The Science Work
Site is for sale:
Category: History

The speech in the matter of Lyutorichesky peasants


Description of business

Lords judges and misters class representatives!

Documents are read, witnesses are listened, the accuser told the word - soft, humane, and therefore more dangerous to business; but the burning and solving a problem question is not raised, not put safely and distinctly.

And meanwhile he asks, he seeks outside: close ears, narrow eyes, clamp my lips, - all the same, he will break through through; he in the facts us the studied business; it is broadcast by those established orders in management of the owner of the village of Lyutorich, those orders which I will call "a picture of post-reform economy in one of lordly estates" where the unnatural union of the eminent Russian boyar with the ostzeysky majordomo from year to year, a drop on a drop, weakened freedom of the Russian man and, having weakened, seized it in own favor.

Any sensitive soul, any awakened conscience hears, demands it from me if I bypass it. And I urge you to listen favourably to my word in this direction.

Do not think that I will turn aside from the purposes of well understood protection; be not afraid that I will be fond of the publicistic interest of the business offered your court, I will pass limits of a judicial debate.

Sense of proportion will hold me. It inspires in me that 34 defendants, - and not 34, but one people, - can demand that I did not do that platform on which it is spacious of their back it is possible to walk about and recite subjects from area of public questions, having left to the mercy of fate what has to seize entirely my forces, - care of future of defendants,

F.N. Plevako

care of rejecting or belittling the blows directed to the heads of these unfortunate by a thunderstorm of the punishing law.

And I am deeply convinced, - and you share my belief, - that in the real business the history of emergence of events has on May 3 and 5 deep roots in the past; that the household essay of business will light it in the real light, will remove outside valid, but in depth the disappeared reasons, powerful, inevitable which cash changes the point of view both for an event, and for proofs, and for his explanations.

It is possible to consider for firmly established situation that the peasants who said on April 22, May 3 and 5 that they will not allow to the inventory constantly said that they have to nothing and no judgment on collecting is known.

Time they had such belief, time, according to them, to them, suddenly, the court order handed to them by the police officer fell down, for the proof of this situation we have to study the attitudes of peasants towards execution creditors - to the German managing director and to the count Bobrinsky. Only there the facts which will convince us that peasants could consider themselves not in a debt will be opened to us; there we will see the data convincing us that peasants could not know either contracts, or decisions against them decided that they could not trust the data on collecting reported by it the police officer and think that their protest is a truth protest against scandalous injustice.

We will study the household facts of business.

In Yepifan nearly a half of lands - the fiefdom of the count Bobrinsky. The feature of this manor which is not meeting to itself rivalry in the province is an insignificant plot, beggarly as it is called in literature, "cat's" - on an apt expression of the starving wit.

Peasants cannot live a plot: work on the party and on fields of the landowner for them is inevitable, they gravitate to it, not as it is free agreeing, and as involuntarily forced, - and in it the idea and the meaning of the system practiced by the managing director of count manors.

Of course, plots in manors of the count agree with a law letter; it is impossible to demand from it bigger for the sake of the ideal right. For those people who do not know a debt above ordered by the law which do not feel that the law is a minimum of the truth over which other ideal, other debt, distinct only to moral sense, - for those people the fact of this plot - the fact faultless, a full measure of duties of the count to peasants, alien any capture and harm rises.

And we will not begin to condemn de jure of the count Bobrinsky. We will understand so far what left this half-starved freedom.

Need was born eternally will be lent at the landowner by the earth for processing, eternally to look for at him earnings, to be lent to seeds for an obsemeneniye of fields. Constants are long, thanks to methods of management, grew and tightened peasants: the creditor dominated over the debtor and enslaved him work for himself, work for non-payment of the collecting penalty from year to year.

In this situation where the creditor dominated, and the debtor choked, was not also to mention about the voluntary agreement any more. Terrible contracts and decisions prove that the management did not agree, and ordered conditions; eternally enslaving men did not agree too, and silently put on a loop, than and the free civil transactions of peasants with their former owner were closed and came into force.

There is no wish to think that the text of the contracts announced by us during the investigation was invented in the count's office, but not in office of German Fischer. Knowing the count Bobrinsky as Muscovite, the leader of the local nobility, I vainly protected a thought that these penalties from 50 to 100 percent for the amount of debt delayed seven days, these conditions on the earth selecting her back with seeds, a harvest and work if among lack of money ordinary during this time the tenant peasant both other and other does not pay a debt, - are unknown to it, are alien to it and without consent it are thought up by the heartless managing director.

Ten years, from year to year, go they - identical, ruinous, brutal conditions, and the count does not know them!.

No to protect this thought - a task beyond my strength. It is necessary to know ten years that for the slightest malfunction of one will fine the whole community in my advantage, it is necessary to see that thousands of rubles of penalties collected from beggarly kopeks, exacted from the peasantry are annually contributed in books of economy - it is impossible, it is impossible...

Here the fault does not come to an end in the person writing contracts and demanding under them what Fischer is always. No, the feeling distinguishing the good and evil clearly and intelligibly judges those who could, but did not want to put an end to the similar evil.

I tell not phrases. Each my word is documentary based. Rare readiness of the Yepifan congress of magistrates which issued me data on activity of the magistrate Golikov awarding from 1866 to 1877 to Fischer and economy of the count Bobrinsky debts and penalties - gave me the chance to submit you the inventory of affairs - over 350.

From this inventory you see that the number of cases in a year reached 54. Weathers-but also on the sums we receive such results: in 1866 Fischer shows only 2 affairs - for 150 rubles; the next year - already 7 cases, a debt and penalties 1542 rubles are also exacted; in 1869 - 5 cases and 103 rubles; in 1870 Fischer's appetite is played, and he makes 51 business and receives 9937 rubles; in 1871 - 54 business and 13,032 rubles; in 1872 - 28 cases and 7858 rubles of collecting. In 1873 the calm came - the hand beating was tired and made only 5 cases and only 1309 rubles are exacted.

But the world was short. With the next year the new persecution broke out: 20 cases and 6588 rubles in 1874; 12,090 rubles and 56 cases in 1875; in 1876-50 cases and 14,942 rubles; in 1877 - 38 cases and 11,026 rubles.

I ask you to leaf through the shown document. Claims of penalties on 30 percent, on 50 percent, on 100 percent for a debt flash before eyes. Penalties in 300 and 500 rubles - the whole dozens. And read the contract: a full penalty for failure to pay a small share of a debt. Read case No. 143 for 1870 - look for a debt and a penalty, peasants bear money to the judge. Money is accepted, received, and on a penalty the court order after all is taken in 50 percent. Read case No. 158 - the awful, disgusting contract: in case of delay - a log hut, the cow, a horse and everything that will be found in a log hut, arrives in

penalty. Claims for certificates of volost board are awarded. It is awarded by the certificate given by volost board!

But enough! A lot of patience is necessary to read these usurious imaginations to which the judge living presently and creating court under charters on November 20 gave value and strength.

It is a shame to

with time in which similar people live and act!

Reconsider, judges, this document. Give value to these progressively increasing penalties, from 100 to 500 rubles. Take into account a significant fact that penalties are collected, and new debts everything are formed. Means, life of peasants in the manors entrusted by the count Bobrinsky to German Fischer is heavy. Means, the loop overflowed them if they see how from them pull a penalty to which any mortgager will envy, and they pay, dolzhat and yet again take.

Imagine this sad economic story.

It is not difficult to see that continuous increase of penalties confused peasants. It is not difficult to understand what they reached when, according to Pisarev, took conditions on processing of fields by the whole village for the awarded penalty. It is not difficult to understand how these penalties grew it is not known for the village as in volost board in 1877 at No. 17 the sentence authorizing two men is pronounced and from now on to sign any conditions about penalties. I think that in Lyutorichakh the life after reform in was a hundred times heavier than prereform slavery. Till February 19 the managing director protected the man as he protected any master's thing brought in stock. Egoistical calculation had a mask philanthrophy.

But the Freedom Day came, the egoistical bases to protect the slave were undermined, and the mask is dumped. Everything that can be chosen got out of the man. But will not take out, will wash. - that for good reason. On a blank space will be new half-starved, - if only Fischer's right hand was not tired to reap where did not sow.

The lyutorichesky man in this whirlpool of accounts and collecting was confused, and it is not sophisticated that began to argue.

However, to its dispute against the court order supported with loan letters, judicial investigation gave such telling arguments that any doubt in conscientious belief that the debt is paid, does not have the place.

Between loan letters there is one in 1000 rubles, term on entirely with percent: looked for all sum. And here during the investigation we showed two receipts: from them it is visible that Karne-ev recognized by Fischer for his cashier accepted in payment according to this loan letter, before submission still of the claim, over 500 rubles. Fischer looked for again full 1000 rubles. Collecting for the second time is called as a heavy and mean act in our Code.

With impudence, worthy surprises, the German managing director explained here that these receipts are wrong and therefore he wrote down the payment received by Karneev. in 1876. You never know what comments on the Russian note will be dragged in by his German wit. Who granted to it the right to willfully ignore the receipt given in payment? I deny this comment deprived of sense and safely that he heard, I speak here: Fischer looked for the second money; he made illegal act against lyutorichesky peasants.

Time is these receipts which accidentally survived at us, times Fischer, having them, the debt quite looked for, that is hid payment, publicly looked for not due, - receive weight though a part the proved testimonies of defendants that they a debt paid all, and lose belief of a word of Fischer that it is owed all required. It is convicted of a lie, it cannot be trusted, the Falsehood of a debt is proved also by mystery of the claim. Correspondence decision. Peasants in court were not. A response it is not given. The foreman could not explain whether notified peasants on the submitted claim, whether the copy of the decision was notified by it. Meanwhile, if whether peasants decided to resist the inventories convinced of correctness, then not the natural assumption would be the fact that they would fight against the claim and in the form of more lawful, in court, would show payment receipts there. But it was not because about business concealed from them, and court misled the receipt of one of peasants, apparently, of the foreman...

But not only the male gawk, but also the lawyer will find the basis to prove that the debt in 5200 rubles according to three loan letters was repaid.

You know that Fischer confessed here that many contracts and including a debt according to loan letters though were written on his name, but were debts to the owner. He confessed that his loan letters for 5200 rubles and Bobrinsky's debt in 5600 rubles about which working off the nature made the contract in 1878, - the same.

In 1878 the contract is made. The debt in 5200 rubles already appears in figure of 6600 rubles and is displayed for six years of works. Means, the peasants who signed here in receiving money at this time, and actually their not received, entered the new contract, instead of a former debt. It was made also by Fischer. Means, loan letters were paid in the way pouayo оЪ^айопш replacements of one debt to others.

Suddenly Fischer had enough, - and he showed the paid loan letters to collecting. According to them go to collect. Not the man, but any lawyer would begin to yell that he is plundered, commit a crime. And if it besides and on court was not caused, he will think that here a mystification, repetition of rogozhsky story with Old Believers' cash desk.

Fischer refers that the subsequent contract is destroyed. But you are kind to read when it is destroyed. It is doubtful that with destruction without reservation vosstanovlyalas force it the repaid obligations, and it is even less proved that peasants knew about destruction of this condition, and therefore it is clear that they grumbled and worried, seeing that from them take not due.

The doubtfulness is long also its more than doubtful moral lining - are clear.

Look now what was really made by peasants of the village of Lyutorich in fight against a lie.

The first day of crime - April 22.

To a descent it is declared collecting. The descent says that there is no debt and therefore it is not necessary to allow to the inventory. No resistance is made. The police officer left according to Fischer's statement. Here, obviously, there is no crime.

The individual who received the agenda about the wrong collecting has the right to think by itself of illegality of the claim and to think whether it is impossible to protest the inventory.

Rural community - the legal entity. She thinks on a meeting, and, under the terms of the legal entity, she differently cannot think how aloud and speeches. Strong voices of that and another on a meeting are relief thoughts of the thinking legal personality; here use of the right, is not present crime here.

If on April 22 there was no crime, and there was a full lawful use of the rights. there was a meeting of the country world discussing the affairs, any given opinions expressed here any given more loudly and more distinctly the expressed thoughts could not become criminal because only that for April 22 May days followed.

Only these last to which study we also pass are subject to your court.

On May 3, according to Fischer's statement, there arrived to the inventory the bailiff again. But he was not one. He was accompanied by police in the quantity commanding respect. The district police officer, stanovy there were nearby, the person twenty desyatsky, the person ten village constables, - a word to tell, there were representatives of police of an old and latest formation.

But men did not leave to them towards. Where are they? The whole world, except for old yes small, they to light left in seltso Bobriki, to the count, to ask it about favor, about not ruin.

Children's naive, simple-minded, they hoped to propitiate tears the execution creditor.

Vain dream!

One favor is promised them: to them it is told that, thanks to the situation and influence, to them will send a gift... in one thousand soldiers.

Also the gentlemen's word was kept: not long, only two days passed as the village of Lyutorich waited for lordly grant!

So far on a threshold of the count house the lyutorovets waited when the barin accepts them, to the bailiff there were some women and old and small men who remained in the village.

requests - clear Began

about what: they asked to wait until husbands and brothers come, will come with favor yes with a lordly tender word.

On requests them there is no answer: the police officer goes without owners to houses to begin the inventory.

In the distance the jumping rider seemed, - that the ambassador from peasants; sent him to tell what should be waited with the inventory until they come, and they - tarried: the barin still sleeps and does not leave to listen to them to their request...

Vainly, the police officer goes to do the part.

In crowd the noise begins: some cry, others ask. Everything merges in music of grief and grumble.

But the police officer, according to him. personally to himself did not see any insult, any abuse.

If among rustling Luda swear words were also distributed, then you do not judge for it strictly: the swear word is an interjection of national language, without

it not only the quarrel, but also cheerful, heart-felt speeches does not manage. I think, as the first love caress of the rural guy from the beloved will not do without strong mot.

Your attention has to stop on the fact of insult of the foreman approved here.

I ask you to remember that the foreman - the villager of the same village. It at the same time and some power, and together and the person, relatives, neighbor of defendants. As the foreman, he could take for all the agenda, to be the representative of legal entity - villages. In its indications there are places from which it is visible that it. and nobody except it, is guilty in that. that the agenda about the writ of summons was accepted, and peasants did not know neither about court, nor about the decision. He insisted one that peasants have to: but at the same time in his house, waiting for return of peasants from the village the Baize. immoderately another, the inventory was not made.

It is not sophisticated that peasants looked at it as on the renegade who sold and ruined them and were afraid that, as the representative of the village, actions it will connect by the them and here, having again accepted the agenda, will make for them obligatory and irreparable all actions of the police officer.

Peasants prevented it to be their representative when they want to get into a dispute with the execution creditor. Here point of keeping, its hvataniye by hands, etc.

Charge was directed recognizing the foreman as the power, together with the police officer which was carrying out the judgment and in this position which received insult.

I interrogated whether the foreman and the head were invited by the police officer and the district police officer? Answers are given negative and evasive. If the foreman or the head were not at the call of, and is accidental voluntarily and no share in execution of the decision was assigned to them, then the question changes.

Imagine that the police officer of court took ten couriers for execution of the decision. Insult of one of them during execution of the decision - criminal resistance.

But if it took nine, and the tenth, by passing, saw companions, came self-willedally, went into action, began to manage and it would be offended - here to resistance of the place is not present: it not the tool of execution, it is not connected with the police officer by an appeal or the order in a single whole, in an organism of the power which is carrying out the decision.

And the foreman was in such role - the person who was accidentally in the place, but not the power. The peasants who were not knowing neither the police officer, nor police were afraid of one, - that the foreman will sell them, and did not let it to represent the village.

Remarkably, as on May 5 when troops entered, neither the army, nor the police officer, nor police were offended, but peasants held by hands of the candidate for the rural head - one of defendants, asking it not to be the representative of the village.

I can be objected that the foreman and the head and without invitation of the bailiff had official value at reduction of the decision in execution that they were necessary for the indication of property of debtors and the solution of a question of that. whether something is hidden.

Serious error! The decision of civil court was executed, and under the Charter of Civil legal proceedings at such execution business of the execution creditor to specify property: behind the power it is sent when doors are locked, chests are closed, and searches hidden out of the settlement are not included into a duty of either the police officer, or police.

So, I think that insult of the foreman did not take place in the sense of the resistance to authorities executing the judgment here.

I will pass to other criminal action - not to allow the police officer to the inventory to inducement of peasants of the village of Lyutorich. Business it is attributed to several defendants, louder all about it speaking on rural descents.

Agree with me that we have to find it possible to certify only then existence of the fact proved not by absolutely sure proofs when the nature of the Fact does not allow or circumstances eliminated the best and absolute proofs. But when they. absolute proofs, existed, but bypassed them and put forward only probable, then the belief in the fact falls.

Meanwhile in the village of Lyutorich up to 700 inhabitants: all of them refused to allow the inventory: all of them, judging by nowadays me to the presented sentence, consider themselves lawlessly ruined by Fischer. Here whom or from among which it would be necessary to ask: who prepared you not to allow to the inventory?

They could tell whether they needed instigation or this thought by itself became painful at them. And they were not asked, and on the fleeting impressions of village constables which are badly matching among themselves and police constructed heavy charge.

Do not trust it, Lords judges!

But instigators were. I found them and I give to your justice away: they are instigators, they are instigators, they - the reason of all reasons...

Poverty hopeless, poverty - Fischer's creation approved by his lord, lawlessness, impudent operation, all and everything brought to ruin, - here they, instigators!

At the same time because it became equally intolerable everything, the indignation of lyutorovets against inconsiderate violation of acceptable and human laws flashed, and they began to think as to them to defend themselves.

And for this drama they sit before you now.

you will tell that it is improbable... Enter the menagerie when hour comes to throw food to starving animals: enter the nursery where the woken-up children do not see the nurse. There is a simultaneous growl, here - simultaneous crying. Look between them for the instigator. And he will be not in a certain animal, not in the senior or younger child, and will find it in the hunger or fear which captured all at the same time...

I gave you the mass of material, I handed you a chasm of the conditions and decisions sufficient to dement and confuse the ruined village in calculations.

You will read - and the instigator's physiognomy itself will rise z your imagination. Let's reduce results.

On April 22 in the village of Lyutorichakh there was no crime. The descent arguing on the claim and the inventory exercised the right to think of affairs.

This day they could not know that the police officer will appear on May 3 and consequently and to think of resistance form, of violence over the foreman.

On May 3 - the day which is subject to analysis in terms of the Code. Insult of the foreman has no connection with charge of resistance. Its presence, accidental, not connected in unity of actions with the police officer, puts the insult put to it in the independent offense which is not subject to your court within the current charge.

On a dock there are no instigators: instigation - in the last attitude of Fischer and the count Bobrinsky towards peasants and in the mass of the documents announced by us.

But protection, Lords judges, should not limit the word to denial of fault self-confidently. It has to restrain itself and assume that it will not manage to pour in your soul her beliefs about innocence of defendants. It has to, in case of recognition of the facts made and criminal, to point to such data which in the opinion of any judge at whom heart fights properly and soul in platitudes of life did not harden lead to indulgence and even to extraordinary not imputation at cash of fault.

Our law knows such circumstances. Having traced Codes of the reason of mitigation of a penalty in Article 134, it did not stop on it... The legislator knows that there are cases when the interests of the higher justice eliminate application of the law. The legislator knows that there are cases when to measure by a law measure, means - to laugh at the law and to commit publicly act of lawlessness.

And circumstances are that. Lyutorichesky peasants got to such whirlpool where ordinary measures would be awful and brutal.

Not one thousand soldiers who besieged the village and threatening to it with weapon and force terrified them. Also the chief of the province who broke the bivouac in four versts from the village was not terrible them. There was nothing to be afraid, in turn, and to it to enter the village of unfortunate peasants. The long past of lyutorichesky men which mixed their views and, apparently, confused them was terrible and awful.

Decades the managing director sucked their forces, entangled decades with devilish cunning their network of conditions, contracts and penalties. From the beaten track of freedom on February 19 they came into the swamp... The wood goblin was not, but cunning and angry, they were soaked up in ooze of servitude and bondage by Fischer.

In this fog everything was lost: belief in a possibility of a gleam of life, intuition of the truth and lie, belief in the law and protection before it.

There was one more feeling — feeling of hope that the lawlessness which reached terrible limits can be protested, remote.

We when collect undue from us, worry, we lose self-control; we worry, losing either a small share of our prosperities, or something acquirable, reparable.

But at the man the ruble is rare and expensively to it gets. With the taken-away blood ruble at it happiness and future of family leave quite often eternal slavery, eternal dependence before exploiters and rich men begins. Time the broken economy dies, - and the farm laborer is condemned to look for for the rest of life as blessings,

works at strong and to kiss the hand giving it a penny for the work bringing another benefits to hundreds of rubles to kiss as the benefactor's hand, both to cry, and to ask new blessing, new enslaving work for remains of bread and pathetic tatters.

Among the circumstances similar to the present, the reason of the whole people was stirred up. How not to be confused to the hammered mind of our peasant?!

You better me know it and do not forget to make for it room at statement of a sentence.

Time to you to put it.

I trust, I deeply believe that today in chronicles of the Russian justice will not be in the afternoon for which the society broken in the hope for domination of the truth in the Russian court will redden. I believe that you will tell today: "Be silent, the law, grace time has come!". I believe that those economic deprivations, those moral tortures in which lives of lyutorichesky peasants leaked for many years reached the limit today... They will leave with the acquired belief from here that the truth is and works.

You will not make the cruel decision, you will not be fond of opinion:

It does not matter that the man will suffer:

The nobility, the Providence conducting us

Specified; yes he also got used...

Through visible to the world laughter hidden to the world of a tear was driven the poet-satirist's hand when he sang this mournful song.

No, you do not condemn them. Martyrs of patience, passion bearers of work gloomy will find to themselves protection in the shadow of court and the law.

You spare them.

But if the word of protection does not touch you if I, full, long ago the full person, am not able to understand and express torments of hungry and desperate lawlessness, let they speak for themselves and are a representative before you.

Oh, judges, their stupid eyes are able to cry and to cry bitterly; their suntanned breasts contain in themselves suffering hearts; their rambling speeches want, but are not able to express clearly the requests for the truth, for favor.

People they, person!.

Judge properly!.

Description of business of Lyutorichesky peasants

On the real business 34 peasants of the village of Lyutorich, the Yepifan County, the Tula province (including one woman) accused of rendering resistance to officials at performance of the judgment by them were brought to court.

The main point was as follows. For many years lyutorichesky peasants resignedly performed all duties and tolerated terrible oppression and oppressions from the local landowner - the count Bobrinsky - and his managing director Fischer. After reform of 1861 the peasants were "allocated" with the earth. Villagers Lyutorich called these plots very figuratively "orphan" and

"cat's" as the size did not exceed them in tithes on soul. Peasants lacked this plot of land already at "investment" with their earth. With gain of the population this tiny "plot" especially began to decrease, being shattered into more and more small parts. A village circle, on big space, count possession lay. The peasants having strong need in the earth had no place to address for it, except the count. The managing director of a manor and the count perfectly understood this circumstance and used it for squeezing from peasants of the last profits.

The earth surrendered to peasants under contracts under the absolute sum of a penalty and under various conditions as a result of which peasants were finally enslaved. For untimely payment of the sums which are due to it under the contract Fischer collected from peasants up to sale of all property belonging to the peasant, dooming him to beggary. In the relations with peasants, using their illiteracy. Fischer allowed, in addition, many abuses therefore fraudulently extorted additional income from peasants. So was and this time. On one of obligations Fischer received the court order for 8219 rubles 29 kopeks. The court order was transferred to the police officer for collecting. However, when the police officer arrived for production of the inventory, peasants did not allow it to its production and said that the managing director deceived them again as according to this leaf the money is already paid by them. In several days the police officer returned for production of collecting, however this time already accompanied by soldiers again. Towards to it there were women of the village of Lyutorich who refused to execute voluntarily the decision on collecting and asked not to put it in action until men who everything together went to a manor of the count come back to ask it about justice.

The police officer did not wish to expect return of men and started business. Seeing unsuccessfulness of requests, crowd of peasants, without allowing the police officer to the village and driven to despair, snatched on the volost foreman and began to drag him aside, putting him at the same time a beating. When to the aid of the foreman soldiers rushed, peasants seized also them and did not release until the police officer was not forced to refuse production of the inventory this time.

Every other day in the village there arrived already the company of soldiers under which observation all formalities according to the inventory were made.

Because business it was widely publicized, opportunities to deal shortly with peasants for disobedience without court were missed, and peasants were prosecuted. The course of process was watched by all Russia. Under pressure of the advanced public opinion the court was forced to pronounce to peasants rather light sentence. Three peasants were sentenced to imprisonment, one - to a penalty, and in case of insolvency - to arrest, the others - are acquitted.

Case was heard on December 17, 1880 in the Moscow trial chamber with participation of class representatives. Protected all defendants of F.N. Plevako.

Three peasants were sentenced to imprisonment, one - to a penalty, and in case of insolvency - to arrest, the others — are acquitted.

Michael Smith
Other scientific works: