The Science Work
Site is for sale:
Category: History



UDC 94 (470+571)


© 2009 of B.B. Abdulvakhabov

Chechen state university, Chechen State University,

Sheripov St., 32, Grozny, 364907, Sheripov St., 32, Grozny, 364907,

admin@chesu. ru

Since the second half of the 16th century of fate of the tersko-grebensky Cossacks and Chechens closely intertwined. Open borders, toleration, friendliness and traditional hospitality of mountaineers helped them to adapt to new life support systems. On the basis of the analysis of various sources, ethnocultural interactions in material culture of these people are considered.

Early in the XVI century & s second half the lots of Tersky-Grebensky Cossacks and Chechens were closely intertwined with each other. Open boundaries, toleration, friendliness and traditional Highlanders& hospitality helped them to adapt to new systems of material security. Having analysed the different sources this work considers the ethnocultural coordination of these peoples in material culture.

Since the second half of the 16th century of fate of the Chechen people and the tersko-grebensky Cossacks closely intertwined. Having appeared in the territory of Chechnya, the first Cossack settlers began to create the Cossack communities here. Open borders, toleration, friendliness and traditional hospitality of local community helped them to adapt to new life support systems. Ethnocultural ties of mountaineers and Cossacks were multilateral and fruitful for both parties. Features of this many-sided process in a due measure are not up to the end investigated [1].

The main object of a research in this article were Chechens and tersko-grebensky Cossacks, an object of research - ethnocultural interactions in material culture of these people.

The first Cossack settlers on the Chechen earth appeared for various reasons: owing to an anti-feudal protest - escape of peasants and other dependent population to the southern outskirts of Russia, resettlement of "sluzhily people" on the state outskirts, etc. [2, page 139].

"Other majestic and wild nature, people of other culture, other language - a word a new everyday situation among which grebenets came to be all this in total could not but affect their outlook, a household situation and ethnic activity", - I. Bentkovsky wrote [3].

The policy of a tsarism and also the Cossack and Chechen tops gave to relationship of the people dual character. At the same time the concrete facts of interferences in the field of the material and spiritual cultures which played a mutual positive role [4] are known.

Long since living in the neighbourhood, Chechens and Cossacks not only steadily kept original elements of culture, but also mutually enriched each other.

Chechens and Cossacks were united by proximity and also close and long economic and ethnocultural contacts. Among them the institute of a kunachestvo was widely widespread. Friends visited each other not only as necessary, but also for pleasant pastime, for rest and companionship. It should be noted that in relationship of Chechens and Cossacks there was no language barrier, despite the lack of the general basis of language.

The Chechen culture made big impact on many aspects of life of the tersko-grebensky Cossacks. The greatest influence had relations which arose between them in the course of economic activity.

Cultural loans are accurately traced in material culture of both Chechens, and Cossacks. On different circumstances there were settlements with the mixed population. To the Cossack villages the Chechen families moved: some ran to the Cossack towns and fortresses because of blood feud, others - in search of earnings, etc. To Cossacks "as in a safe shelter different Kabardians, Chechens, Kumyks, big and small noga, even Georgians and Armenians, and zakubansky Circassians - all to whom it was close in the homeland who was pursued by societies as violators of laws and customs of old times ran. All this there were people of the same manner, as the Russian free Cossacks, and therefore the last easily were on friendly terms and got on with them" [5].

E. Maximov noted that "there were many such immigrants, it gave various color

to certain villages in way of their life, in ceremonies, songs, etc. It, at last, led to big rapprochement with their foreign neighbors and enterprise of useful features at them" [6].

Resettlements were mutual. Many Cossacks were also deserters in the Chechen villages and auls. Both Cossacks, and mountaineers freely moved to the Cossack town or to the Chechen aul. All this was reflected in a peculiar life and customs of Cossacks and mountaineers. Living in such close contact, Cossacks and Chechens naturally had a great influence at each other in material and spiritual culture.

It could not but be reflected and in types and forms of settlements and dwellings, their device, a design, planning, material of constructions, a name of separate parts of the dwelling, etc. [7].

The first Cossack settlements, judging by sources, had the form of the strengthened camps camps or stanovishch. From the second half of the 16th century along with these early forms of settlements also constant settlements ("ostrozhka", "towns") appear. They were similar to the late medieval strengthened settlements of mountaineers. Early dwellings of the tersko-grebensky Cossacks represented the small single-chamber dugouts and semi-dugouts similar to those that widely occurred at many people of the North Caucasus during this period.

In the Russian towns fortresses in Х^1-Х^П centuries were built also typically Russian chopped log huts. Continuous contacts of the Russian and local indigenous people affected also the image of dwellings of mountaineers. Some representatives of the local nobility built chopped wooden constructions.

The historian N.P. Gritsenko wrote about interference of Chechens and Cossacks: "Having lodged on Terek in towns, Cossacks originally lived in dugouts, semi-dugouts and only much later they began to build to themselves dwellings, like a mountain saklya. The same turluchny constructions with an earth roof, the same simplicity of a house situation. The Chechen influence on life of Cossacks can be tracked on the oldest villages of the grebensky Cossacks where along with traditionally Russian constructions of the Chechen sample constantly met" [2, page 148].

Especially mountain influence in construction of dwellings of Cossacks affected in Х&УБ-Х&УШ centuries. Cossacks built houses with flat roofs of tourist's onions (wattle fence), adobe, clay, without the base, with an earth floor. Roofed a cane, straw. Mountain influence affected even in an interior of the Cossack housing what, in particular, also experts on life of the Cossacks testify to. Describing life of Cossacks in the 19th century of the station Grebenskoy, researchers noted that near the Russian log hut in the yard of the Cossack it was possible to see the Chechen low saklya. "The house situation strikes with originality when you cross a threshold of its oak great Russian log hut. The first room reminds rather Chechen, than the dwelling of the Russian Cossack: on walls daggers, checkers and different other weapon of the Caucasian mountaineer are hanged out. On a floor there are motley chests, and

feather-beds, carpets and rugs of an Asian sample and a product are spread out to them" [8, page 234].

The second room of grebenets - a tribute to traditional Russian customs. In this room everything reminded the Cossack of the distant past and the present of the homeland. "A word all situation and furniture of the room, up to a big carved saltcellar on a table, all from Russia. The saklya standing near the Russian log hut - a full embodiment of the Caucasian mountaineer. In a saklya where the Cossack lived in the winter and in the summer together with the family, most of her members sit in Chechen, having drawn in under themselves a leg, images any it is not visible, and from furniture in the course the Chechen three-legged small bench, than a chair or the Russian bench is more often" [8, page 234]. "Internal furniture was in many respects similar to Kabardian (to tell more precisely, with mountain. - B.A.): in one corner the weapon, a different armor hung on a wall; in another - there was a bed, and on the foreground, on shelves elegantly placed house ware shone", - other researcher about influence of mountain style on an interior of the Cossack log huts noted [9].

Various sources demonstrate that in the Cossack dwelling there was a merge of various construction traditions including the Chechen. "Dwellings of grebensky Cossacks represent as a combination of mountain style (verandah, a canopy), and style of the Central Russia (chopped log hut, a dvukhskatny roof, the carved fad, the Russian furnace). As for the furnace, undoubtedly, mountaineers originally borrowed the furnace Russians, having replaced with it less convenient center in the center of housing. Then improved this furnace, having made it more economical in consumption of fuel. In such changed look it was adopted by Russians after resettlement on the left bank of Terek under the name of the Chechen. Chechens adopted also from Russians a dvukhskatny roof, a chopped log hut. In turn an open verandah - a terrace on the main facade, internal planning of a log hut, undoubtedly, are borrowed mountaineers. Habitual construction skills of Cossacks underwent a number of significant changes in connection with local conditions", - I.K. Radchenko writes [10, page 108]. It should be noted that under the influence of the Russian traditions of change occurred not only at Chechens, but also at other indigenous people of the North Caucasus. In a plane part of Chechnya, especially after the end of long Caucasian war in the 19th century, the number of well-planned settlements with the correct planning, wide streets grows. Houses on the Russian harmony, with light windows, with a tile roof are under construction. In construction of housing of Cossacks and mountaineers also different processes of property differentiation were reflected.

the House of a rich stanichnik differed in good quality, consisted of three - four rooms. Rich mountaineers also improved the houses.

Undoubtedly, a leading role in evolutions of types of dwellings at mountaineers and Cossacks throughout the second half of XVI - the beginnings of the 19th century played social and economic conditions which were supported also with other factors: ethnic, natural uslo-

edge viya, cultural historical links and interferences at each other.

Chechens had considerable impact on clothes of Cossacks. "The people who were looking for free life came to Terek in armyaka, homespun coats, and women - in clothes of Old Russian breed. Becoming Cossacks, they perceived more comfortable clothes of the mountaineer. Clothes and a manner of its carrying by grebensky Cossacks were imitation the Chechen Dzhigits. Cossacks wore the Caucasian felt cloak, a papakha, bashlyk, the Circassian, an undertunic. Decorated themselves with the Caucasian belt, a dagger and gazyryam with metal or silver tips" [2, page 152].

"The poorest naurets is rather ready to be left several days without piece of bread... than not to have the Circassian in whom he could go outside, "in люди" or in church on holidays", - P.A. Vostri-kov wrote [11, page 258]. Usually festive clothes of the Cossack were in a hut. In a visible place, as well as at mountaineers, several pieces of Circassians of the different flowers sewed from different material and supplied simple and silver gazyryam hung; two or three sateen or repp undertunics sheathed by a lace and without it; several pieces of silk vests and sateen wide trousers with uchkary (belt). Separately papakhas hung. Under the bed there were festive boots, nogovitsa and chuvyak with the "shagreen" stockings sheathed by a lace or a velvet.

As some researchers noted, to a large extent the mountain breed affected as well the clothes of grebensky Cossacks differing in an identity. Their suit was allocated with a combination of elements of an East Slavic and local, mountain suit. Local influence clothes Cossacks stronger was felt in villages across Terek and Sunzha. "The clothes of the stanitsa woman consist of a tight shirt with full sleeves, simple print at week-days, kanausovy red silk or any other color and material on holidays, a satin undertunic of the different flowers which are closely clasped and distinctly depicting a body relief. The breast of the woman is decorated with a necklace from amber and corals between which at distance 1/4-1/2 vershoks are hung up seldom gold, but ordinary silver coins of the most ancient origin", - F.S. Grebenets wrote [12, page 100-101].

Other researcher of life of the Cossacks noted that "grebensky Cossacks wore over a skirt and a jacket a black sateen undertunic with sleeves, full with tops. The undertunic girded with a silver belt, and on a breast silver coins were strung on a chain. The Cossack's suit quite resembled a suit which is worn by Ossetians or local Chechens" [11, page 259-260]. As well as at a goryanok, a women's clothing of Cossacks it was decorated with braids, metal and silver buttons, monist, etc.

In a suit a goryanok many characteristics of clothes of Cossacks also appeared: wide skirts, aprons, sundresses, the Russian scarfs (manner to tie a scarf in Russian under a chin). At many Chechens "kanausovy undertunics were got" [2, page 153].

Development of the capitalist relations, distribution of products of factory production, penetration of many elements of city fashion (especially in a women's clothing) and also the progressing property and class differentiation of the Cossack and mountain population had a great influence on changes in a suit of the Chechen and Russian population of the region in the second half of XIX - the beginning of the 20th century. A well-founded part of the population tried to get clothes on "European manners".

New forms take root into the specified period and into the Chechen women's clothing. "Women from rich families wore boots and shoes of city and local production and also a galosh. In general in rich families the clothes of the woman differed in luxury and refinement. It was produced from expensive fabrics, sheathed by golden and silver laces. Silver belts, earrings, bracelets" [13, page 363] were favourite jewelry. Nevertheless at the tersko-grebensky Cossacks and at mountaineers traditional national products from homespun material, wool, the leather produced by alien masters from "non-residents", weavers, shoemakers, tailors had wide circulation. In villages still made rough footwear of tawing skin, stockings, socks, scarfs as it was accepted also at mountaineers of the North Caucasus knitted [14, page 59].

Long since the existing communications between Chechens and tersko-grebensky Cossacks had a great influence on the nature of food, the Regulation of Admission, name of dishes, etc. It is necessary to emphasize that studying food as most important element of culture of life support gives the chance more deeply to understand many-sided process of historical development of the people. Food is that component of material culture of the people which is most of all connected with its life therefore stronger unlike other parties of material culture it keeps the national lines and specific features.

At Chechens, as well as at other people, "the character and structure of the main food, and ways of its receiving were the key parameters defining economic and cultural types" [15, page 134]. Throughout all centuries-old history the Chechens not only developed the range of national dishes, rules of preparation and meal, but also creatively expanded it as a result of economic and cultural ties with the next people, including with tersko-grebensky Cossacks. During the considered period in food of Chechens the products connected with a pastoral and agricultural economic and cultural complex prevailed.

In a food allowance at the Russian immigrants meat which "idleness for an animal" gave, and later - cattle breeding also prevailed. In food the Cossacks, as well as mountaineers, widely used wild-growing greens, fruit. Fish was among some everyday foodstuff, with her cooked Russian cabbage soup, prosyany porridge, paste, etc. Not less various were, apparently, and myas-

ny dishes. The technology of processing of products of cattle breeding at Cossacks and at local community had much in common. Cow's and goat milk, various dairy products was widely used. Milk was eaten in fresh (pair), sour (Adam's apple) and stewed (bobbin) types. From products of dairy processing sour cream, cottage cheese, oil, cheese were known. As well as at the local people, salty and dried sheep and goat cheese, dried meat, flour products from the fresh test with addition of salty cottage cheese and cheese - a dish, undoubtedly, borrowed aboriginals of edge long since was popular with immigrants [14, page 60-61].

Cossacks borrowed local community and some ways of storage of fruit and vegetables for the winter, and ways of their storage and preservation created adequate to local conditions (fermentation, a pickles).

Traditions of preparation and the use of dishes from vegetables, fruit, berries were similar to those that were widespread among local community.

The famous expert on the Cossack life L.B. Zasedatele-va writes that "the local people borrowed ways of preparation of various dishes, traditional for them, Slavs: flour - "Russian хлеб" from the fermented test, the Ukrainian dumplings; vegetable - potatoes, sunflower oil, a pickles, fermentation of cabbage" [14, page 62]. By the end of the 19th century for mountaineers and Cossacks potatoes were the most available of vegetables. Most often it was used in a boiled look. Widely entered the use and roast from potatoes and meat. It was cooked in meat broth and given together with meat. On meat broth began to do soups ("chorpa") with addition of potatoes. Soups were cooked on a meat and bone basis with rice, with various other grain, haricot, noodles, flavoring with different spices. Very often in the Cossack, and Chechen cuisine home-made noodles were used not only for preparation of soups. From it cooked the "second" dishes. Prepared noodles and for the future (as it was done by many people of the North Caucasus), previously having dried.

Other expert on history of the Cossacks N.P. Gritsenko noted that "tersky Cossacks adopted at mountaineers, in particular at Chechens and Ingushs, a number of national dishes: flat cakes with a cheese and vegetables stuffing, fresh bread paste, dates Kodar Range - cottage cheese mix with melted butter - and another. Mountaineers in turn borrowed ways of cooking" [2, page 154].

Emphasizing that the food basis at the Cossacks and Chechens was made by products of livestock and agriculture, it should be noted: specific weight of meat and dairy and vegetable products was defined not only the direction of economy, a season of year, but also material well-being of family. In the relation to food social this relationship of people is shown. Daily food differed from festive, the food cooked for the head of the family or for guests - from food of other family members, including children, teenagers and women.

Table layout at Chechens in the past, as a rule, was modest, at the same time submitted the

beauty, purity, simplicity and convenience. But it also underwent a significant change under the influence of ethnocultural interrelations.

At the end of XIX - the beginning of the 20th century owing to significant social and economic changes also traditional food of Cossacks and mountaineers is transformed. As it was already noted, in a diet of Chechens in prereform time meat food prevailed. Destruction of subsistence economy of Chechens and Cossacks, retraction of livestock production in the market relations led to the fact that the specific weight of meat in a diet of most of Chechens and Cossacks decreased. Many country farms had no cattle at all or had it in insignificant quantity. Bigger or smaller consumption of meat food by various social groups of the specified people was an indicator of the amplified class differentiation in their environment. Consumption of meat more concerning other products was characteristic to prosperous families.

Also the various poultry was eaten: hens, ducks, geese, turkeys, various game.

In a power supply system of peasants cornbread becomes the most widespread product - churek ("siskat"). Corn in Chechnya during the post-reform period began to be cultivated as the most favorable commodity crop. Both Chechens, and Cossacks in a pig-iron cauldron cooked porridge, so-called paste from cornmeal. The similar dish in traditional food meets also at many other people of the North Caucasus (Balkars, Karachays, the Dagestan people, Ossetians, etc.) [16]. Corn was used also in a boiled and fried look. Also other dishes characteristic both were known to Cossacks, and Chechens.

The big role in a food allowance and that and others was played by fruit (apples, pears, a quince, plums, cherry plum, apricots, cherry, sweet cherry, grapes, walnuts, etc.). Along with garden fruit, wild-growing fruit, berries, grapes, a medlar, etc. were widely widespread

The significant role was assigned in food at tersko-grebensky Cossacks and at Chechens to garden and melon cultures (to pumpkin, cucumbers, pepper, haricot, etc.).

From drinks tea, however, as well as at Cossacks was held in special high esteem at Chechens. It is known that "the real tea made from tea-plant leaves in Russia began to enter the use from the middle of the 17th century" [17, page 103]. Before acquaintance to the real tea the Chechens drank broths of various toning and aromatic native-grasses, broths of leaves of fruit trees, etc. As drink also used the Kalmyk tea diluted with milk. Such tea meets in a food allowance practically at all people of the North Caucasus. By the name of drink it is possible to assume that it was adopted at Kalmyks.

Interferences are noted also in other areas of material and spiritual culture of our people. "Along with Russians the tersky Cossacks had in the course musical instruments - a zurna, a pipe, mountains -

Skye bichord balalaika and even drum. All these instruments were played by men, harmonica - usually Cossacks. Same we see also at Chechens", - the historian N.P. Gritsenko wrote [2, page 155]. Other researcher noted that the Russian harmonicas became widespread in the second half of the 19th century considerable at plane Chechens. "Harmonicas are played, as a rule, by women, but there are also men accordion players, and local musical instruments are almost only played by men. The dance music is executed usually on harmonicas. The most popular dance - the Lezgian" [13, page 372].

Not only melodies of the Chechen songs, but even forms of dance were apprehended by the Cossacks. The circular and temperamental dance which arose in the village Naursky - the naursky Lezgian - became national dance of tersky Cossacks [11, page 273].

As we see

>, Chechens and Cossacks were united by not only proximity, but also close and long economic and ethnocultural contacts. These communications developed multilaterally. Among them the institute of a kunachestvo was widespread. At all times in the majority these contacts were good-neighbourhood. Centuries-old social and economic, cultural ties of the tersko-grebensky Cossacks and Chechens led to interference and mutual enrichment of many elements of material culture of these people.


1. B.B. Abdulvakhabova. From history of trade relations between Chechens and Cossacks (XVI - the beginning of the 19th century)//Chechens in community of the people of Russia: the materials All - grew. nauch. - prakt. konf., Russia devoted to the 420 anniversary of establishment of good neighbourhood between the people and Chechnya. Nazran, 2008. T. 1. Page 100-104.
2. N.P. Gritsenko. Life and customs of the Caucasian mountaineers and tersky Cossacks. Their interference at each other//Arkheologo-etnografichesky sb. Grozny, 1969. No. 3.
3. Bentkovsky of I. Grebentsa//Reading in imperial society of history and antiquities Russian at the Moscow university. M, 1887. Prince 3. Page 8.
4. Ya.Z. Akhmadov, A.D. Osmayev. The Russian-Chechen ethnocultural and economic interference on Terek in XVI-XVSh of centuries//the Culture of Chechnya. History and modern problems. M, 2006. Page 119.
5. V.A. Potto. Two centuries of the tersky Cossacks. Vladikavkaz, 1912. T. 1. Page 21.
6. Maximov of E. Terskoye Cossack army//Tersky sb. Vladikavkaz, 1890. Issue 1. Page 15.
7. L.B. Zasedateleva, T.G. Munchayeva. Development of types of settlements and dwellings of the Russian and Ukrainian population at-terechnykh areas of the North Caucasus (since the XVI in beginning 20th century)//Settlements and dwellings of the people of Chechen-Ingushetia. Grozny, 1984. Page 10.
8. Statistical monographs on a research of stanitsa life of tersky Cossack army. Vladikavkaz, 1811.
9. Abaza K.K. Cossacks: donets, Ural residents, terets. SPb., 1891.
10. I.K. Radchenko. Settlements and dwellings of grebensky Cossacks (on materials of the village of Starogladkovskoy)//Settlements and dwellings of the people of Chechen-Ingushetia. Grozny, 1984.
11. Vostrikov P.A. Stanitsa Naurskaya//Sb. materials for the description of areas and tribes of the Caucasus. Tiflis, 1904. Issue 33.
12. Grebenets F. S. Novogladkovskaya the village in the past and the present//Sb. materials for the description of areas and tribes of the Caucasus. Tiflis, 1915.
13. People of the Caucasus. M.,1960. T. 1.
14. L.B. Zasedateleva. East Slavs in the North Caucasus in the middle of XVI - the beginning of the 20th century (dynamics of ethnocultural processes): yew.... Dr.s east. sciences. M, 1996.
15. Arutyunov S.A. Food//Material culture. Set of ethnographic terms. M, 1989. Page 134.
16. See, for example: Gadzhiyevo S.Sh. Material culture of Kumyks of the XIX-XX centuries Makhachkala, 1960; S.S. Agashirinova. Material culture of Lezgians of the 19-20th centuries M., 1978.
17. N.F. Shakirova. Wild-growing plants in traditional food of Bashkirs//SE. 1988. No. 3.

Came to edition On May 14, 2009

Anthony Welch
Other scientific works: