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Administrative-territorial transformations on the Karelian Isthmus in the 1940-1960th years

g. I. Bolshakova


Work is presented by department of the Russian history.

In article the problem of administrative transformations in the former Finnish territory of the Karelian Isthmus attached to the Soviet Union twice - in 1940 and 1944 is considered and also results of its "political" development are shown. On the basis of the archive material the stage-by-stage administrative-territorial division of the new territory is opened, the changes which occurred on the Karelian Isthmus during the post-war recovery period of development the 1940-1960th are reflected

G. Bol&shakova


The main problem of the article is to show the administrative-territorial reorganization in the former Finish territories on the Karelian Isthmus, which was annexed to the Soviet Union in accordance with the peace treaties of1940 and 1944. The results of the & #34; political" development are also shown. The history of the administrative-territorial division of the new territory is revealed on the basis of the archive materials. The changes that occurred on the Karelian Isthmus during the post-war regenerative period of the 1940-1960 are reflected.

The Karelian Isthmus which was a southeast part of the Viipursky district of Finland became the Soviet territory in 1940 [8].

On the lands which departed from Finland under the terms of the Moscow peace treaty of 1940 a number of the transformations which planned the prospect of construction of new life in the attached territory was carried out.

Since March, 1940 the first administrative-territorial transformations as a result of which on "new lands" no later than May-June, 1940 six counties were created (since August, 1940 called areas) [4, F. of R-1] began here: Kannel-

yarvskiya (new names are entered in 1948 - G. by B), Koyvistovsky - (Seaside), Vii-pursky - (Vyborg), Yaskinsky - (Leso-gorsky), Keksgolmsky - (Priozersk), Rautovsky - (Sosnovsky).

The southern part of the Karelian Isthmus with three areas: Rautovsky, Koyvistovsky, Kannelyarvsky, being in the borderland adjoining Leningrad was a part of the Leningrad Region. Three areas: Viipursky, Kekskolmsky and Yas-kinsky - in structure of the Karelian-Finnish SSR.

Formed on March 31, 1940 as the new subject of USSR Karelian-Finnish

The Soviet Socialist Republic, the sixteenth federal republic of the USSR, at once experienced difficulties of organizational character. It was caused by the fact that its former status of the Karelian Autonomous Soviet Republic as a part of RSFSR was in many respects far-fetched for the reasons of political character connected with claims of Finland and also those that the status of the federal republic could not correspond to the real situation of edge. Specific weight the Karelian in the population of the republic did not exceed 15%, even less there was Finns [11, page 314]. Not accidentally, about it was born and existed in post-war time the folksy humour "lives in the Karelian-Finnish republic two Karelians, one Finn, other Russians".

Moreover, the Karelian-Finnish SSR did not answer criteria of the federal republic. Its economy was weak, the population did not reach one million people. The official basis for adoption of such decision were "wishes of workers of the Karelian Autonomous SSR and aspiration of the Supreme Council to satisfaction of requirement of free development of nationalities". However today becomes clear that this step was taken generally as a political alternative and a preventive measure as for creation of the independent federal Karelian-Finnish republic there were no objective prerequisites. Anyway, at the first Session of the Supreme Council of KF of SSR the Constitution was approved, the presidium of the Supreme Council is elected and the government of the republic headed by the chairman of the cancelled alternative "national government of the Finnish democratic republic" - O.V. Kuusinen is formed [6, page 325].

Emergence of the new federal republic was confirmed with the Law of the Supreme Council of USSR "About Transformation of the Karelian Autonomous Republic to the Federal Karelian-Finnish Republic" [7].

Establishment of new frontier on the Karelian Isthmus caused

the administrative changes connected with a location of customs. So, order of the people's commissar of foreign trade of the USSR of August 3, 1940. "About transferring of the Tiraspol, Snyatsky, Zaleshchinsky and Beloostrov-sky customs to Ungeni, and Vyborg" the former Beloostrovsky customs was transferred to Adenkatya, Rennie with all cash state to Vyborg, is closer to frontier, and is renamed into the Vyborg customs [4, F. by R-3433].

According to plans of resettlement policy it was supposed that collective-farm farms and also the certain citizens moving to educated regions of the Karelian Isthmus will be provided without fail not only with housing, but also the earth, personal plots.

Account and inventory of the destroyed housing and uninhabited stock was the first step in carrying out transformations of the new power on "new lands". Work began spring of 1940. The condition of the remained and destroyed housing and uninhabited stock was estimated, the estimate of repair old or constructions of new housing was developed. The remained inhabited and farm buildings were transferred to fixed assets for determination of their cost, with the subsequent entering of this cost into income of the state [4, F. R-1392].

On the basis of the Resolution SNK USSR and Central Committee of military industrial complex (b) of May 27, 1939. "About measures of protection of public lands from squandering" and Instructions SNK USSR and Central Committee of the All-Union Communist Party (bolsheviks) "About the organization of measurement of personal plots of collective farmers and also lands of individualists and others not members of collective farm", the available land fund was also registered and inventory was carried out it. The created regional commissions on cutting of personal plots formalized land grounds behind collective farms, state farms of areas and also behind separate families. The norm of cutting of the earth was established by the Charter of each agricultural artel. Collective farmers received the cut sites out of the territory of the economic center in temporary use. To workers and collective farmers, prozhi-

howling in collective farm it is constant, cut on 0.15 hectares [4, F. R-41] on the yard, including the territory on which there were farm and inhabited buildings. So, for example, as a result of work of the regional commission on cutting of the earth in Kyakisalmskom (Priozersk) the area it was registered: cropland of-27065 hectares; arable lands - 23759 hectares, haying-3306 hectares. The average norm of the earth on one economy - 7 hectares is defined. Capacity of installation in the area was 3766 farms [4, F. of R-41]. 20,700 hectares of an arable land and 4790 hectares of a haymaking were fixed in Yaskinsky district behind collective farms. The norm of installation in the area was 3950 farms [4, F. of R-3159].

For management of settling and development of the attached territory bodies of the party and state power were created, the highest - SNK KF of SSR and the Central Committee of RC (b) were in the city of Petrozavodsk - the KF capital center of SSR; The Leningrad regional council of deputies of workers and its executive committee - in Leningrad.

For implementation of resettlement policy in regions of the Karelian Isthmus in May, 1940 at Lenoblispolkom the Resettlement department (it is liquidated in May, 1956), and in June - republican was created at SNK of the Karelian-Finnish SSR (it is liquidated in November, 1944).

According to the Resolution SNK KF of SSR No. 15 of May 11, 1940 local administrative authorities of the power - Interim administration - was created in all district (counties since August, 1940 were renamed into areas. - B.) centers of an isthmus. As a part of Interim administration Resettlement committees which main task was an implementation of practical work on the organization and resettlement of the Soviet citizens on "new lands", free from the Finnish presence, worked.

In December, 1940 when elections to local councils were officially held, the Interim administration was liquidated [4, F. by R-3]. At the end of December, 1940 the first meetings of city and regional councils and their executive committees took place. In structure of new bodies Soviet

the authorities entered departments: finance, national education, health care, housing and communal services, trade, social security, military, the general and planning commission. In August, 1941 the executive committees stopped the activity in view of temporary occupation of the Karelian Isthmus by Finns [4, F. of R-437].

It is known that the very first inhabitants of the Karelian Isthmus were the military personnel who made for restoration and the organization of farms of the attached territories much, they solved a set of problems of post-war time [4, F. of R-144].

But tasks of settling and development of "new lands" demanded a large number of labor. Therefore settling as soon as possible of "the attached territory", the fastest development and use of its natural resources was priority activity of the Soviet state.

In August - September, 1941 during an initial stage of the Great Patriotic War of the USSR temporarily lost the won positions on the Karelian Isthmus. The begun Great Patriotic War suspended implementation of the drawn-up plans. It is known that on June 22, 1941 Germany declared war on the USSR, in four days, on June 26, 1941 Finland entered war with the Soviet Union, wishing to take a revenge after defeat in the Soviet-Finnish war. Quickly the Soviet population, material values, the organizations and institutions were evacuated from the Karelian Isthmus. Since the end of July, 1941 fighting was developed in border areas. On August 29, 1941 Vyborg was taken by the Finnish troops. In the same day in Ratushny (nowadays Serf) square the marshal K.G. Mannerheim reviewed Victory Day parade of the Finnish troops.

At short notice the Finnish army took all Karelian Isthmus to old frontier. At the beginning of September, 1941 the front line stabilized. For two years and ten months the Karelian Isthmus was a part of Finland again.

In May, 1944. The rate of General headquarters developed the military operation on liberation of the Karelian Isthmus within the battle of Leningrad. Successfully performed Vyborg offensive operation returned the lost positions of the Soviet Union on the Karelian Isthmus. Already on June 20, 1944 Vyborg was taken by the Soviet parts, but approach of troops of the Leningrad front continued, its purpose was to force Finns to drop out of the war against the Soviet Union [3, page 39].

Military operations on the Karelian Isthmus ended with the agreement signed on September 4, 1944 on September 19 between Finland and the USSR was made the intermediate peace which restored frontier according to conditions of the Moscow world of 1940 on February 10, 1947 in Paris the peace treaty of Finland was signed with the Soviet Union [5]. When signing the contract it was considered that Finns completely stopped military operations against the USSR on September 4, 1944, dropped out of the war, broke off the relations with Germany and its allies, concluded and loyally implemented the armistice agreement. Except territorial claims, also measures for release of the territory from the Finnish population, restriction of armed forces and means of Finland, for reparations and restitutions, economic resolutions entered articles of the peace. Finland assumed liabilities on providing from its party of safety in the Northwest region and around the Soviet-Finnish frontier.

In Europe heavy fighting still was going, and on the Karelian Isthmus the long-awaited peace came. Since June, 1944 the Karelian Isthmus became the Soviet territory again, work on further development of the attached lands was continued. Its contents in general repeated the first stage (19401941) of policy of settling and development of new lands.

First of all acceptable conditions for the coming-back Soviet population were created. It should be noted that a stream

immigrants after 1944 was much more, than after the Soviet-Finnish war in 1940. On that there were objective reasons: first of all those who lived here in 1940 came back here. In a large number there came people from the western regions of the USSR which were under fascist occupation i.e. territories where the cities, villages, villages and their infrastructure were almost entirely destroyed. Immigrants went to the Karelian Isthmus, to the former Finland, in search of the best living conditions and employment. Tired of war, they looked for quiet and full life.

Transformations meant also total renaming of settlements, place names, railway platforms, etc. in the territory occupied by the Soviet immigrants. It as E.A. Balashov notes, was attempt of "political" reforming of the attached territory in 1940, and then in 1948 [1, page 76-82]. It should be noted that the first attempt of use of the Soviet toponymic system failed owing to short duration of the peace period. After the conclusion on April 6, 1948 between the USSR and Finland of the Treaty of friendship, cooperation and mutual aid [9, page 228] and establishments of good neighbourhood the new wave of vigorous political development of the Karelian Isthmus began. So, in October, 1948, Decrees of Presidium of the Supreme Council of RSFSR "About renaming of areas, cities, industrial settlements and village councils of the Leningrad Region" and "About renaming of settlements of Kurortny district of the city of Leningrad" were published. On January 13, 1949 there was a third Decree "About Renaming of Settlements of the Leningrad Region" concerning only settlements of the Karelian Isthmus [1, page 76]. To be fair, we will note that official change of toponymics on the Karelian Isthmus both in 1940, and in 1948 did not lead to its instant disappearance from everyday life of immigrants. In four years (1940-1944) the Soviet population managed to master difficult Finnish names which

along with new Soviet immigrants actively used in communication with each other.

Transformations concerned also the welfare sphere of life of immigrants. However in post-war time the specific relation to cultural problems was created. Difficulties of the first post-war years - difficult and contradictory the period in the history of our country and its people - forced the vast majority of people to think of restoration of the economy destroyed by war. The financial position of the Soviet people during this period was the hardest. Physical activity was main, and creation of cultural wealth was removed for indefinite time, they were supposed to be carried out by the residual principle. Though, as we know, the held cultural events influenced improvement of social well-being of immigrants, forced to forget burdens of life which took its course. At the beginning it was not necessary to think of cultural development of "new lands". Culture was slowly included into life of the first immigrants, changing the relation of the Soviet population to the new social environment, in force of both the objective, and subjective reasons (many came from villages, had not only the most vague idea of culture, of cultural wealth, but the most part of immigrants was illiterate there was not enough elementary knowledge of the history of the territory, the culture of its former population, etc.). Tried to fight against it. Various cultural and educational events were held, raids of checks of purity of housing, points of public catering, schools, hospitals, shops were organized. So, for example, in materials of the minutes of a meeting of So-snovsky regional council with managers of departments of executive committee in January, 1951 it was noted: "Check of ten outlets of a system of consumer cooperation showed from December 22 to December 31, 1951 that rules of trade in all points have serious violations. The main violations - a weather-cloth, shortchanging. In shops it is cold, there is no firewood. In a grain stall of the settlement of Sosnovo there is no bread. People in turn on the street from 9 o'clock. For New year on December 31

1951 at 19 o'clock in the evening in a stall one black bread. In tea there is no cooked food, the small range of snack. In shop No. 5 of state farm "Petrovsky" there is no sanitary book, there is no corresponding sign on shop. Food products spoil rodents. The seller releases a herring, then immediately bread, candies. Sellers have an untidy look, there are no labels of the prices" [4, F. R-1392]. The same picture and in shops of collective farm of Molotov, the Makiivka village council, collective farm No. 2 of the settlement of Borisovo, etc.

Preparation for holidays was the specific feature characteristic only of our people. At this time boards of collective farms or officials of administrations developed scenarios according to which collective celebration was carried out. For example, on May 1 waited for annually celebrated International day for the known reasons: it was possible to come to shop and to buy something scarce: vegetable oil, tea, flour, sugar, candies, etc. Watch in the organizations was appointed, discussions about behavior of people at the time of a holiday, on an official part were led. But the most important what there were people on that was pleasant to all, it was delivery of products [4, F. of R-1392].

The chief physician N.S. Zhuravlev testified to a condition of material resources of hospital and position of patients in it in the post-war regional center of the Reception (Sosnovo): "In chambers of district hospital gloomy, there are not enough beds, bedside tables, tables. Patients eat from aluminum plates and cans. Sanitation of patients at receipt in hospital unsatisfactory, is not present medicines. The regional public health department allocated 10 thousand rubles for the equipment, but it did not act in hospital" [4, F. of R-1392]. For improvement of a situation various measures were undertaken, but problems repeated and remained unresolved.

But, despite difficulties, life proceeded. All cultural life of the Soviet immigrants in the cities and villages began with work of clubs. In them there passed all public life of a post-war time. Here at

light of oil lamps lectures were given, circles on interests worked, amateur arts festivals in which the youth willingly participated were taken, at last, just twisted movies with the famous actors: "A feat of the intelligence agent", "Circus", Suvorov, "Timur and his team", Mashenka, "The fifth ocean", "On Danube" and others. Before the movie the booth selling political, as a rule, worked and fiction, played a jazz band (in the cities. - B.), in rural areas at best - a radio-gramophone, an accordion, a bayan. Propaganda teams which could go within ten days on collective farms had great popularity. The program of concerts was extensive, speeches of the speaker on a political subject, the accordion player, singing, art reading entered it, everything came to an end with dances [4, F. with R-1392]. This time old residents - eyewitnesses of post-war events - remember still as the best years of the life.

Resettlement, though voluntary, from the habitual environment in unfamiliar was disease process. Because the Finnish territory which is until recently made habitable and developed by Finns was Novaya Zemlya for Russians, to become in others territory the for short term was difficult. Many desirable did not coincide with reality, brought into the deadlock, divided a material world on "and Finnish". It separated people from the space created by them, forced them to refuse the participation in it. Therefore negative attitude of people to the policy of the state, to installations of local authorities was formed. Drastic measures to "turncoats" were as a result taken. So, on the basis of the Decree of Presidium of the Supreme Council of SSR of June 2, 1948. "About eviction to the remote regions of persons, it is malicious evading from work and agriculture and leading an antisocial parasitic life" and on the public censures pronounced by general meetings of collective farmers, tens and hundreds of people were punished by evictions from collective farms Karelian

go an isthmus to other areas for long terms - for 8-10 years [4, F. R-1392]. It is necessary to emphasize that these measures since 1948 were taken against the sponging population of all Soviet Union.

Ideological installations of a post-war time, the begun "Cold War" influenced immigrants who wanted to destroy quicker "the stranger, sometimes the hostile world" in which they appeared in the first post-war years. That is why cultural development of "new lands", despite all carried-out transformations, had specific results. The Finnish cultural landscape which got in inheritance to the Soviet immigrants under their influence very quickly changed. The old world pretty fast conceded to a new order. The Soviet immigrants did not develop it, and just filled with new contents. Thus, interrupted hidden thread of communication with traditions of the area. All this affected further development of the Karelian Isthmus, even the missed opportunities in the solution of cultural and significant problems are felt now.

To the current administrative-territorial state the Karelian Isthmus came as a result of the numerous transformations proceeding more than twenty years (1944-1965). The main content of these transformations were, first, the carried-out repeated changes of interdistrict borders as a result of which new were formed or the administrative-territorial units areas which became obsolete the term were abolished. So, for example, in 1944 three regions of KF of SSR - Vyborg, Keksgolmsky and Yaskin-sky were a part of the Leningrad Region, and Karelian-Finnish SSR was transformed on April 24, 1956 to the Karelian Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic. Formally everything passed on already approved scheme "satisfaction of desire трудящихся<.>" [10, page 7].

In August, 1945 the center of Kannelyarvsky district was transferred to Rayvola (Roshchino), and the area began to be called Rayvolovsky (Roshchinsky) [4, F. of R-701].

In 1954 Primorsky district (former Koyvistovsky) is abolished, his territory was a part of the Roshchino district.

On the basis of the Decree of Presidium of the Supreme Council of RSFSR of December 9, 1960. "About Lesogorsky's abolition, Sosnovsky and Mginsky areas of the Leningrad Region" according to the decision Lenoblispolk of December 13, 1960 created conciliation commission on transfer and acceptance of territories of Lesogorsky and Sosnovsky of areas which were transferred, respectively, to structure Vyborg, Sosnovsky - partially in structure Priozersk, partially in structure of Roshchinsky of areas [5, F. of R-1392].

In 1963 the decision on abolition of the Priozersk and Roshchino districts which territory was attached to Vyborgsky district was made.

In 1964 the made decision changed the status of the city of Vyborg. It became the city of regional submission. The structure of Vyborgsky district included the cities of Vysotsk, Ka-menogorsk, Primorsk and Svetogorsk.

In 1965 the Priozersk district as an independent administrative and territorial unit on the Karelian Isthmus was again formed.

In conclusion it is necessary to emphasize that the analysis of concrete historical material on the issue touched in article allows to draw the following conclusions.

Considering short duration of ownership of the USSR of the Karelian Isthmus during the post-war and pre-war period (March, 1940 - June, 1941), the real development of edge by the Soviet population began only after the termination of the Great Patriotic War.

The brief experience of the carried-out administrative-territorial transformations directed to development of "new lands", which is saved up in 1940 gave the chance, in our opinion, to begin in 1944 recovery work not from scratch, and to continue the planned prospects of development of the attached territories.

The administrative-territorial transformations which are carried out in 1940 and continued in 1944 on "trophy lands" concerned both area material, and areas of ideal. The attempt of economic, "political" and cultural development laid the foundation for formation of the Soviet economic control system, use and further development of the acquired territory.


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F. R-3433, O. 1, D. 1, L. 9; F. R-1392, O. 1, D. 3, L. 19, L. 20; F. R-41, O. 1, D. 1, L. 57; F. R-41, O. 1, D. 14, L. 2; F. R-3159, O. 1, D. 14, L. 4; F. R-3, O. 1, D. 1, L. 2; F. R-437, O. 1, D. 2, L. 1; F. R-144, O. 1, D. 5, L. 8; F. R-1392, O. 1, D. 214, L. 2, 3, 8; F. R-1392, O. 2, D. 3, L. 5, 6; F. R-1392, O. 2, D. 3, L. 1, 21; F. R-701, O. 1, D. 1, L. 1; F. R-1392, O. 2, D. 69, L. 3.

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Mattei Giuseppa Valentina
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