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Studying history of public administration and self-government in pre-revolutionary Russia (on the basis of modern information technologies)



sergy KORNIENKO

STUDYING HISTORY of PUBLIC ADMINISTRATION AND SELF-GOVERNMENT IN PRE-REVOLUTIONARY RUSSIA

(on the basis of modern information technologies)

Characteristic feature of development of modern historical science stapo formation of her new environment and structure.

In article the problems of creation of the istochniko-focused systems dpya preservation and transfer to a machine-readable format of sources on the history of public administration and self-government, a possibility of use of such systems dpya scientific research are considered.

The typical feature of modern historical science is a formation of its new environment and structure. The article deals with problems of creation and using of source-oriented systems for preservation and conversion to machine-readable format of state governance and self-government historical sources.

the istochniko-focused information systems, machine-readable versions of historical sources, public administration and self-government, the State Duma, verbatim records, magazines of territorial meetings, provincial periodicals, the computerized research; source-oriented information systems, machine-readable versions of historical sources, state governance, self-government, State Duma, stenographic reports, diaries of Zemstvo&s Assembly, province periodicals, computer-based research.

KORNIENKO

Sergey Ivanovich — and. N, professor of department of the contemporary history of Russia of Perm State University of kornienko@psu.ru

Improvement of modern Russian statehood does more and more demanded historical experience of the state construction, management and self-government. Its scientific development depends not only on the problem and thematic width, depth and intensity of scientific research, but also on as far as such researches answer the modern level of development of science in general and historical in particular.

In the conditions of informatization of historical science, formation of its new structure and Wednesday, the level of scientific research are not least provided with existence of modern istochnikovy base and application of the modern methods of a research based on the information and computer technologies (ICT). One of ways for providing it is transfer to a digital format and creation of complexes of the machine-readable historical sources allowing to take and analyze historical information not only by traditional methods, but also by the methods relying on computer technologies. It solves problems of preservation of historical sources and increasing access of researchers to them. Use of modern ICT for the analysis of historical sources allows to realize more stoutly their information potential, to take historical information, hidden, inaccessible at use of traditional methods. Results of the research executed with use of ICT are characterized by bigger objectivity, repeatability, validity and consequently, reliability. The specified way corresponds to the state policy of informatization of historical science and education that finds the expression in systematic support by the public scientific foundations (RGNF and Russian Federal Property Fund) of the projects directed to creation of the historical focused information systems which basis is formed by machine-readable complexes of the digitized historical sources.

Over the years with assistance of RGNF and Russian Federal Property Fund in laboratory of historical and political computer science of istorikopolitologichesky faculty Perm state uni -

the versitet it was executed and a number of the projects directed to creation of information systems for scientific research in the field of the history of public administration and self-government in pre-revolutionary Russia continues to be carried out.

The project in the field of the history of parliamentarism in pre-revolutionary Russia became one of the first. In 2003 — 2005 the Information System Russian Parliamentarians of the Beginning of the 20th Century project 1 was implemented. Indexes to verbatim records of the State Duma of pre-revolutionary Russia of all four convocations became the main source for creation of a system. Creation of a system provided digitization of indexes and input in the database of a system of the information about structure, characteristics which is contained in them and activity of parliamentarians. The system allows to obtain on the basis of the user inquiries to it information on the structure of deputy corps of the State Duma of pre-revolutionary Russia, the structure of its governing bodies, the commissions, committees, fractions, deputy associations on all four of its convocations. On the basis of inquiries to a system the obtaining welfare characteristics, data on ideological and political orientation and parliamentary activity in its various manifestations on each deputy is possible. The system allows to do samples of deputies in any given parameters of their sociocultural, ideological and political characteristics, parliamentary activity and on this basis to create collective portraits (to conduct prosopografi-chesky researches) both deputy corps of the Duma of any given convocation, and its separate groups. Program technologically the system was created so that work with it in the network mode and within the Internet was from the very beginning possible. Besides, the model of a system assumes its further development due to integration with the systems containing other fundamental complexes of historical and historiographic sources on the history of parliamentarism. During implementation of the project the istochniko-focused version of indexes to verbatim records of the State Duma of — GU of convocations representing their electronic publication in the PDF format (the text under the image) and prednazna-was created

1 The project is supported by RGNF. Grant No. 03-0112012 of century

ceremonious for distribution on local carriers.

Now development of a system is carried out through implementation of new project "Information System "Verbatim Records of the State Duma, 1906 — 1917"" 2. Understanding of verbatim records as main source on the history of the Russian parliamentarism containing important information on activity of the State Duma of pre-revolutionary Russia and parliamentary activity of the Duma fractions and certain deputies is the cornerstone of the project. Considering that the volumes of verbatim records published in 1906 — 1917 so far became a rare book, and their physical state considerably worsens in all book-depositories, creation of a system gives the chance to solve a problem of preservation of this source on the basis of the translation it in a machine-readable format. Implementation of the project will allow to create the first full text database of verbatim records of the State Duma of the Russian Empire of all four convocations and to make it available through the Internet that will provide remote access to a source to the most wide range of users. Integration of the information systems "Russian Parliamentarians of the Beginning of the 20th Century" and "Verbatim Records of the State Duma, 1906 — 1917" means creation of the unique istorikooriyentirovanny istochnikovy complex based on the model providing interrelation between two groups of fundamental historical sources on the considered perspective and allowing to study their one through another and synchronously. Systems will become a basis of the information and analytical Internet portal "Russian Parliamentarism of the Beginning of the 20th Century" which among other things will for the first time provide a possibility of the analysis of the specified sources as "the uniform text" that will allow to realize their information potential at qualitatively new level.

The essential party of historical experience of public administration of pre-revolutionary Russia is the history of territorial self-government. Need of creation of conditions for studying this about -

2 The project is supported by RGNF. Grant No. 08-0112108 of century

blema caused the appeal to development and implementation of the project of modern istoch-nikovy complex "Magazines of Territorial Meetings as a Source of Studying History of Local Government in Russia (the II Half of XIX — the Beginning of the 20th Century)" 1.

The information system created as a result of its realization represents information complex for comprehensive, system and consecutive study of problems of territorial self-government in Russia. Now the system contains magazines (and annexes to them) zemstvoes of the Perm, Moscow, St. Petersburg, Vyatka, Saratov and Nizhny Novgorod provinces with a total amount of 72,800 pages of the text of the original and allows to obtain information on structure, structure, the main activities of territorial institutions and their figures.

Despite the name, the information system is designed as the peculiar universal complex allowing to enter into its database not only magazines of provincial and district territorial meetings, but other various sources on the history of territorial self-government.

As well as previous, this system solves not only problems of preservation of historical sources and ensuring access to them to a wide range of researchers, but also gives the chance of association of various collections of magazines and other documents in a uniform istochniko-vy complex. It allows to analyze certain types of sources and even all their set as "the uniform text" that opens new opportunities for studying history of zemstvo, for example by implementation of large-scale comparative-historical researches.

In the history of public administration in pre-revolutionary Russia at the local level also experience of use of the official provincial periodicals submitted by "Provincial sheets" is represented valuable. On saving "The Perm provincial sheets" as valuable historical source, creation of opportunities for their comprehensive and deep study two projects implemented in laboratory of historical computer science of Perm State University — "The source study analysis are directed

1 The project is supported by the Russian Federal Property Fund. Grant No. 04-0790283 of century

the Permskiye Gubernskiye Vedomosti newspapers (XIX — the beginning of the 20th century) on the basis of use of new computer technologies" 2 and "the Permskiye Gubernskiye Vedomosti Newspaper of 1838 — 1844: problems of a source study research and preservation of a historical and cultural monument" 3.

It should be noted that development and implementation of these projects, first of all, were caused by need of preservation by digitization and transfer on other modern carrier of collections of the newspaper for 1838 — 1844 and 1909 — 1912 which physical state threatened with their full loss. As a result of implementation of projects, digital copies of these collections on optical carriers were created that provides preservation of these sources and a possibility of access for researchers to them.

All considered information systems are characterized by a polnoteksto-vost, istochniko-orientation, cross-platform, a possibility of work through & Л&еЬ-интерфейс, orientation to multitasking of researches.

Implementation of projects on digitization of massifs of sources and creation on this basis of the information systems focused on a perspective of history of public administration are directed to the solution of such methodological problems as a historical source in light of information approach, approaches to creation of model of a source, stages and rules of creation of models, requirements to the traditional source study analysis of a historical source as to a basis for creation of its information model, documenting of sources, development of structures and formats of their description and others.

The considered information systems allow to say that the fullest transfer of shape and structure of documents, substantial completeness of a source on the history of public administration, so, the universality of the created information system in terms of its scientific use provides istochnikooriyentirovanny approach.

the Research is executed by

with assistance of RGNF. Grants No. No. 08-01-12108 in, 08-01-82101 and / At.

2 The project is supported by RGNF. Grant No. 05-0182102 and / At.
3 The project is supported by RGNF. Grant No. 08-0182101 and / At.
Joann Robinson
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