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Problems of formation of the identity of the governor in domestic historico-philosophical tradition (N.M. Karamzin.

to a naryad with the factors interfering authoritative trends exist opposite to them. Without having waited for the predicted results from democratic reforms of the 90th years, society was disappointed in many values of democracy and is ready to support the government which will provide stability and an order. The special oslozhnennost of democratization in Russia is caused by country scales, specifics of its demographic, ethnonational, confessional structures - long ago

it is known that transition process proceeds differently in the countries big and small across the territory.

Today it is only possible to assume and hope that the power will resist temptation to return back to rigid forms of authoritarianism.

In conclusion it is possible to note that article does not apply for the analysis and the description of all models of transit and their practical application, known in political science.


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4. L. Diamond. Whether there passed "the third wave" of democratization?//Policy. 1999. No. 1.
5. F. Shmitter. Process of democratic transit and consolidation of democracy//Policy. 1999. No. 3.
6. V. Putin. Message of the Russian President to Federal Assembly of the Russian Federation. On April 25, 2005 - 25/1223_type63372type82634_87049.shtml.
7. A.V. Dakhin. The system of the government in Russia: phenomenological transit//Policy. 2006. No. 3.
8. Yu.S. Pivovarov. Russian power and public policy//Policy. 2006. No. 1.
9. Yu.A. Krasin. Democracy metamorphoses in the changing world//the Policy. 2006. No. 4.

I.E. Rudkovskaya


Tomsk state pedagogical university

Among a circle of problems which statement and a research are intended to bring closer us to understanding of dominants of formation of political culture of Russia the problem of fixing of authoritative tradition in its political space is represented to one of the major. Characterizing political system of Kievan Rus', the historian G.V. Vernadsky noted: "Three elements of the power - monarchic, aristocratic and democratic - counterbalanced each other, and the people had a voice in the government through the whole country" [1, page 342]. Violation of this balance became possible not least owing to those changes which were made in individual consciousnesses of representatives of a family of Ryurik dynasty whose status in society made their personal choice sign for people around. In 1909 in work "the Knyazhy right in ancient Russia"

A.E. Presnyakov supported recognition "for the Russian princes of the most ancient historical period of more active, more creative role, than that what usually is attributed to them in our historiography" [2, page 181]. Information confirming this point

sight, it was recorded in the Russian chronicles and later entered fabric of historical researches, in turn, the vision of the processes happening once offered in them feeding political consciousness and contemporaries, and descendants.

N.M. Karamzin's influence on political thinking not of one generation, and both the supporters, and the opponents who were growing up on criticism "The history of the state Russian" is not subject to doubt. Governors of the empire from Romanov' family consecrated with the authority of the identity of the historiographer also that invariable that was kept, and those changes on which they decided. There was a set of evidence of refraction of the ideas of N.M. Karamzin in philosophico-historical, epistolary, memoirs, poetic heritage of the XIX century.

The author considered it necessary to try to analyze in what measure in the text "The history of the state Russian" the interrelation between registration of domestic authoritative tradition and specifics of formation of persons of governors in the first ages of the Russian statehood is reflected.

Special attention is supposed to be paid to the critical, premongolian period as the beginning of a specific era is noted by emergence of a sign figure of Andrey Bogolyubsky.

"The history of the state Russian", like other pragmatical "Stories" created by an age of Education is history in persons. Such approach fitted quite and into a philosophical context of the age of Enlightenment. After I. I. Karamzin quite could repeat: "If there is a science really necessary to the person, then it is that to which I teach, - namely to properly take the place specified to the person in the world - and from which it is possible to learn what should be to be a person" [3, page 206]. Karamzin's heritage gives many reasons to believe that the Konigsberg philosopher had noticeable impact on formation of his ethical views which affected interpretation of a problem of the personality in the history [4, page 73-79], though as Yu.M. Lotman who skillfully recreated process of formation of the unique identity of the author "The history of the state Russian", called by it "Karamzin's creation" fairly noted, that did not hurry to get up in ranks of any adherents [5, page 67]. As well as I., Karamzin probably considered the main thing in Education an appeal to the person to have courage to use own mind [6, page 27]. And still (as well as in respect of very tectonics of own personality seeking to live "uveryas in a moral way in elegance of laws of pure mind" [7, page 149]) I. I. was the most significant for Karamzin in the world outlook plan. Several years later after the sign visit to Konigsberg, Karamzin, speaking about the boyish nature of the Greek philosophy, will especially allocate I.: "Read together Platon and Bonnet, Aristotle and Locke - I do not speak about I. - and then tell me that there was the Greek philosophy in comparison with ours?" [8, page 157].

It is represented not accidental that the trajectory of the European travel of Karamzin, according to the text of "Letters of the Russian traveler", lay first of all through Konigsberg where future Russian historiographer in a conversation with I. "not without jump, turned a conversation on the nature and morality of the person" [9, page 20]. In five years prior to Karamzin's visit I. I. formulated a problem of influence on an era through influence of historians on governors. In work "The idea of general history in the world and civil plan" I. will note that nevertheless the historian has an opportunity to direct ambition of heads of states and their subordinates to the only means capable to leave about them nice memory" [10, page 21-23]. A consequence of a peculiar continuation of dialogue with I., now correspondence, to purpose of history devoted,

also the well-known formula of Karamzin "is represented history of the people belongs to the tsar" [11, page 12]. As F. Meyneke noted, analyzing a research position of the English historian of the second half of the 18th century E. Gibbon, "the absolute norm recommended freedom, and practical experience - salutary absolutism in which the virtue of the lord could get also applause of adherents of absolute norm" [12, page 181]. Also terminology of the text of the preface to "The history of the state Russian", the entering reader to the world of national history sated with phrases "civil society", "moral sense", "just court", etc. is in consonance to I.'s works. Speaking about D. Yum, F. Meyneke noted that that eventually "expected from the history of much stronger moral influence, than from poetry and philosophy" [12, page 156]; these words correspond also to specifics of a position, the vital choice of Karamzin. It is represented quite probable that Kant interpretation of social function of historical science predetermined the scientific version of the Russian history offered by Karamzin. It made Karamzin's work a result of searches of the 18th century more, than ages of XIX that predetermined so sharp criticism its generation created under the influence of later ideas. Such is probably inevitable fate of the large historical works incorporating many years: until work is finished, the philosophical achievements which are been its basis will lose charm of novelty long ago. Undoubtedly, it is difficult to historian to foresee whether the philosophical base elected by him will pass test time.

Karamzin for the first time will distinctly formulate the vision of the tasks facing researchers of the Russian history in "Letters of the Russian traveler" more than in a decade prior to the service in history field: it needs to be recreated "with philosophical mind, with criticism, with noble eloquence" that will allow "from Nestor, Nikon and so forth" to make "something attractive, strong, noteworthy not only Russians, but also strangers" [9, page 252]. As its correspondence testifies, especially letters to I.I. Dmitriyev, these program lines at the time of writing were addressed to other potential historiographers [13, page 122-125], however their relevance was not exhausted at all by the turn of centuries when Karamzin, by his own recognition, "completely got into the Russian history" [14, page 116]. Speaking about an opportunity to reduce, like Yuma, what is not important, Karamzin will select as sign, not subject to reduction, contents "property of the people Rusko-go, character of our ancient Heroes, excellent people, incidents really curious".

Further Karamzin will emphasize: "We had Charles the Great: Vladimir - the Ludovik XI: The tsar Ioann is the Cromwell: Godunov - and still such to Goss - dar to which there were no similar anywhere: Peter the Great. Time of their board is the major eras in our history, and even in the history of mankind" [9, page 253].

In this context the governors became, in fact, the Heroes defining eras as well as in works of his direct predecessors in a historiographic field - historians of the English Scottish school [15, page 142-148] - D. Yum, V. Robertson, E. Gibbon called by it in "Letters of the Russian traveler" along with Tacitus, samples of researchers of history [9, page 252]. D. Yum, paying attention to James I's identity, connected the problems which rose before the English society during an era of the first Styuartov, not least with that circumstance that the Scottish king who was born in others country, grew up among the hostile people throughout the reign followed "rather tendencies and mood, than laws of political prudence" that caused "loud grumble of the English citizens of Yakov" [16, page 6-7]. In terms of

V. Robertson, a fatal event for Europe was the death of the emperor Maksimilian though that was not nice for "neither virtues, nor abilities". A memorable event, and "more all other incidents within several centuries", this death became on the investigations which committed breach of "that deep and universal peace which reigned in lands Christian", excited "rivalry in two Sovereigns which brought the whole Europe into nervousness and ignited wars what before was not in the latest times on duration and number of participants" [17, t. II, page 50]. Three political figures, thus, became, according to Robertson, defining "homo politics" of the European scale: one - the death, two others - Charles V and Francis I - the long-term opposition, at all difference of their personal features, are enough in detail analyzed by the researcher, despite the principle proclaimed it: "circumstances of private life of Charles... should not be a part of our History because the purpose eya consists more in the narration about important events at the time of Charles V, than in the description of his private virtues and shortcomings" [17, t. IV, page 222-223]. E. E. Ghibbon, starting statement of events in Diokletian's reign, noting his low, not notable origin, will set the task for himself "to track also his merits and accidents", caused its eminence [18, t. II, page 349-350]. Characterizing a situation in the Roman Empire after Diokletian's renunciation (which is successfully compared to them concerning renunciation with the main hero of work of V. Robertson Charles V [18, t. II, page 376]), E. Ghibbon will write: "The balance of the authorities established by Diokletian existed until the firm and dexterous hand of his inventor" [18, t did not cease to support him. II, page 383].


Despite recognition of priority of a personal factor by N.M. Karamzin in the history, at reconstruction of the early period of domestic statehood to formation of the identity of governors by it it is given attention much less, than at reconstruction of history of the Moscow Russia that, first of all, is explained by istochnikovy base, knowledge of the researcher. It is thought, it is possible to treat with trust lines from the Preface to the I volume: "What I found news less, especially valued and used found. It was necessary either not to tell anything, or to tell everything about such Prince that he lived in our memory not one dry name, but with some moral fiziogno-miyeyu" [11, page 20]. Not only the given lines, but also structure of the text of "History" demonstrates the importance for the historian not only certain historic figures, but also lines of their character: the historian not without justification believed that these lines left a mark in soul not only of contemporaries of the Heroes described by it, but also readers of his history, introducing thereby amendments in process of socialization so different, ages of the divided generations. It caused emergence of points, sign for the researcher, in the Table of contents: "Generosity of the Mono-move", "Olegov's Pride", "Bravery and Mstislav's good nature", etc. [18, page 822-828].

The main version of the analysis of personal trajectories at Karamzin is traditional: the vital results were summed up under date of death. In this regard Karamzin reproduced the stereotypes characteristic and for domestic annalistic tradition, and for historians of the eighteenth century; its approach is similar to what was shown by D. Yum: the phrase "Death and Chara^er" repeatedly repeats in tables of contents of volumes of its "History of England" [20]. At the same time the Anglo-Scottish tradition allowed to be beyond this option freely. As a rule, it was predetermined, first of all, by the involvement of this personality into events, especially significant for the corresponding era, and processes and availability of sufficient information on it. It, for example, belongs quite to the characteristics of the Roman emperors offered by E. Gibbon. The monumental figure of Costantino in all variety of its personal qualities and acts was recreated by the historian and in chapters preceding chapter of the XVIII second volume called "Costantino's Death. New civil strifes. Constantius's victory", and in Chapter XX-XXI. Analyzing the reasons of "strange and harmful apostasy" of the emperor Yulian, he suggested to look for them "in the early period of his life when he remained an orphan in hands of murderers of the family" and further is very detailed, especially in notes, without reaching posthumous summing up, the historian commented on process of formation of the identity of future emperor whose undoubted personal advantages, according to him, "were to a certain extent regardless of fate" [18, t. II, page 344-348, 342].

Karamzin's texts are also variable: information on such large characters of early national history as Vladimir Monomakh, Andrey Bogolyubsky, Daniil of of alitskiya is dispersed according to different heads that, however, does not cancel the generalizations noted above. Comparison of all final texts which are contained in the first three volumes of Karamzin "History", supplemented with the remarks which are taken out out of limits of posthumous characteristics both in the main text, and in Notes gives in general an adequate idea of the main options of formation of political leaders of that era. It is represented, it is possible to talk, at least, about three trajectories of formation of a personal originality of the governors of domongolsky Russia who are clearly traced at N.M. Karamzin.

1. Option which is based on traditional education. Formation of the personality is based on positively perceived examples of fathers. This option - serious advantage of the line of Monomakh, his descendants. N.M. Karamzin repeatedly emphasizes similarity of that or the prince to his father: "Courageous son Vsevolodov" [19, page 61]; "Yaropolk, good-natured, like the father" [19, page 62]; "The new Sovereign showed virtues of the father on a throne of Russia" [19, page 104]; "Mstislav, like the father, ready always on great causes" [19, page 447]. Here, undoubtedly, "dostokhvalny customs" as, for example, the feasts in Kiev feeding "love for the Fatherland and Ventsenostsam" [19, page 405], showing at the same time and economic, and that is especially important, - a social resource of the power of the Kiev governors gradually accustoming the younger generation are especially significant. However this option could glitch and, being complicated by love of power of seniors in a sort (the father, the uncle, etc.) that Karamzin on the example of Konstantin Vsevolodovich's reigning in Novgorod especially convincingly showed: the worthy beginning of board and support from Novgorodians did not provide to Costantino long board in connection with the decision of the autocratic father [19, page 428]. Formation of the governor restrained also earlier artificially (Igor at Oleg, Svyatoslav at Olga), however in a case with

Costantino it led to the pronounced aspiration to build the board by refusal of parental model [19, page 444, 448]. In general nevertheless this option quite provided reproduction of rather passional political elite corresponding to problems of the initial stage of formation of statehood.

2. The option based on negative perception of the status in the family of Ryurik dynasty. Formation of the personality took place or on an individual trajectory, or in the group oppositional to other, more successful lines of a sort.

Within this option of an event in individual life or events in group were perceived as more important, than all-Russian events. They defined here political socialization of any given princely branch (princes Chernihiv, Polotsk), or the certain prince. It, first of all, caused negative personal development, numerous crimes of the prince Vladimir, the illegitimate son Svyatoslav. Later, for consolidation of legitimacy of the power, he will find it possible to rely on the Christian tradition consecrated in the family of Ryurik dynasty with the princess Olga, popular in the people. If, speaking about the reasons of adoption of Christianity of the prince Olga, Karamzin considers the most adequate explanation of feature of psychology of old age [19, page 123-124], then concerning a baptism of book of Vladimir he will note that his original motives are known to God, but not people. Nevertheless possible alternatives nevertheless were designated by it: Whether "True assurance of a Christianity shrine, or... one ambition and desire to be in the related union with Guo - sirs Byzantine decided it to be christened?" [19, page 161-162]. In this way earlier approached a problem of christianization of Costantino il Grande E. E. Ghibbon, bringing motives of so significant decision "or out of his piety, or out of its policy, or out of his beliefs, or out of its remorse" [18, t. I, page 111-112]. Adoption of Christianity will lead to radical change of priorities and behavioural stereotypes at court of Vladimir [21, page 50-53]. The miraculous healing shown in the course of the baptism, according to Karamzin, provided fast christianization of nobility, and the amazed people dared to protect the imaginary gods [11, page 152-153]. The dialogue with wise bishops and aged men adjusting policy of the prince for criminals and external enemies, construction of churches, the help to the poor, feasts for associates considerably expanded the range of activity of the princely power, its legitimations promoted, having given, according to Karamzin, an image of book of Vladimir of line of similarity to Charles the Great [11, page 161-162]. Differentiation of two eras of board

Vladimir was carried out according to ethical criteria: "Byv in paganism the avenger the furious, mean voluptuary, the soldier blood-thirsty and - that is more awful than everything - bratoubiytseyu, Vladimir set in philanthropic rules of Christianity was already afraid to shed blood of villains and enemies of the fatherland" [11, page 161]. In Karamzin's creativity mirror in relation to the concept "two Ivanov" (vol. VIII-IX "The history of the state Russian") the concept "two Vladimirov" as a result will appear: the moral eminence of Vladimir is mirror in relation to moral falling of Ivan IV and repeatedly amplifies in the context of this comparison. Both concepts laid already in annalistic tradition are brought to life not only by Karamzin historian, but also the Ka-ramzinym-dramaturgom recognized by authority on the sphere of graceful literature. Also representatives of "side" branches of a dynasty of Ryurik dynasty whose formation, as a matter of fact, was made through education in hatred are not less brightly depicted by Karamzin. "Olgovich, - Karamzin noted, - had allies in Princes Polotsk: that and others considered themselves oppressed and oldest Monoswing successors" [19, t. II, page 408]. He emphasizes "ambition of uneasy nephews" [19, t. II, page 53], marks out "disastrous usage to be on friendly terms with inoplemenny predators" [18, t. II, page 387]. Under 1198 Karamzin will write down: "In Chernihiv Yaroslav, the stalwart of a bratny artful system" - the koznodeystvo systems [19, t died. II, page 410]. Though the given characteristics concern different lines of a sort, obviously, their behavioural stereotypes were perceived by Karamzin as quite developed system. In this option also belonging to the family of Ryurik dynasty, and belonging to its certain group providing reproduction characteristic with the insidiousness of "elite of foxes" unlike the main line of a genealogical tree of domestic governors were almost equally significant.

3. The option which is based on education in the double tradition (domestic - foreign) providing a bigger variety of the individual trajectories predetermined both by stay in other political space, and circumstances of entry into the power domestic.

Characterizing Vsevolod, Karamzin will note that, brought up in Greece, he "could learn cunning there, but not to philanthrophy" [19, t. II, page 429]. It is obvious that here it is about the education option extended among the Russian princes after Vladimir at the Byzantine yard in a situation, rather favorable in terms of the status, among relatives, in orthodox tradition, with

prospect on worthy future in Russia. There is an assimilation of that model of political behavior which is perceived as positive experience that does not contradict the main contours of the first option of formation of the identity of the governor, however adds the Byzantine floridities to naiveté of the Kiev traditions. Otherwise the trajectory at galitsky governors in area, boundary with the Catholic countries, was built. Karamzin will emphasize that, "brought up at court of Kazimir Spravedlivy", Roman differed in "surprising tyranny", punishments over the best boyars of alitsky whom "earthed live" [19, t. II, page 414-413]. Roman's shape at Karamzin forks: "Cruel for alichan, it was loved, at least perfectly respected in hereditary Destiny Vladimir where the people glorified in it mind of wisdom, impudence of a lion, speed eagle and jealousy to Monomakhov in suppression of barbarians" [19, t. II, page 416]. To doubling of tradition of education there corresponds doubling of its image that probably reflects collision of two different systems of values, first of all the political, already quite defined in the Western and East Russia, apparently, at a boundary 12-13th centuries. Absolutely the double educational system - partly in Hungary, partly in Galich - in a case with Daniil Romanovich gave other investigations. Karamzin characterizes it as son of the person, hated to the people to which fell to lot to endure a set of treacheries as "Hungarians, Poles, Princes, with-sedstvennye and proud Boyars hoped to use his early childhood" [19, t. II, page 428]. Informing the reader on Daniil's fate, Karamzin will afford reasonings on a subject especially pedagogical: "They say that disaster is the teacher; it has this benefit only for minds thorough; others, having tested misfortune, want to be guided in affairs by new rules and fall into new delusions". Following then characteristic allows to carry this prince to those, possibly rare, thorough minds: without being always happy, "Daniil excellent advantages of heart and tireless feats eclipsed other modern Princes Russian" [19, t. II, page 505]. It should be noted that Daniil's image - an image boundary: it, its generation will finish the course of life already during the Mongolian period of national history. The Pogranichnost is shown also in another: on comparative abundance of information on it Daniil is comparable to governors of already Moscow Russia. At the same time the choice for the West made by it at the crucial moment of collision with the East allows to see in it the most consecutive representative of the third of the options of folding of the identity of the governor allocated here.

To what of the presented options it is necessary to carry Andrey Bogolyubsky - a sign figure in the course of formation of authoritative tradition in Russia? Karamzin's text devoted to events of 1150 when "Georgy, the uncle Vyacheslav, Boyars, heroes, with joyful tears glorified bravery" [19, t. II, page 145] then still, it appears, allows to remember the young prince Andrey the first, most harmonious option. At the same time recognized as the historian "of course one of the wisest Princes Russian in the Policy reasoning, or that science which approves power state" who was obviously striving for saving Autocracy, Bogolyubsky according to Karamzin, it was blinded by addiction to northeast edge [19, t. II, page 370-371]. The northeast alternative to aspirations of his father on the South, to Kiev, allows to see in it the personality who went beyond the side of the trajectory which is foreordained by predecessors which risked to proclaim the new purposes and values in the conditions of considerable weakening of a monarchic element in political system of Russia after Mstislav Veliky's death [22, page 51-56] and paid for it early death. Karamzin emphasized duality of reaction of society to murder of book of Andrey: "Residents of Vladimir mourned Andrey, but did not think of villainy punishment. it seemed that the state was freed from the tyrant. the general displeasure came from thin performance of laws or from injustice of judges." [19, t. II, page 370]. It is represented interesting to correlate the options characterized here to the classical models of social adaptation allocated with R. Merton. Possibly, it is possible to speak about prevalence of conformist model in the first

option, innovative complemented by separate manifestations; a mutiny, dual, perverse perception of the conventional purposes and means of their achievement it is characteristic of the second option; in the third option is traced, along with innovation, increase of a ritualizm, aspiration to follow "rules of the game" at rather skeptical relation to the accepted values. Respectively A. Bogolyubsky in the development is represented the personality who risked to proclaim both the new purposes, and new ways of their achievement and therefore not managed to adapt to that society which it happened to rule.

Summing up the results, it is necessary to mark out one extremely curious and, certainly, an unexpected circumstance: (except the information about Vladimir Svyatoslavovich) chapter of the III third volume "The history of the state Russian", the prince Vsevolod devoted to board became the most informative part of the text analyzed here. Possibly, in its time, at the end of XII - the beginning of the 13th century, i.e. soon after death of the brother his Andrey Georgiyevich, consequences of gradual folding of the traditions which are marked out here were designated most distinctly, moreover, there was noticeable strengthening of two last. It is represented, Karamzin managed to inform in the large-scale, abounding with the facts cloth the reader of the crisis situation appearing in unartful annalistic statement in the sphere of reproduction of political traditions. A personal factor of the tragedy of the end of the 30th of the 13th century which opened the road of expansion Mongolian it is incomparable more authoritative, political tradition, according to Karamzin, it was put then, at a turn of the XII-XIII centuries.


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A.A. Stepanov *, L.M. Zolnikova **


* Tomsk state pedagogical university ** Tomsk Polytechnic University

Technical creativity from the moment of emergence of philosophy of the equipment was one of the central themes of this philosophical discipline. The complete list of the works devoted to a creativity problem only in Russian could fill out not one page of this edition. However, despite abundance of theoretical practices on a problem of technical creativity, their realization in practice of engineering activity leaves much to be desired. Technological level of domestic production is still far from the global standards. Of course, a domestic engineering thought is what to be proud. In the separate directions, especially in the military, both technical solutions, and their embodiment in concrete products are at the unsurpassed level. Nevertheless in general the technical and technological equipment of the country lags behind the advanced countries of the world. One of many reasons of such situation, in our opinion, is also "narrow-mindedness" of approaches to a research of technical creativity.

Since P.K. Engelmeyer's researches, technical creativity was understood as activities for creation of new. Pyotr Klimentyevich Engel-meyer in the concept of the three-act understood technical creativity in unity of an intuition, rational thinking (idea) and practical action (organized reflex). From here it is visible that technical creativity is understood as activity mainly individual, opposed to collective (not creative) activity.

Similar approach to a research of technical creativity was caused as technical practice of the beginning of the 20th century when technical and technological innovations proceeded from specific persons, and the European sociocultural meanings connecting technical creativity with art. Therefore the main focus in a research of technical creativity was placed on development of algorithms of an invention and the solution of creative tasks (see, for example, [1-4]). Besides logiko-methodological aspects much attention was paid to the analysis of psychological and educational and educational aspects of technical creativity. As the elements derivative of the sociocultural environment enter structure of activity (the subject first of all), in the works devoted to technical creativity were noted social and cultural conditionality of technical creativity. Especially it concerned motivation to creative activity and realization of the creative ideas. However further statement of influence of social and cultural factors on development of technical creativity the theory did not go. Even noting social and cultural conditionality of creative process, most of researchers focused attention on cognitive and psychological aspects of creativity [4].

The sociocultural reality, on the one hand, which caused emergence of philosophy of the equipment determined understanding of technical creativity as something especially personal, individual - with another. Such understanding of technical creativity was resulted by the theory of inventive problem solving (TIPS). In spite of the fact that change sociocultural living conditions of the equipment, its production and design -

Forsberg Viktor
Other scientific works: