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Category: History

Problems of history of the water transport and agrarian migrations of Russia the 19-20th centuries.


M.V. Borisenko,

Dr. east. sciences, prof., SPGUVK


RUSSIA X1X-XX of Centuries



Objective data on total number of the vessels of different types constructed in the European Russia, use of other types of vehicles are provided in work. The orientation and dynamics of size of migration flows in Russia of a turn of the studied centuries are disclosed.

The paper gives objective data on the total number of different kinds of ships built in European part of Russia, as well as using of other types of vehicles. The trends and amount dynamics of migration streams in Russia at the edge of the centuries is shown.

The stage of development of the higher education in the transport sphere of our country is characteristic OVREMENNYY its active integration into world economic and information space. Essential attribute of this objective process is the approval of the principles of reflection of a real state both vehicles, and objects of transportations. It is obvious that technical and economic indicators of the sphere of transport naturally cause the level of mobility of the population and cargoes in geographical and social plans. From this it follows that throughout different stages of history of Russia the migration processes played a significant role, having been a form of adaptation of the population to changing social and to an environment of existence.

Importance of a subject of this research is caused by that essential circumstance that agrarian migrations in Russia were the unique phenomenon which had the broadest mass character. The basis of such migrations was formed by the Russian peasantry making absolute

most of the population in former Russia. Existence of multimillion flows of rural migrants caused scale and variety of kolonizatsionny processes in Russia of X1X-XX of centuries. In certain respects it is appropriate to compare events of that period to larger migration processes of a boundary of XX-XX1 of centuries.

Undoubtedly, in the Russian historiography there is a considerable material concerning resettlement (V.A. Kauffman, N.N. Turchaninov, I.L. Yamzin, L.F. Sklyarov and other authors). In the prevailing majority of cases the called texts carry generally - statistical, at best sociological, that is absolutely depersonalized, character. The role of transport, at least water, at resettlements in historical works specially was not considered. So far prerequisites for studying scope of population shifts with bo-175 leu of realistic positions ripened at attention to "a subjective factor" and other features remaining unaffected last literature. The book by V.A. Kazarezov "Peasants - is indicative for the modern period

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a sky question in Russia" 1. The attention peculiar to work of this author to questions of resettlements, partly to conditions of transportations and to results of migration policy when accounting a human factor corresponds to humanistic approaches of modern social history.

The purposes of this article is the following:

• to create the general methodical orientation of studying a role of transport in implementation of migrations of last Russia;

• to designate compound plots in development of this subject;

• to show what in some cases features of impact of vehicles on colonization development.

The period of the middle of H1H — the beginning of the XX century in Russia was characterized by diverse forms of technical and agrarian evolution. If for the industrial sector of economy the completion of an industrial revolution became a being of changes, then preservation of rural community in attempt to destroy it and to discharge "land hunger" of the central provinces of the country by the organization of resettlements on the outskirts was characteristic of an agrarian system. Such is an initial point of view which belongs to the sphere of social and economic and demographic history of our country. At the same time it is obvious that it is necessary to use actively a perspective, profile for the University of water communications, which is on a joint of several different disciplines. It is, first of all, equipment history in Russia, shipbuilding, river transport and waterways (hydrography). The concrete condition of means of communication and vehicles definitely influenced the level and success of kolonizatsionny processes of our country. - N Besides, for adequate representation about

> the nature of a way of life of migrants and about rezul-

> Tats of their adaptation it is necessary for t primene-

| 17v] ny a special conceptual framework with primene-

niy both statistical and demographic characteristics, and actually historical description; this inclusion of methods of genealogical reconstruction, the historical and sociological and culturological analysis in combination with creation of the corresponding electronic database, etc.

As an initial actual plot it should be noted value of actually geographical environment of our fatherland. Development of the Russian state since the most ancient times and during the imperial period was closely connected with development of the outskirts of the country. It was promoted by both extensive type of agrarian managing, and formation of domestic commodity market, and the political interests of expansion of borders, and development actually of the system of vehicles. Many scientists paid attention to a special role of a geographical factor in Russia (S.M. Solovyov, V.O. Klyuchevsky, L.I. Mechnikov, G.V. Vernadsky, etc.). So, Mechnikov proved that the main driving force in the history — not economy, but "the geographical environment". The rivers, across Mechnikov, "on pain of death" compelled the mass of the population to close local solidarnosti2. At the same time of "a river civilization" of Russia the impassability of overland roads, interruptions in yamsky chase, danger of robberies and other difficulties are characteristic notorious — about it not only rich folklore of our country testifies. Confirmation to that is the unanimous chorus of responses of foreign travelers, since XVI century...

Owing to noted circumstances waterways, conventionally the biggest in Europe were the main intermedia in old Russia. Nevertheless in comparison with the general sizes of the country the relative extent of the mastered water communications was incommensurably small: 35 versts on 100 square miles, whereas in Germany — 119, in France — 135 and in England — 145 verst3. At the same time the number of river crafts in ours

1 V.A. Kazarezov. A country question in Russia: the end of H1H — the first quarter of the XX century. — M, 2000.
2 L. Mechnikov. Geographical theory of progress and social development. — M, 1924. — Page 13.
3 V.F. Marukhin. The history of river navigation in Russia (H1H a century, the Volga basin). — M, 1996. — Page 26.

to the country always was many times more, than in other Europe. Statistically, in 1848 the total number of all vessels of different types constructed in the European Russia (sailing, not self-propelled and steam) was 10 thousand 604 units, in 1850 — 8 thousand 490, in the 1851st — 8 thousand 466 edinits4. According to the Volga magazine, in the 1840th only on this river about 20 thousand, and in the 1850th — 30 thousand various vessels annually floated. In total there were about 50 types not steam sudov5.

In general for the pre-revolutionary period the extent of the navigable inland waterways of Russia was 64.6 thousand km. Transportation of goods of river transport reached 49.1 thousand tons, including "behind draft" 35.1 thousand tons, and the others — self-alloy. The number of the passengers transported for 1913 exceeded 11 million people. These transportations fell generally on the rivers of the European part of the country. According to certain researchers, "the rivers of Siberia and the Far East in pre-revolutionary Russia for navigation were almost not used; across Ob, Irtysh, Yenisei, Amur, only single vessels floated". Whether so it was in fact — will show additional studying a subject.

What reasons and sizes of streams of resettlements? The conditionality of migrations in Russia has the diverse reasons among which were: the general spiritual, social and economic, policy of the government, personal. During the period before reform of 1861 the development of process of resettlements of the European Russia could not have mass character owing to bondage of most of country people. After 1861 with a growth of capitalist forms of managing the outflow from the central provinces of land-poor layers directed began to be observed it is almost exclusive to the southern and southeast steppes and into the North Caucasus. Only to the middle of the 1880th the stream of resettlements to the Urals gradually began to gain momentum. For 1861-1885 the number moved from Europe to Siberia averaged about 12 thousand che-

lovek annually. After the law of 1889 on new rules of resettlement the stream increased up to 39 thousand people annually. Decrease in number of driving off was influenced by a crop failure and hunger of 1891. Substantial increase of a stream was promoted by opening of the Great Siberian way and also start-up since the end of the 1890th "Ob-Yenisei of a connecting way" that allowed to get to river crafts across the Ket River from Western to Eastern Siberia. For 1885-1904 very about a number of immigrants was 1 million 448 thousand 48 souls of both sexes (family) and about 30 thousand odinokikh6. Since the beginning of the 20th century the sizes of human streams from the European provinces of Russia increased by the outskirts by 4-5 times. Poor harvest 1911 interrupted this trend, but from next year the steady growth of number of moving is observed again. Only world war stopped this stream. Studying the course of resettlements during the subsequent periods of the Soviet history is destiny of knowledge only of the few experts.

What characterized water vehicles in H1H of century? On river and waterways of messages, as well as on overland, the muscular strength of people and animals was used. The most everyday watercraft of movement of the population up to the end of the 19th century (along with horses) were various rowboats and various vessels on the rivers and lakes. On vessels with higher level of the equipment sails were applied. For a crossing from one river bank on another quite often it was possible to meet ferries (redrafts) with use of manual strength of ferrymen or strength of animals. Up to the end of H1H of century, despite emergence of steam engines on river crafts, in the Central Russia, work of barge haulers was used. It were the artels of workers pulling for a rope on the river coast against the current the vessel or the barge on extended distances. The Russian barge haulers became an embodiment of the heaviest fate of workers of physical work on waterways of the European Russia. Weight of their situation is reflected by rich folklore, vos-

4 V.F. Marukhin. Decree. soch. — Page 33.
5 Volga. — 1862. — 3 noyab.
6 Colonization of Siberia in connection with the general resettlement question. — SPb., 1900. — Page 1.

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remembrances and numerous images art kultury7.

The feature of the movement of the not steam courts of the Volga basin going from the southern parts of the country up the direction to St. Petersburg was in what they used along with barge haulers, the help of horses ("konovodka"). Similar vessels - "konovodka" went across Volga, Kama and Oka, transporting bread, salt, sometimes the wood. Respectively on the way from Astrakhan to Nizhny Novgorod 3 months left. In the 1840th of such "konovodny cars" there were about 200. With development of shipping company their number began to be reduced: but there were "konovodka" up to the 1880th

Development of a parokhodostroyeniye in the European Russia — new line of development of the water transport. The network of water communications influenced growth and improvement of river transport. In turn river transport was in direct dependence on development of industrial production of Russia and was closely connected with growth of national economy. The adapted boiler which appeared in the second half of the 18th century allowed to create steam self-propelled vessels with the mechanical engine — steamships. The beginning of shipping company in Russia belongs to 1815 when in St. Petersburg there was a vessel construction with mechanical draft. At the same time on the great Russian Volga Rivers and Kama the first steamships appeared in 1816 that was result of efforts of the landowner and plant owner V.A. Vsevolzhsky. The first Russian steamships first could not show the superiority before regular vessels. But during the subsequent period the technical indicators of new vessels raised. In the basin of Volga there was a large number of steamship societies. Since the beginning of the 20th century the steam-engine on


sk river crafts begins to force out the engine

yp internal combustion. For the first time it ispolzo-

7 Cm, for example: B. Staroverov. Barge haulers on Volga//Volgo-Nevsky Avenue. — 2007. — May 23.
8 Big encyclopedia of transport. — SPb., 1998.

— T. 6: River transport. — Page 69.

9 To the 50 anniversary of shipping company on Volga//the Russian navigation. — 1896. — No. 172. — Page 104.
10 N.V Beldytsky to Parma. Essays of a northern part of the Cherdyn County. — Perm, 1901. — Page 89.

bring down the sormovsky shipbuilders who installed the diesel on the bulk Vandal self-propelled vessel in 1903. On a census of the inland waterways of Russia 1912, the number of steamships and motor ships on the rivers in Russia reached 5 thousand 566 and not self-propelled river crafts 24 thousand 151 edinits8. Further introduction in electric power shipbuilding in the 1920th led to emergence of powerful power propulsion systems and also the vessel equipment difficult devices and complexes of automatic control and regulation that is especially visually embodied in the modern ship.

After objective data we will address the subjective party of business. How in reality did apprehend emergence of technical innovations on water the population of provincial Russia? Inhabitants of many areas were negative to the new type of transport enough. So emergence in 1846 of the steamship "Volga" caused impassioned reaction of inhabitants between Rybinsk and Samara. On a response of the eyewitness, "dark weight spitefully bombarded the first steamship clouds of stones... Fury of crowd were always followed by terrible shout, a terrible shock drekolyev and also any curses" 9. When for the first time the steamship arrived in the Cherdyn County of the Perm province, "inhabitants knew about its arrival and watched for it even at night. Here the whistle was distributed. many took to the heels. Old men were christened by an Old Belief cross. The crowd beheld the steamship, rare men of courage dared to ascend aboard. The majority steered clear of the devil car. "It is visible, the end to the world it is close, what the animal crawled to Toole sir. It is visible, the truth old people of a bayala!" When from the car exhausted, the crowd with horror rushed to the parties and again approached not soon" 10.

It was clear for an educated part of the population that the steamship is a sign razvi-

Tia of technical progress. So, according to V.A. Shelgunov, growth of shipping company has to assume in the country "the known degree of a civilization when both the people, and workers, and mechanical production — everything has to stand in level" 11. Nevertheless those merchants that were owners of not steam vessels, understood danger of the competition from the new type of transport, though masked sometimes the fears care of the barge haulers losing the earnings. The Siberian merchants in the weight also first mistrustfully treated new vessels. Therefore, in different parts of the country and population groups differently treated development of the new type of transport.

Development of water communications of regions of colonization (it is generally

about Siberia) had the features. Here, unlike the center of Russia, so noticeable government support to business of development of river transport was not observed. To the east from the Urals the periods of navigation lasted from May to October. In Eastern Siberia the first steamships in the second half of the 19th century went from the village of Ust Kut to the village of Vitim and to Bodaibo. In 1875-1880. "Sibiryakov and Bazanov's Lensk and Vitim shipping company" transported 3 million 566 thousand 497 poods of cargoes and 20 thousand 643 passengers. The main part of cargoes went to the area of gold mining. After the revolution of 1917 the flotilla consisting of 7 steamships, barges and floatable vessels was nationalized, and it continued flights across Lena up to the 1930th

Volumes and frequency of transportations by river transport of Siberia began to increase in the second half of the 19th century more and more. Authors of the Siberian encyclopedia not without the bases noted that on the rivers of the remote areas of Eastern Siberia in navigation of 1905 29 steamships and 48 not steam vessels were operated. By the end of the 19th century the condition of river transportations could already satisfy the basic transport needs of the region.

Along with the fact that the general direction in development of the water transport had a positive -

a ny tendency to growth, in the certain Areas of Siberia, especially in provinces of Eastern Siberia, there was a notable lack of watercrafts with mechanical draft. So on a water route of the movement from piers Ob-Tomsk in 1907 plied only one state steamship with 3 barges and one private Paro-hod12. Meanwhile the Tomsk province was that region where the resettlement stream was most quantitatively intensive.

One of steamships on the Tura River near Tyumen (beginning of the 20th century)

Should consider

that according to E.I. Melnikov's shipping company, during earlier 1893 in Western and Eastern Siberia "there was no easy and passenger shipping company, and there was towing passenger traffic. Steamships went from Tyumen to Tomsk in 12-16 days and in 13-17 days — back from Tomsk to Tyumen. It significantly complicated traffic conditions of immigrants which practically for all the time of a trip around the rivers of Siberia were forced to be under the open sky. According to the report of the chief inspector of Ministry of Railways Gorchakov of April 27, 1907, at survey of stations Ob and Omsk in the spring of 1907 "all rooms for public were occupied by the immigrants expecting more than a month of departure and navigation on the Irtysh Rivers and Ob... Such situation ob-

11 Russian word. — 1863. — Jan. - Feb. — Page 9.
12 The Russian state. historical archive (further — RGIA).

— T. 391. — Op. 3, 1907. — 584. — L. 22.

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it yasnyatsya by absence at the specified stations of special rooms for immigrants. The specified congestions repeat annually, for elimination of similar congestions of immigrants the placement them, for example, on the barges adapted by Resettlement management for this" 13 is supposed necessary. Therefore, the lack of station rooms was one of the important reasons of an essential delay of immigrants in way. Similar to that in Eastern Siberia on all Yenisei province, by the estimation of the author made according to "The book of resettlement sites of 1893-1910", the number of all river steamship piers connected with resettlement sites was about 100 while the total number of sites at different times here was estimated in several tysyachami14.

Since the beginning till August, 1910 on barges of the Tomsk merchant G.I. Fuksman from New Nikolaevsk to Barnaul and Biysk 6 thousand 800 people of immigrants on barges down the river of Ob were transported. During the subsequent period the general stream going along the called route fell to several hundred chelovek15. Having refused the contract with the merchant, the Resettlement management concluded other agreement with the Russian-Chinese joint-stock company of shipping company and trade and with Association of the West Siberian shipping company and trade of trading house of Plotnikov and I.N. Kornilov. From the text of the contract it is possible to present environmental conditions of the immigrants going waterways. Let's note only that the route of transportations was defined down the river to Irtysh from Omsk to Semipalatinsk and from the Poplar - the vy cape to Tara and the village of Tevriz through passing piers up and downstream the river where during navigation the duty to ply not less than three Paro -

is established
1 the courses in a week. And in case of shallow water

pus shipowners were obliged to take measures to

You sending steamships and barges. This equipment before -

180) it was appointed for transportation up to 5 thousand people

with baggage in 45 thousand poods during the season. Landing

13 RGIA. — T. 391. — Op. 3, 1907. — 584. — L. 5.
14 In the same place. — Op. 4, 1911. — 1185.
15 In the same place. — Op. 4, 1911. — 1005. — L. 1-5.
16 In the same place. — Op. 4, 1911. — 1075. — L. 6-8 ("About transportations across the rivers of Siberia").

immigrants on vessels were carried out orderly. The shipping company undertook to deliver, except steamships, also to pier desk with a canopy on barges. At the same time on vessels for immigrants conditions for cooking were created, and it was provided from the shipowner inexpensive pitaniye16.

The increased volumes of transport transportations caused special attention of governmental bodies to the safe movement on the rivers of the country. Development and adoption of the relevant provision demonstrated to it. In 1910. The department of water communications published the brochure "Rules for Swimming on Inland Waterways" (SPb., 1910) in which the regulation of maintenance and the performance standard of vehicles are defined (steamships, barges, lighthouses, beacons, etc.) during service and navigation.

How results of transportations in one of regions — a river basin of Ob were estimated? The main office of shipping company of E.I. Melnikov (Barnaul the Tomsk province) gave the developed characteristic of activity of shipping company: "Transporting a large number of immigrants and agricultural tools, it [shipping company] rendered indisputable service to development and settling of edge in the system of the Ob River. In a reach of Tomsk-Barnaul-Biysk the steamships with barges went down only in the spring on a high water, and in the rest of the time no message existed. Meanwhile this edge is considered one of fertile in Western Siberia, need for the convenient and cheap message was felt here long ago... The first initiative of easy and passenger shipping company in Western Siberia (in the area of Tomsk-Barnaul-Biysk) belonged to our firm. Since 1896 the easy and passenger steamship "Supporter" in 180 indicator forces which went from Tyumen to Tomsk for 6 and day instead of 12-16 days was put. The passenger payment was the same, as at towing and passenger steamships. Developing our business, now we have steamships: "Supporter",

"Wizard", "Grandfather", "Siberian". Obedient ship (110 forces)." Further development of economic infrastructure of the region is noted. "Making advances prosperity of edge, with development in Siberia of butter manufacture, we the first built stone glaciers on big piers for the purpose of storage of export oil... Having given a [new] impetus [for development] the industries of edge, having strengthened barter of Altai and Mongolia, we increased a flotilla of the constructed steamships and barges. We gave an impetus to development of vehicles that gave the chance to transport both any cargoes, and a large number of immigrants. But for the last three years (1909, 1910, 1911) Siberia frequent crop failures and inevitably related comprehended the termination of the resettlement movement, partly decline of local trade and the industry. It put us in an emergency, we sustain losses." 17 it is obvious that, despite separate complaints, activity of private shipping companies promoted an indisputable contribution to economic development of the extensive Areas of Siberia.

We will sum up some results. In the methodical plan the studying a contribution of transport in implementation of migrations of last Russia is defined as an organic part of a perspective which is on a joint of several different disciplines, such as equipment history in Russia, river transport and waterways which condition significantly influenced the level and success of kolonizatsionny processes. Certainly, a necessary part of this subject is formed also by questions of social and economic and demographic history.

Among compound plots when developing this subject it is appropriate to call value of natural and geographical factors, characteristic of the general state transport and waterways, the reasons, the sizes, orientation of migration flows, etc. In the same row it is necessary to define also results of impact of traffic flows on regional infrastructure.

17 RGIA. — T. 391. — Op. 4, 1911. — 1075. — L. 13-18.
18 Big encyclopedia of transport. — SPb., 1998.

— T. 6: River transport. — Page 71.

We will dwell upon the last story. Apparently, it is necessary to estimate the impact of growth of the water transport on areas of colonization ambiguously. Up to the end of the 19th century of need of mass resettlements for Russia could not be rather realized owing to incompleteness of creation of the transport systems with mechanical draft. The river network of the Urals-Siberia had the main orientation the South-North, and requirements dictated need of the movement from the West on the East.

Since the end of the 19th century and till 1916 this contradiction was generally overcome by creation of network of the railroads and waterways which had the direction from the Urals to the Far East. At the same time the role of the waterways of the message at equipment by their steam vessels allowing the mass of immigrants to reach on the sites from the South on the North considerably increased. Special study is demanded by a plot about delivery of migrants (including the sea) from the European Russia to the Far East.

From 1880 to 1915 the steady increase in the many thousands amount of annual resettlements was characteristic of resettlement streams. Along with it at the movement the slowness of train service and steamships, high mortality and other difficulties was noted. Efforts of governmental bodies and some private transport companies by 1910th separate transport problems succeeded to soften and create conditions for increase in capacity of railway and river transport.

During the subsequent period World War I interrupted this positive trend.

In general for the pre-revolutionary period the movement of big passenger traffics was provided at a set of difficulties and problems. The private sector of the water transport of Russia presented by 59 steamship companies and 110 associations from more than 800 types sudov18 despite development of "the voluntary fleet", often could not resolve all the standing questions. In that case mechanisms of state regulation turned on. Mainly it belonged to

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railway and partly to water to rolling stocks. Nevertheless association of different economic sectors helped to solve in general a problem of providing million streams with vehicles.

It is in conclusion appropriate to return to a question of the importance of the studied subject for our days. It is expedient to connect consequences of migration dynamics with characteristics of demographic behavior of the population in the modern Russian Federation. According to statistical data, only for 2000-2005 the number of the migrants who arrived to the new place in our country made 13.6 million people, and for 1990-2005 — more than 47.5 million people (of them about 9 million — from abroad) 19. The valid size of a stream of movements over official statistics is even more large-scale (increase approximately by 40%) 20. It is indisputable that these processes of resettlements involve changes in social and settlement structure of regions, affect labor market, on requirements to vehicles and also increase level sotsi-

alno-political tension, especially in areas with more intensive inflow. Thus, objectively in the past were available and nowadays there are both positive, and negative consequences of migrations. From there is obvious interest in a retrospective view of that historical experience that was received by Russia during last not less drama and intense era.

Thus, existence of the Russian migration has a set of phenomenal intrinsic signs and features. The stated subject is of serious interest first of all to study in general opportunities of optimization of the transport sphere of Russia. From there is its great practical and scientific value. At discrepancy of conditions of the present stage of development of the Russian economy and policy the essential problem of historical technical science is to understand a being of the happened changes and to help to develop recommendations for correction of situation in terms of the national interests of Russia.

19 V. Boykov. Social aspects of population shift//Sotsis. — 2007. — No. 12. — Page 75-76.
20 In the same place.
Edward Ronald Joseph
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