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V.I. Yurkevich: ships and countries



v. I. YURKEVICH: SHIPS AND COUNTRIES

On May 29, 1935 from the French port of Le Havre in the first, and at once become triumphal, flight through Atlantic to New York, went the transatlantic Normandy liner world's largest for those times. The press awarded him with such epithets as "the floating city for the whimsical and spoiled public" and "palace museum". It surpassed everything that was made before for passengers of shipping in luxury, convenience, safety and speed.

Descent of it of "a masterpiece of ship-building architecture" to water took place on ship-building shipyard Seng-Nazere on October 29, 1932 at presence the president and France of A. Lebren and members of the governments and, in the face of the gathered representatives of the international press, the European and American shipyards, the plants, transatlantic and other companies. "Slapped, having broken against a board, a champagne bottle. The giant trembled. Moved. Went... Thunder of "Marseillaise", roar of factory and steamship beeps, enthusiastic shouts of many thousands crowd: "Vive la France! Vive la Normandie". The Atlantic Ocean accepted the new winner of elements in the embraces...", - informed the Parisian newspapers of the readers.

In peryum flight from Europe to America the ocean "chariot in 160 thousand horsepowers" with easily Stew overcame 3,192 nautical miles with an average speed of 29.68 knots in 4 days, 11 hours and 33 minutes. In the port of New York the Americans, "loving everything grandiose, unusual, enormous", arranged an enthusiastic meeting. Normandy made a way back even rather - in 4 days, 3 hours and 5 minutes with an average speed of 30, 36 knot. Having broken a world record of speed for 10 hours and 53 minutes, Normandy became "the queen of Atlantic" at once and won "A blue bow" 1 - an emblem of the biggest, comfortable and high-speed transatlantik.

Within 25 years this emblem (the former name - "Blue Tape") dominations over the ocean English Mauritania possessed, and only in 1934 the right for it was acquired the Italian trance of Atlantic to "River" and German Bremen which passed the baton of superiority of Normandy. It was the national triumph of France. And for many years Normandy will be the focus of attention of mass media, a subject of a talk at restaurants, cafe and transport, a symbol of "dolce vita".

According to experts, the special streamline shape of the case gave an opportunity to considerably increase the speed limit of this liner. Whether could be the private of people to whom charged proektirova-

ny contours yurablya it a class and which initially had to become national pride of France?

The Russian emigrant, the engineer ship builder Vladimir Ivanovich Yurkevich was the author of such design. To him was under 50, behind shoulders there was a most part of life split in two by revolution and Civil war.

He was born in Moscow on June 5, 1885 in Ivan Vikentyevich Yurkevich and Aleksandra Nikolaevna Ivanskaya's noble family. The head of the family worked as the teacher of geography in the best educational institutions of Moscow: private gymnasiums of K.K. Mazinga, V.N. background Village visas and the 4th military school. Several years he lived and worked in S.I. Mamontov's estate - the large railway industrialist, the person versatily gifted, - as the chief tutor of his children and forever like spirit of the abramtsevsky house.

The atmosphere of trust, friendship, mutual aid reigned also in family Yurkevichey. Skills from amostoyatelno sta, joy of work, creativity and creation, sense of responsibility for the actions which are brought up by the father for the rest of life became organic for all his children. Three son and the daughter got fine education and an education, knew several languages, knew and loved literature, theater, understood music.

Vladimir was a senior from children. Since childhood dreamed of the sea and the ships, perfectly drew, it was keen on the art photo, had serious mathematical abilities. Especially the applied mathematics attracted it.

Upon termination of in 1903 with a gold medal of the 4th men's gymnasium it went to St.-Petersburg where the Polytechnical institute was a year before open. The fast development of military and trade shipbuilding in Russia which began in the late nineties of the 19th century demanded from the state of creation of a system of training of ship engineers and fur -

V.I. Yurkevich

USA 1937

niyuv, high level of their education. Therefore at institute the shipbuilding office which had to train sea engineers "as for construction of cases, and mechanisms, mainly commercial vessels" was open. It was the Russia's first civil higher educational institution of such profile. Here, as well as on other offices of institute, for the first time in Russia and in the world the training was organized on the principles organic a combination of the theory and practice, technical and humanitarian disciplines to a strong bias towards the applied nature of activity of future experts. The organization of this absolutely new business in Russia was charged to Konstantin Petrovich Boklevsyum, the outstanding ship engineer whose works in the field of design and construction of military and merchant ships made it known not only in Russia. The first releases of sea engineers soon held responsible positions at the plants as the rank of the sea engineer inspired in industrialists trust.

At big influx of persons interested to arrive on shipbuilding office Vladimir withstood a competition and was enlisted among 24 listeners of the second set.

Level of training was unusually high. Here coryphaeuses of Russian the building ship worked - I.G Bubnov, A.N. Krylov, G.N. Pío-Ulscy, A.P. Fang-der-Flit Liekqii gave N.G. Egorov, N.I. Kareev, D.I. Mendeleyev, A.N. Menshutkin, I.V. Meshchersky, N.P. Petrov,

S.P. Tymoshenko and others. Many years later, answering a question of one of journalists to whom or what he is obliged by the international recognition to, Yur-kevich answered: "First of all to school - St. Petersburg polytechnical institute. We were taught extremely well... The ships and our institute are not only shades of the past, but also achievements of the present which inspire with hopes for the future" 2.

Working with many famous ship engineers before World War I in Germany, and after it in France, England and the USA, he learned by experience: many theoretical calculations of professors and graduates of institute "gave a basis for further ship-building progress in all countries" 3.

Thus that the contingent of students of this office represented itself selection of the best graduates of average educational institutions of Russia, Yurkevich was allocated with amazing working capacity and enthusiasm. Liekqii outstanding teachers was given a lot of things, but he was not limited to lecture materials and about time become from classroom classes spent all in drawing and laboratories where he worked on projects till midnight when it was switched off elektrichestyu. Its term papers aimed at search of new ways of calculation of contours of the ships interested the dean of the pro Boklevsyugo's quarrel. Under it

a rukoyudstvo the talented student began to develop own concept of design of a hull with its special streamlining which became subsequently to well-known.

The student to builders knowledge of many disciplines, especially mathematicians was required for an am-yurabla, and the institute gave them this knowledge in full m volume. To Uka being known, Yurvevich "very much highly appreciated a role of mathematics in the ship business, and made all calculations in the most part itself, and checked made the draftsman", - O.V. remembered Yurkevich4.

The training program of future sea engineers included annual practice in commercial ports, on ship-building and furs - anything the sky plants of England, France and Ger of a mania. Prakgich students received sky knowledge of service of the case and mechanisms of the ships, carrying out various duties, during summer swimmings on vessels of the Voluntary fleet or Russian is general stvo of shipping company and trade. Being a student, he visited many Asian and European ports: behind shoulders of the student of a third year Yurkevich there were already two swimming practicians "to England in the North and to Port Said in the south", a work practice at three mechanical plants in Le Havre (1905) where torpedo boats were under construction at that time and tools of "any caliber" were made for the fleet of Russia. He studied work of workshops and the equipment of these plants. The detailed diary entries made by the 20-year-old probationer allow to present how there took place practice that especially it seemed to it interesting and it was useful further. So, at Norman's plant (A. Yoppaps!) the student from Russia "decided to be engaged in studying "Norman's coppers" and the description of their production". As at the plant it was forbidden to make any entries, to take sketches and the measurements, it tried to listen carefully to explanations of workers, masters and as mo zhno to remember more data on coppers and their work, important for it. Na-deyaedy the same plant he observed preparation for descent of the Swedish Galaxy torpedo boat and was present at this bright event.

Knowledge acquired on practicians very much will be useful in the subsequent work, and, perhaps, this practice of 1905 influenced the choice of a subject of the thesis: "Increase in useful effect of steam installation by means of heating of the air feeding a fire chamber and the water feeding a copper". And in 10 years it will be called by Boklevsky among the best diplomas of graduates of shipbuilding office.

From the diary of Yurkevich which he called "The sea to the Far East" obviously, how seriously, difficult and dangerously there took place its the third "almost round-the-world travel" to the Far East in the summer of 1907 by steamship of the Voluntary fleet Yaroslavl. Probationers needed to bear watches, to study work of the engine room,

mechanics and drivers to do drawings and sketches, to make reports and many other things. As well as in practice in France, "at first it was somehow awkward to it to be pushed in the car idle and only to disturb the inquiries drivers, but then, having a little accustomed with arrangement and having looked narrowly at the car, too was engaged in observations how cars work". The mechanic very approvingly treated the probationer and itself began to give manuals, "and time passed not so tiresomely long when in such heat and closeness you are pushed idle and only watch how everything moves, turns, spins..."

In intense classes years quickly flew by. The release of students of set of 1903 had to take place a year before, but because of student's disorders in 1905-1907 the institute was closed, and it took place on May 27, 1909

Same year at the ship construction office for his graduates wishing to receive specialization in the military of court the building courses were founded. Listeners had to take examinations in Naval engineering school in Kronstadt then they were made in ship naval cadets. For acquaintance with work in the unlimited ships and their mechanisms they needed to swim on vessels eskadry5. And Yurvevich showed willingness to receive profession of the ship engineer and to serve in navy. At the beginning of August, 1909 he was enlisted in engineers, and then - in the cadet of the fleet by a ship part to the 2nd Baltic naval crew and in a month is transferred to school. Upon termination of a course it was made in naval cadets and at the beginning of May, 1910 is directed to armored cruiser "Athlete" 6.

The number of the days spent by the naval cadet Yurkevich on the cruiser made 71, of them in foreign shipping - 687. They flew quickly. Upon return from gardemarinsky swimmings it passed test on artillery, mine business, ship architecture, the theory of seaworthy qualities of the ships, to design of fighting vessels, etc. 9 on December 6, 1910 "the shoulder strap of the naval cadet replaced a treasured naval epaulet". Made in second lieutenants, Yurkevich was enlisted in corps of ship engineers and was given assignment to Baltic shipbuilding and mechanical Shipyard.

After defeat of Russia in war with Japan and losses of the Baltic Fleet transferred to the Pacific Ocean, the Sea General Staff developed "The development program of naval armed forces of Russia for 1909-1919" which considered need to have in with putting the fleet of court of different types. Its performance began s with construction of four big linear ships of type of Dreadnought battleships at the same time at the Admiralty and Baltic plants of the Sea ministry: in June, 1909 at Baltic shipbuilding plant the linear Sevastopol ships and "by Pat - were put

ropav lovsk", and on Admiralty - Gangut and Poltava 10. In official statements it was emphasized that it - "the new linear ships which are under construction on about an ekta of the Russian engineers, the Russian people and of the Russian materials", with essentially new fighting qualities and they "will be the strong basis - the Kremlin of extensive sea fortress of the Russian Empire" 11.

In January, 1911 the second lieutenant Yurkevich was appointed the junior builder on completion of Sevastopol. Na-deyaedy the young engineer who already well proved was assigned "a responsible task to mathematically calculate actions for descent of the ship to water". It was necessary to calculate so "application of the detaining force" that yuvremya to stop the ship and not to allow it to crash in anti-on the false coast of Neva. And he coped with a task.

Came on June 16, 1911: "... Everywhere flags, garlands, festive crowd, on Neva warships, the decorated yakhga... Under chords of a prayer "Save, Gospsdi, people yours...", the anthem, a salute, triumphing "Hurrah!"... in the presence of Nicholas II, the commanding and invited persons... With the dismissed standard and andreevsky flags to a velicha the stvenny ship with terrific speed flew to Neva. The Vspugnuty beauty was thrown to embankments, from legs to the head having shrouded thousand crowd... Stopped as driven", - the captain remembered this bright show 2 ranks And. Item Lukin12. For successful application of "excellent knowledge" of "construction of the linear Sevastopol ship", for "skillful vigorous conducting the charged works on descent" it on water and for "difference after descent" Yurkevich who is already made in lieutenants was awarded the order to St. Stanislav III by Article 13

The basis of a design of Sevastopol was formed by the daring innovative ideas. And only many years later the world in sprinyal the Russian system of construction of dreadnoughts. Already in emigration Yurkevich remembered: "Such linear ships as Sevastopol, Poltava, Petropavlovsk, Gangut on courage of the new designs, the sizes and speed made absolutely new era in shipbuilding not only for Russia, but advanced all foreign projects of that time as "Ayron Dyyuk", Invizibl or Moltke and Fon der Tann by the head. It admitted all foreign experts, even from the plants John Brown and Vivere, a worship a feather d which it in ours "the highest spheres" then was not obsolete yet" 14.

"The program of the strengthened court stro an eniye of the Baltic Fleet for 1911-1915" which provided construction of four armored cruisers - the superdreadnoughts, most powerful in the world, became an important stage in development of the domestic military shipbuilding. In the fall of 1911. The sea ministry announced a competition on about stavleny the best project of the battleship and suggested to take part in it to 6 Russians and

to 17 known foreign ship-building enterprises. The projects offered soon by foreign firms were rejected by Technical council of the Public Administration of Shipbuilding (PAS) "as not answering about snovny requirements of the Russian shipbuilding for a case and mechanical part". Final development of the outline sketch was charged to the Admiralty and Baltic plants between which intense competition was started. Professor of Sea academy I.G Bubnov was appointed the consultant of Baltic Shipyard for construction mechanics of the ship. The rukoyudstvo the general design, development of the main layout decisions, etc. was entrusted to Yurvevich who in October was transferred to Technical shipbuilding bureau of the plant and is appointed the designer. Now an opportunity to check the ideas in practice was presented to it.

Both plants submitted the projects which differed from each other forms of cases markedly within the appointed term. The project of the Admiralty plant on which main calculations were executed by the engineer ship builder Ya.M. Hlytchiyev "was derivative of the usual forms of warships taken around the world". On Yurkevich's project "the ship left big-bellied on the middle, reminded a copper or the barge", but with strongly pointed a nose by m and a stern. Tests of both models were carried out in model testing basins of St. Petersburg and Bremerhaven (Germany). Experiments with models validated Yurkevich's calculations: the new lines of contours offered them for a hull, the original profile of the ship which had "bulbous" contours gave econo Mia in 10 thousand horsepowers. In terms of construction mechanics of the ship, the project of Baltic Shipyard was the best. By results of a business trip to Germany the sea minister I.K. Grigorovich gave the detailed report to Nicholas II in whom he stated as well "the ideas about the best streamlining of the case of the ships in water during the course". According to Yurkevich who was present at the report it was struck by awareness of the emperor in in about Sakha domestic and foreign shipbuilding.

As each of the presented projects had the advantages, for them "full monotony" and also immediately to start laying of the ships, Technical Council of GUK suggested these plants to provide the general project. A.I. Balkashin, P.F. Papkovich, Yu.A. Shimansky, V.I. Yur-kevich and others participated in his development.

Solemn laying of all four cruisers took place on December 6, 1913. The cruisers ordered to Baltic Shipyard on luchil the name "Izmail" and "Kinburn", Admiralty - Borodino and Navarin, and all series - the Izmail type. Readiness term to ispyta-

the beginning of July was established to niya of the first two, the second - September, 1916 of Odnayu their construction was started only so far as circumstances of wartime allowed. Izmail of four x cruisers was floated by the first on June 9, 1915. The ambassador of France M. Paleolog who was present at descent wrote down in the diary: "This morning in the presence of the Sovereign there is a descent of the armored cruiser in 32 Ltd companies of tons, Izmail constructed on sheds of Vasilyevsky Island... there are also diplomatic corps and members of the government. Weather fine, ceremony as impressive, as picturesque... the enormous vessel dvizhtsya to Neva slowly and uncontrollably, strong nervousness goes down the river; moorings stretch - and Izmail majestically stops" 15.

The sea ministry hoped for its input in the fall of 1917, but in the conditions of the revolutionary shocks which began in the country construction of cruisers was stopped at all. Later, already Bolshevist Sovrankom, several options of completion of Izmail including re-equipment in the aircraft carrier, but in the 1930th its case was disassembled moved forward. The tools intended for it stood in good stead in gsda of the Siege of Leningrad when they as a part of artillery of coastal defense of the Baltic Fleet Decorated with the Order of the Red Banner successfully smashed manpower, a technical field and defensive works of Wehrmacht. Three other cruisers with the permission of the State Planning Committee of RSFSR in August, 1923 were bought in the "whole" look by the German firm "Alfred Kubats". Despite such destiny, work over them about an ektirovaniye in which outstanding Russian ship builders, and among them Yurke-vich participated according to experts, enriched domestic science with valuable developments in the field of construction mechanics of the ship.

In December, 1912 Yurkevich was made in lieutenants, av1914g. - in shtabs-captains. These years the talented engineer showed fully and the qualities of the organizagora-social activist. Upon return from a foreign business trip to Germany he supported the initiative of the teacher and mentor K.P. Boklevsky of the organization in Russia of the Union of sea engineers which would contribute to the development of sea engineering, "understood in the broadest sense" 16. In March, 1913 he addressed with the official report the chief of Baltic Shipyard in which he asked for permission "to consist the founder of Technical-anything syu go societies under the name "Union of Sea Inzhner"" and also about delivery to it "the corresponding certificate for representation in city on affairs about is general stvo presence". Its official report was udovletvoren17.

The union of naval officers was founded at the end of April, 1915 Yurkevich yushet in with having become his board, but in a year was forced to leave work because of frequent business trips.

Same year there were changes and in his private life: he married Nadezhda Evgenyevna Beckman (nee Tveritinova), the widow of the died companion.

World War I cast most of Russian intelligentsia and furthermore professional soldiers, in unconditional patriotism and militaristic moods. Very accurately it sounded in L. Andreyev's interview to the New York Times newspaper in September, 1914: "Having begun war, we will bring it to the youth, to a total victory over Germany; and there should not be neither doubts, nor yulebaniye.," 18. In the very first days of war Yurkevich submitted the official report with a request to direct it to serve "on the ships for the period of military operations", but was refused from the headquarters of the commander of the Baltic Fleet "in view of absence... corresponding works at the moment" 19.

In the conditions of war the government undertook measures for strengthening of the fleet, including for replenishment of its structure by submarines. On November 1, 1915 the shtabs-captain Yurkevich was transferred to Department of scuba diving of Baltic Shipyard and appointed the builder of submarines "& #34; rsh" and "Trout" 20. He was seconded by Vsyure to Revel on the JSC Noblessner plant which received the state order for construction of submarines and built here special shipyard. Na-deyaedy this plant him constructed 11 submarines, is developed about ekt an underwater mine zagraditel for the Baltic Fleet who received the best assessment of the contest committee of the Sea ministry and then, in 1918, accepted to construction. On the theoretical drawing developed by it the model of an underwater zagraditel which he successfully tested in the model testing basin of Petrograd was built, but to realize this project not udalos21.

War dragged on and caused a tragic chain of the crashes of habitual life. General disorders and a disorder affected also the fortified city of Revel. Na-deyaedy the plant, products of yutory was so necessary for the Baltic Fleet, was also nespoyuyno. Because of the yunflikt with factory council of heads and resolutions of a general meeting of workmen "to eliminate the director" Tolmacheva, the director of a zayud had to leave Revel. Yurkevich vypo lnyal its duties also looked for month "the general way" with council of heads and "with one thousand workmen". On October 9 he wrote the family to Moscow: "... Hard now in the city and, in especially st, at the plant - about to sit till 6-7 o'clock, minute without having rest - papers, reports, surveys of work, the instruction, disputes because of prices, the code of constant offenses, the conflicts and so forth - the head around goes straight. You will come home, you will have dinner - and again on some zas an edaniye of a factory meeting or Thermal section, it is frequent up to 12 h night - too life questions for the plant, providing with fuel, metal - as a result I feel big fatigue and overfatigue".

Due to the probability of offensive of Germans at Petrograd and bases Oh ltiysyugo the fleet at the beginning of October the commandant of fortress made the decision on full evacuation of Revel. "Now and ours zavsd begins osta-nav to livatsya and perev to sditsya to Petrograd though it will be hardly possible to restore. Everything almost the enterprises are liquidated now, and there comes full crisis of the industry. As all this will pass, God only knows...", - Vladimir Ivanovich wrote in the same letter.

All works at the plant came to an end, and to it came s to think of the new duty station. Thanks to its excellent reputation there was a hope to get a job the chief engineer on the Nikolaev office of Baltic Shipyard. In the middle of April, 1918 the captain Korpusa of ship engineers (since 1916) Yurvevich arrived to this South Russian city, being the appointed assistant to the manager of office with a salary in 12 thousand rubles in god22.

The road to the Black Sea turned out difficult: it left as a part of delegation from the plant and from 1.5 million rubles, allocated with management of the plant for development Nikolaev otdeleniya23. "The travel came out with such adventures that will be enough for some Breshko-Breshkovsky for the whole volume of the description", - he remembered later. From Moscow to Nikolaev the way took nearly a month "in the most awful conditions". In Alexandrov e Baltic Fleet sailors for a week "were detained and hardly got out of hands of group of anarchists to Maher si Nikiforova". In Kherson where reached by steamship and where "the power was in hands of some "Advice to five", it was necessary to endure capture of the city the German-Austrian parts". Their car got to the center of fight, was shot with rifles and machine guns moreover shells from the ships and the German armored train from all directions. Three days later left Kherson on permission of the Austrian commandant. "In a word, we are "shot" birds now" and got used to whistle of bullets for these days absolutely", - he wrote the family already from Nikolaev on April 15, 1918

Nikolaev was also occupied by Germans: everywhere there were guns, patrols went, the curfew worked. Because of a difficult economic situation the plant was officially closed: The sea ministry of Ukraine decided to make it "majestic" for ship repair and submarines. Hard work on arrangement of lot of the collected affairs was coming. Yurvevich started working: with having become-lyal the inventory of the equipment, sorted accounts and other papers, prepared plans and the project of full re-equipment of the plant in case of its possible expansion. Saved that Germans did not interfere with internal life of the plant. In Nikolaev it, in fact, appeared "as abroad": even the Kiev and Odessa newspapers were forbidden, and "The Nikolaev bulletin" - the main source of official information - was "with such German orientation that nothing could be learned about Dews -

these". Besides, rumors appeared it is uniform more terribly than another. All this did not install optimism.

At the beginning of June it had to go to return "travel" to Petrograd for the report to the management of Baltic Shipyard about a situation in Nikolaev, transfers of an order of Sea department of the Ukrainian power about appointments of the mechanical engineer, captain of 1 rank P.A. Fedorov by the chief of the former department of Baltic Shipyard in Nikolaev, and Yurkevich - the assistant by a technical part. The plant was allocated in independent and from now on was called so: "Derzhavsha Mikola_vski_ Remontni_ І sudostro_telni_ Morsky's plant V_domstva" 24.

It is unknown with what difficulties, but he coped with a task and safely returned to Nikolaev, with the wife this time. Na-deyaedy the plant was engaged in assembly and test of "AG" submarines which at the beginning of war were purchased in the USA and through Vladivostok are delivered to Nikolaev.

At retreat of armies of the general A.I. Denikin, taken by the general evacuation stream and without assuming that leave Russia forever, on February 6, 1920 they with the wife were evacuated from Odessa to "the first capital" of emigration - Constantinople. At Na-deyaedy Evgenyevna's insistance he achieved that they were lodged in one of camps for civil Russian refugees on the lake Halki25.

Yurkevich was rather lucky: he found a job on private shipyard Siashig s_p P іі apag with і є M_gaa Avva_-Eu, and then with group of emigrants organized small artel on repair and sale of old cars. Work did not bring satisfaction, but allowed to survive. Nearly two years he unsuccessfully tried to contact line, in a roundabout way learned about the death of the father. His letter of July 14, 1922 in which he reported became the first news received from it in Moscow: works at the plant, "hardly getting itself on existence".

In the spring of 1921 because of poverty most of refugees began to seek to move from Turkey to the European countries. In the second half of 1922 and Yurgevicham was succeeded to get over yu France interested in inflow of men of working-age. Besides, owing to historical and cultural ties the relation of the French authorities and the population to the Russian emigrants was kinder, than in other countries.

In Paris the talented ship builder was accepted on the plant Іі epa іі It "sustained nearly half a year behind the machine" and at the same time conducted "desperate job searches in the specialty". The case helped: the editor of the Yakhty magazine with which Yurkevich got to talking about sailing helped to receive the place of the designer draftsman on small

to wooden vessels - yachts, motor boats, boats, etc. - at shipbuilding plant in Argenteuil.

Gradually his life in France got better. Despite everyday problems and "the simplified life - in one room with the paraffin stove", they with zhny after all were in time "and to read something brand new from Turgenev library and to go sometimes to theater".

He did not lose hope "to rise" and again to work as the ship engineer, undertook any work in the specialty: worked for shipyards, cooperated with the Russian inzhne-rum-inventor from London V. Cherniveev and became the representative of his firm on logs, worked in firm of an inzhner of A. Klyagin, was engaged in raising of the sunk battleship beregoyuy defenses "Biley" in the port water area of Brest.

the Economic crisis of the middle of the 1920th affected also the enterprise in Argenteuil. ". The prices of materials increase very quickly, also the working payment, and customers raises - mainly fishermen - are not inclined to pay more for the ordered vessels... at all, - pis Yurkevich to the family is scarlet, - so I prepare to myself I ache e occupation - too in shipbuilding - by calculation of screws for obtaining bigger speed that is very important for big steamships...". With grief he came to a conclusion: ". No higher education for "success in life" is required. Best of all waiters in cafe "earn"...".

In 1928 he managed to get a job the consultant on the plant of the Penoett company which was in France an exclusive builder of all big liners for the Trance of the Atlantic company. There it continued the researches on a problem "the water resistance at ship traffic". Disturbed the talented shipbuilder that for

O.V. Yurkevich

Paris, the 1920th

its years of "the forced inaction" the equipment of shipbuilding in Europe left so forward that his ideas will be outdated. But when he began to study calculations of designs of the best ships (Berengaria, Leviagan and Ile-de-France), according to him, noticed what on one of them was not achieved those results which they would have to give if are designed by its method. And he drew a conclusion: "Europe did not approach questions which our teachers raised to us in Ro these", and "to the building before war was opened for the Russian of court more, than modern in Europe" 26.

In a year of Penoett received the order for the giant liner which had to become "more, better and is more high-speed" than others. Future ocean express was planned in a big way: length was outlined in 300 m, displacement - in 70 thousand tons. Such giant from all ports of the world could be accepted only avr and New York. And Yurkevich, having decided to design independently obvsda of the case of this ship, managed to interest his builders.

By recognition of the inventor, several years of continuous efforts were required to prove suitability of its method for it a trance Atlantic as Normandy, and in terms of economy in powerfully st, and in respect of stability, seaworthy qualities, internal placement, etc. of Pretso stavlenny they drawings had to remake dozens of times, again to recalculate everything and again to prove the received benefits.

By Preyaede what elected a final form of the building of Normandy, in peryuklassno the equipped basin of Hamburg checked up to 15 various models. As a result "without any changes" the patented form of the smallest resistance Yurvevicha27 was the best. The scepticism of the French was broken, but "the funny thing turned out: to the French plant it was necessary to send for test of the biggest steamship the Russian engineer on the German model testing basin" where especially admired Yurkevich's idea doctor Fyorster, the well-known konstrlktor of Faterland, and the doctor Kempf famous for impartiality of the conclusions managing the pool who with bitterness exclaimed: "Think if our Bremen had the same form, it would give more on the whole knot!" 28.

Normandy was put on January 26, 1931 on a building berth of shipyard of Penoett, and in October, 1932 the whole world was flown by a message about its descent to water. And the honor of creation of a form of its case what modern requirements of shipbuilding - "a maximum of speed and a minimum of expenses" directly depended on, - belonged to the Russian engineer. The project it opened a new era in shipbuilding. Normandy gave

to owners gross revenue about 6-7 million fr. for flight, i.e. for seven flights a year - more than 110 million fr.29

This sea celebration ("Le marriage de Normandie avec i’Ocean" as his French christened) with feeling of national pride was divided with France also by all Russian emigration, "because in m Seng-Nazerevsky svadebno a wreath two beginnings, two palm trees of the human genius were symbolically weaved: Russian and French", - A.P. Lukin wrote in article "Torzhstvo of the Russian Genius". The Parisian newspaper Russia these days noted: "If the French have the right to be proud of a victory of Normandy as Normandy is the French ship, then we, Russians, can be proud doubly of this victory as our Russian engineer who, first of all, had to defeat the French gave to the French this victory then to give them a victory over British" 30.

On March 24, 1936 English transatlantik "QueenMagu" went to the first flight. And the second half 1930-hgg proshlapod the sign of rivalry between these two ocean giants.

During work on Normandy there were changes in private life of Yurkevich. In 1927 on annual to a ball of the emigrant Writers' Union in Paris it I learn shallowing with Olga Vsevolodovna Krestovskaya, the daughter of the military historian and the writer V.V. Krestovsky. Their meeting gained development: Yurkevich found love, understanding and "the most dear friend, the beloved wife" in it. In 1931, having received stains in Paris, they got married in the mayor's office of Brussels where Vladimir Ivanovich was on affairs. There a year later, September 9, 1932, they gave birth to the son Yury. And in October, 1932 the spouses went in Saint Nazaire to descent of a new child of Yurkevich - Normandy. As Olga Vsevolodovna remembered: "Both the son's birth, and the ship birth almost at the same time delivered to both of us huge is glad to St and inspired with hopes. V.I. was infinitely happy".

Yurkevich's talent gained wide recognition, and his name became more and more known. Many scientific works were devoted to its projects. He made reports on new forms of ship contours of smaller resistance and in France (at meetings of the Union of the Russian diplomaed engineers, Scientific and philosophical society and In enno-morsyugo a historical circle of the admiral Kolchak), and beyond its limits. He managed to organize own design office on design of cases and screws (BEKNI), to open offices in London and Luxembourg. The leading European countries became constant customers of BEKNI not only on design of new vessels of different function, but also on projects of a reyunstruktion old.

One state which became the leader among sea powers did not seek for recognition in it merits of the Russian inventor. That bigger surprise for directorate of Penoett was under -

robny article on the two first pages of the Parisian newspaper Maten very popular and influential at that time about creation of Normandy - with Yurkevich's portrait and with a subtitle "the Father of Normandy". For the first time in France it was given has to e to his merits "as exclusive engineer-inventor, without attempts to jam him and to hide his Russian origin" &. Besides Yurkevich in designing, construction and finishing of Normandy the big group of the Russian experts-e of migrants accepted a fate: V.P. Arshaulov, I.I. Bokhanovsky, V.E. Verzhebsky, I.P. Poluektov, A.N. Harkevich,

Kelly Gavin George
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