detection of the general and original three East Slavic people in the cultures which are closely connected by community of the origin and history.

Communication of learning territorial dialects with history of the people and ethnography stimulated origin and active development in the first half of the 19th age of dialectology not only territorial, but also social. Problems of ethnography already then included studying various public groups: not only workers, peasants, but also handicraftsmen, soldiers, sailors, declassed elements, homeless and so forth

Researches of a slang, slang (beggarly, school, unintelligible, dealers, dissenters, businessmen", convicts), conditional and artificial languages actively entered a scientific turn (ofensky, thieves', predatory, merchant, language of prasol, etc.).

From 70th of the 19th century the Slavic linguistics in RUSSIA became independent scientific discipline in which such directions of researches as development of the principles of comparison of Slavic languages, learning separate Slavic languages, opening of special lecture courses in higher educational institutions were allocated. From now on at the universities of Russia the systematic systematic training of specialists on Slavic linguistics began. From the middle of the 19th century in Russia the large slavistichesky centers in St. Petersburg, Moscow, Kharkiv, Kiev, Kazan, Yuryev (nowadays Tartu in Estonia), Odessa were formed. It, undoubtedly, created an objective basis not only for promotion of the scientific centers of the country on the level of the European, promoted transformation of ORYaS into one of organizers of work on studying a Slavic dialect landscape. In no small measure it was promoted by two important factors: 1) broad popularity and popularity of the Russian schools of sciences and their founders (F.I. Buslayev, F.F. Fortunatov, I.I. Sreznevsky, A.A. Potebni, I.A. of Baudouin de Courtene, A.A. Shakhmatova), 2) high authority of Russia, active support of all Slavic world by it.

In process of development of scientific communications between Slavic philologists (and these communications were very active) the interest of the Russian scientists in practical and scientific learning Slavic languages and dialects considerably increased. All scientists were united by the aspiration to reconstruct praslavyansky language, to allocate ancient dialects and in is mute also in independent Slavic languages. The problem Slavic ethno - and a glottogeneza since ancient times unites to this day all Slavic, and not only Slavic, scientific world.

Yu.I. Venelin in the 20th years of the 19th century showed huge interest in historical, ethnographic and language materials of the Bulgarian people and other southern Slavs. In 1830-1831 he was in an academic trip in Bulgaria, then created the two-volume composition on stories of the Bulgarian people, its culture: "Ancient and present to a bolgara in full national and their religious attitude towards Russians" (M., 1829-1841). V.I. Grigorovich successfully learned the Bulgarian and Macedonian dialects in search of a basis and sources of the old Slavic literary language [Bulakhov of I, 1976:80-82].

To Bulgaria, Serbia, the Czech Republic and Austria A.I. Sobolevsky left with the scientific purposes in 1895-1896. In 1903 ORYaS sent N.S. Derzhavin to Turkey and Bulgaria. E.F. Karsky, the famous specialist in Belarusian, in 1899-1900 also learned languages and the culture of the people of Bulgaria, Serbia [9]. As they say, nest numbers to such business trips of East Slavic scientists which result was a deep knowledge of the Slavic languages and cultures which enriched science with serious observations and conclusions in the field of languages, material and spiritual culture of the Slavic people.

In the 20th century the ethnography and dialectology went in the independent ways, developed

the methods and methods of scientific search and generalizations, but these ways are constantly crossed because both sciences are inconceivable the friend without friend.

In this article we trace back the history of separating Russianethnography from anthropology on the one hand and Russian dialectologyfrom ethnography on the other in the 19th century and at the beginningof the 20th century. We also analyse the contribution of eastern Slavicscientists to the study of material and spiritual culture of theirpeople during the mentioned period of time. We determine the role of theRussian Geographic Society and the Department of Russian Language andFolklore in this process.

The key words: etnography, dialectology, history of linguistics, development of language, anthropology.

List of references

1. Pypin A.H. History of the Russian ethnography: In 3 volumes. SPb., 1890 1891.
2. Mogilyansky N.M. Predmet and problems of ethnography. Ptg., 1916.
3. Storozhenko.B. Origin and essence of an ukrainofilstvo. Kiev, 1912.
4. Kagarov S. Zavdannya that eтнoгpaфi¿.Kиiв method, 1928.
5. I. Snegiryov. Ancient national Christmas-tide and Christmas carol//Bulletin of Europe.1828, No. 2-3.
6. Bulakhov M.G. is East Slavic linguists. Biobliografichesky dictionary: In 3 volumes. T.1. M, 1976.
7. BudagovR. And. Explanatory dictionaries in the national culture of the people. M, 1989.
8. N.I. Tolstoy, Tolstaya S.M.D.K. Zelenin is a dialectologist//Problems of Slavic ethnography. To the 100 anniversary since birth... D.K. Zelenina. L., 1979.
9. I.I. Sreznevsky. Thoughts of Russian history. SPb., 1850.
10. Documents to Slavic studies history in Russia (1850-1912).M.-L., 1948

About the author

V.I. Makarov. - prof., dock. Phil. sciences of the Bryansk state university of an ak. I.G. Petrovsky, bryanskgu@ of

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