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To a question of historical "Women's" and gender researches in Germany in the context of the general development of gender history

9. A.Ya. Gurevich. Medieval literature and its modern perception//From cultural history of the Middle Ages and the Renaissance. M, 1976.

10. Ritter E.A. Zulus Chaka. M, 1989.
11. Complete collection of the Russian chronicles. M.,1997. T.1.
12. V.V. Dolgov. "The evil is female charm" (sexual life of ancient rus of X1-X111 of century and their attitude towards the woman//Social history. Year-book. 2003. Female and gender history. M, 2003.
13. Nikolaev I.Yu., Karnachuk N.V. Istoriya of the Western European medieval culture. Part I. Culture of the barbaric world. Tomsk, 2001.
14. Nikolaev I.Yu., Karnachuk N.V. Istoriya of the Western European medieval culture. Part II. Culture of the knightly environment. Tomsk, 2003.
15. L.P. Repina. Men and women in the history: New picture of the European past. Essays. Anthology. M, 2002.
16. N.L. Pushkareva. From "И^огу" to Neg-vkiu//Adam and Eve. Almanac of gender history. M, 2001.
17. Yu.I. Semyonov. As there was a mankind. M, 1966.
18. Popov S.A. Transition ceremonies in the traditional culture of Mansi. Tomsk, 2003.
19. M.Ya. Loyberg, V.E. Shlyapentokh. The general factors of formation of a feudal system of economy in Eastern Europe//Theses of reports and messages of the ninth (Tallinn) session of a symposium on the agrarian history of Eastern Europe (October, 1966). Tallinn, 1966.
20. Ancient Greece. M, 1956.
21. M.E. Kurilov. About the ritual and ceremonial nature of a female agonistics in classical Sparta//Adam and Eve. Almanac of gender history. M, 2003. No. 6.
22. E. Vardiman. The woman in the ancient world. M, 1990.
23. Yu.A. Antonyan. Denial of a civilization: cannibalism, incest, infanticide, totalitarianism. M, 2003.

T.I. Zaytseva


Tomsk state pedagogical university

Historical women's, later gender, researches were developed in the West since the end of the 60th years of the 20th century under the influence of women's social movement, emergence of the new cross-disciplinary scientific direction - "women's researches" and internal transformations of historical science. This process began in the USA, and till today the North American school keeps the leading role both in theoretical area, and in the sphere of concrete researches.

Modern gender history - one of the most violently developing historical subdisciplines. There is hardly a foreseeable number of monographs and especially articles (see L.P. Repina and N.L. Pushkareva's, e.g., bibliographies [1, page 106-158; 2]). Therefore before the historian who chose "a female subject" as the main subject of the scientific activity there are inevitable difficulties. What researches are done and what experience is accumulated; what does the heuristic potential of this approach consist in? Where to draw a distinction between "female" and gender history; how to carry out in the concrete historical research "gender analysis of the sociohistorical phenomena"? These questions have no simple answers.

The task of this article is to consider top trends of development this historiographic

and to try to find out the directions how German-speaking researches of "female history" fit into the international context.

"The female subject" drew attention of historians already since H1H of century in connection with "the first wave" of feminism. Formation of "female history" at a boundary of 1960-70 of the 20th century as separate historical subdiscipline had both social, and vnut-rinauchny prerequisites. Followers of women's movement of "the second wave" criticized traditional "men's" science. The new scientific direction - "women's researches" was created. Unlike studying "women's issue", male scientists in them attach significance to women's research practice, the factor of "personal experience of suppression" is considered.

At the first stage of the existence "female history" was intermediate between the field of historical science and a part of the feminist movement with which kept proximity; the researches conducted in its framework not always differed in strict scientific objectivity. The main task seemed in restoration of the forgotten woman's names and studying history of oppression of women. It predetermined the known difficulties of development of the new direction, marginal-

a nost of its situation among other historical disciplines.

The situation begins to change with the middle of 1970. Research interest moves to the analysis of the relations of domination in society. Positions of "female history" in historical science extend, its academism increases. At the universities, new educational courses are entered. In 1975 the special "Decade of women" was announced; drawing up long-term coordinate international projects on studying "female history" was her main idea. On the XVI International congress of historical sciences in 1985 a problem "The woman and society" was for the first time announced by one of the directions. In 1987 there is the International federation of researchers of history of women [3].

Implementation of the international research project "History of Women in the West" under Georges Dyubi and Michèle Perrault's edition in whom such famous scientists as Natali Zemon Davies, Arlette Farge, etc. took part became an important milestone of development of "female history" at a boundary of 1980-90. The edition of the five-volume generalizing work which captured the western history from antiquity up to now [4] became result of this project.

From other historical directions the relation to "female history" was various. Representatives of traditional science long time preferred not to notice it, followers of "modern social history" entered with representatives of a historical feminologiya polemic. So, marked out J. Pomat (Italy) that "history of women" often represents a story of men's discourses about women - i.e. more likely men [5, river 28-30]. A number of provisions of a historical feminologiya was criticized in 1985 by the famous English social historian L. Stone [6, B. 312].

At a boundary of 1980-90 as the response to development of "female history" appears so-called "history of men". In its framework homosexuality history (the American gay studies had a great influence on the new direction), the history of courage and male identity, history of paternity, male honor and so forth begin to be studied. Historical andrology as well as "history of women", it was necessary to experience difficulties of recognition and scepticism at the beginning.

At "female history" own conceptual device and areas of a research were created. In particular, the neomarxist theoretical model according to which family, a household and the relations of floors are derivative of means of production had strong impact on it. Other direction is connected with feministi-

chesky criticism of ideology of patriarchal society. The provision on supersurvivability of a patriarchal system which was not broken by radical social and economic shifts and revolutions since it was assimilated with social and economic, political and cultural structures became its basis; and only in present period there comes their conflict. Some scientists adhere to progressivist views and conduct search of positive dynamics in the history of women; others deny that, at least, prior to the beginning of the Latest time. One of actively developed directions is concentrated on studying history of ideas of women [7, page 411-413; 8, page 33].

"Female history" at all stages of the development added woman's names to history. As a result the pages devoted to outstanding women, a social status of women of various social groups, their everyday life were published in textbooks. Within "female history" the studying women's movement, forms of the organization, vital concepts and vital spheres of women found to themselves the place [9, page 55].

It agrees the concept of "the connecting spheres" developed in 1970, in preindustrial societies there were two connecting areas of life significant and for an early industrial era: public - social and economic and private - sexual and reproductive. Opening of opposition "private and public" and a problem of emancipation of women in privacy - the main provision of "new" women's movement became central in the historical concept of "female history". It led to the birth of such new subjects of a research as discrimination of women in education, professional activity, the home sphere, in the sexual relations, in matrimony and family. Studying history of homework, motherhood and education of children, a prisluzhnichestvo and hiring and so forth was developed

From the moment of emergence of "female history" of one of tasks there was a reconsideration of a traditional periodization of history. Revaluation of a number of the major historical periods was carried out. As the American researcher historian J. Kelly claimed, progress in Athens meant concubinage and solitary life of wives of citizens for women in ginekeyakh; in Europe Renaissance - attachment of the wife of the bourgeois to the house and escalation of "witch-hunt", and the Great French revolution openly excluded women from gaining freedom, equality, brotherhood. In Article "Whether Women Had a Renaissance?" (1977) J. Kelly comes to a conclusion that women had no Renaissance. In a collective research R. Braydental and

K. Kunz "Becoming visible. Women in the European history" (1977) authors accept a traditional periodization, but show that historical shifts by men and women were endured differently. J. Bennet's ideas of the invariance of position of women in the European history and their continuous oppression were reflected in the name and contents of her book "Motionless History" (1988) [1, page 26; 10, page 106].

Strong influence on "female history" (as well as is later on "history of floors") was rendered by "modern social history" which subdiscipline it sometimes is considered. "Female history" widely uses innovative approaches of social history directed by questions, methodical tools and the system of concepts, but approaches them critically. So the limitation of the theory of modernization was shown, in particular, to its not extendability on women [11, page 142-143].

Now studying "female history" unites hundreds of university courses, specializations, research programs in the majority of the European countries. Annually there take place conferences including international. The researches devoted to this subject captured everything centuries, from primitiveness so far, and represent the cross-disciplinary, generalizing results of scientific developments in various areas of humanitarian knowledge. A big role the periodic scientific press - first of all played the French magazine promoting of "female history", "Annales: Economies, Sociétés, Civilisations", English "Past and Present" and German "Geschichte und Gesellschaft" and also feministic editions are the magazines "L'Homme", "Signs", etc. [3; 8, with. 29] Development of a historical feminologiya promoted expansion of professional activity of female historians.

Historical "women's" researches in Germany took place in something similar, in something specific in comparison with other national schools in the West a way of development. "Female life in the history" to social shocks of 1960 developed not easy. Already since an era of the Weimar republic, the woman became teachers, but not university professors (with rare exception). Women seldom were also objects of dissertation researches. This situation proceeded until the end of World War II after which there is the general growth of professional employment of women [12, with. 264]. In 1960 the akademization of women is observed: they appear among university professorate. The women's groups created in connection with the feminist movement get into the universities and bring with themselves but -

vy perspective. In 1970 there is an organization of "female history" as scientific direction (which coincided with splash in Germany after almost supremacy of a classical istoriopisaniye of researches of vanguard sense [13, page 16]). At "The Berlin summer university for women" in 1976-1977 it was for the first time created and there was till 1986 a section on "stories of women". "Women's issue" was discussed on "Historical days" in Berlin in 1984. Since 1979 Anette Kuhn together with Y. Ryuzen began to publish the scientific series "Woman in the History". The publication of texts of representatives of world science begins. Growth of popularity of the new direction and also overcoming some existing distortions were promoted by the discussion developed at the beginning of 1980 between A. Kuhn and the representative of "social historical science" of Yu. Kokk on the subject "Female History between Science and Ideology" [6, B. 312; 14, page 18].

In 1980 to "women's researches" the researchers who are not connected with feminism come; the wave of publications began. On ancient history addressed this subject B. Wagner-Hazel. The specialist in the early Middle Ages A. Verner initiated medieval researches. In 1986 U. Frevert, and in 1992 H. Vunder address early Modern times. The new perspective was presented in the monographs E. Brook-mullera "The social history of Austria" (1985) and V. Trossbakh "Peasants of 1648-1806" (1993) devoted to social history. Devotes to political history of an era of Modern times since 1998 the researches X. Dukhhard. (N.L. Pushkareva notes that among German-speaking specialists in a historical feminologiya rather there are a lot of male historians - though women all the same more [8, page 37]). Materials of these and other researches were included in textbooks [15].

It is paid to studying modern and latest times much attention: stories of an era of the German Empire, Weimar republic, Nazism. In the GDR the special popularity was gained by history of female workers under capitalism. At the beginning of 1980 also "history of men" appeared (the first L. Roper, U. Frevert [6, B. 311, 320] addressed its study).

The turn from purely "female history" to "history of floors" was followed by reconsideration of a subject, the conceptual device and the methodological principles. Prerequisites of emergence of gender history in the west of opening steel in endocrinology and psychoanalysis which promoted allocation of concepts of a sort as a biological floor and a gender as a floor social.

R. Hof defines a gender as "a welfare construct of sociality" [16, page 25]. Cent -

the criticism of essentialism - idea of the invariance of binary opposition of men and women and an asymmetric design of sexual structure became the rolled point of the gender concept.

Wide use of the concept "gender" began since the end of 1970. The special direction in the system of humanitarian knowledge having cross-disciplinary character - gender researches is formed. The circle of disciplines of gender researches includes gender psychology, gender political science, gender sociology, "cultural researches", philosophical anthropology, post-colonial researches. In their framework concepts of gender identity, gender roles, gender stratification, a gender system, the gender contract and the gender conflict, the gender display are entered and developed. Process of designing of a gender, attributing to a gender is studied. Researchers seek for identification of communication of the gender relations with distribution of the power in society.

By the beginning of 1980 the gender concept "met" "female history" and began to get into the area of concrete researches. Emergence of gender history became result of development and professionalizing of historical women's researches and the need of theorization which rose before them.

In 1976 the American researcher of early Modern times N.Z. Davies in the article ""Female history" on transition:" wrote the European option about specifics of social category of a gender in language. Gender history, according to the scientist, has to analyze an interconnection between floors which constitute their sex and form asymmetry gender about [6, B. 315].

The big role was played by other American erudite Joan Scott's article "A gender - useful category of the historical analysis" (1986). In it the basic teoretiko-methodological provisions of gender history which became a subject of active discussion were formulated. Two starting positions of the researcher are that the gender is, first, a fundamental element of the social relations which are based on division of floors; secondly, means of designation and justification of the imperious relations which are designed in historical reality. J. Scott suggested to use analytical quality of category of a gender for the analysis of social inequality along with such concepts as a class and race [7, page 407-408; 17, page 45].

However the practical embodiment of gender methodology caused serious difficulties. In some cases appeal of researchers to a gender is-

thorium it was simple renaming. The old rhetoric of researches - the description of women's experience and the facts of oppression of women instead of studying process and "riddles" of designing of a gender remained. There are also first successful practical experiments - for example, comparison of the relation of men and women to the same phenomena (by the time of marriage, a repeated marriage, honor and so forth) [9, page 63].

Strong influence on language and rhetoric of historical researches rendered sociological concepts. Prior to the beginning of 1990 in gender researches the social and constructivist approach of which interest in social structures is characteristic dominated. According to the sociological theories offered by T. Parsons, T. Lukmanan and P. Berger, I. Goffman, etc., the reality, and gender distinctions including, is result of social designing. Particularly important concepts of gender identity, social - and including sexual - roles and institutes of socialization became. The task of researchers seemed in analyzing processes and mechanisms of assimilation of public roles by the individual.

The beginning of 1990 was marked by change of the general scientific paradigm connected with formation of philosophy of post-structuralism. Especially significant role in this process was played by theoretical provisions of the French philosopher Michel Foucault (1926-1984). The main thesis of the event within post-structuralism of so-called "linguistic turn" is that active part in modeling of social reality is taken language and the practician of speech behavior (so-called discourse). The theory "the authorities speaking" lifts a problem of the strategy of the power hidden behind language. Research interest moves to the microlevel of the power where it usually is not noticed (see, e.g.: [18; 19]).

The post-structuralism had strong impact both on feminism, and on actually gender history which representatives, as well as supporters of "linguistic turn", sought for change of the representations which developed in science, for expansion of methods and concepts, for underlining of a factor of the power [11, page 136-137]. The American researcher L. Hunt suggests to use tools of post-structuralist methods for the historical analysis of the text. She supports a deconstruction of "metanarrative" of general history and its reconstruction proceeding from concepts of gender history. Feministic the adjusted historians U. Strasser (USA) and K. Hall (Great Britain) put forward the versions of "linguistic turn" [6, B. 316-317]. Concepts of history of women as history of dominations and symbolical on -

Celia the French scientists P. Bourdieu and R. Chartier [20 offered, page 201-202; 21, river 40-47; 22, river 6366]. Thus, 1990 became the period of theoretical judgment of gender history and were marked by transfer of interest from structures in the individual.

If "the historical feminologiya" took a marginal position in the system of historical sciences, then gender history was more "correct", less ideological, i.e. not connected so obviously with the feminist theory and feminist tasks. The big academic respectability is inherent in it. Together with acceptance in attention and constant accounting of "a men's factor" male scientists also were connected to researches.

Modern gender history includes history of women, history of men, history of homosexuality and the history of relationship of floors. The gender analysis supplements the analysis of plurality of social communications. Gender history uses developments of theorists of the feminist movement, cross-disciplinary scientific methods, the general for "modern social history" of the concept and own categories and concepts. Researchers seek for application of microhistorical or historical and anthropological approaches [10, page 104].

Among problems which are put in historical gender researches it is possible to call contradictions of regularities "women's" and "general history". Why vital conditions of women worsen then when, according to a traditional historiography, there is a forward social development? Why again and again division of floors is tried to be presented as natural process? The empirical research of the socialization connected with a floor is conducted, forms of gender identity in family are studied. Much attention is paid to studying a literary discourse and its communication with social reality, especially during transitional eras; concepts of the female and men's letter are entered and developed.

Much attention within gender history it continues to be paid to studying "a female subject". "images of femininity" are investigated: femme fatale (femme fatale), loose woman, sacred and so forth, and their functions; desirable and burdensome public ideals for women come to light. Understanding of existence of social distinctions in women's community - the fact that it is often talked about "the white woman of the middle class" became an important step. "The gold cage" and criticism of sexism as the main problems of this part of women's community, are insignificant for representatives of other social groups.

One of the central categories attracting research interest is women's experience; psychoanalytic and Marxist approaches put it into dependence on psychology of development or on economic perturbations. Latent forms of political behavior of women are studied [16, page 28-32].

Borders between gender and "female history" are indistinct, there is no exact division, but there is a certain shift of accent. Women's researches were conducted in traditional research forms, aspiring to calling differences between men and women, to collection of information about women and from women. And gender history seeks not for continuation of criticism of oppression of women, but to the critical analysis of mechanisms of hierarchization [16, page 40]. The purpose of modern gender history seems in writing of Novaya Gazeta of the general history including the analysis of the public hierarchy based on gender norms, stereotypes, identities.

In German-speaking researches the concept of "gender" began to be applied starting with Karin Hausen who offered a concept of "polarization of gender character" in 1976. The researcher explains roots of stereotypes of gender roles with division of family life and working activity. As she shows, the sharp dualism of natures of men's and female floors was "invented" in the last third of the 18th century to prove replacement of the woman from the field of work in conceived as contrast the sphere of private family life by means of arguments about the tendencies corresponding to a female being and ethical purpose of the woman. Hausen analyzes a traditional picture of "a general story" with a men's definition of the person - the subject and with an exception of this definition of women [16, page 36; 23, page 122].

Other article, program for gender history, "Historical women's researches: statement of question and prospects" (1983) belongs to Gisela Bock. She writes about similarity and distinction of "female" and traditional, "female" and gender history. She is interested in specifics of an istoriopi-saniye of floors in which women's experience is considered as well as experience of men [6, B. 312, 315; 14, page 18].

A number of theoretical provisions concerning modern readings of category "gender" was stated H. Landvir (1993), A. Maykhofer (1995), U. Daniel (2001).

Distribution of gender researches in concrete historical area in Germany happens in 1990; they are connected genetically with "female history". One of the famous experts in studying "female" and gender history

early Modern times is Hyde Vunder. Its feather possesses a set of publications; she is an editor of many scientific collections and the head of a number of research projects. Among the methodological tools used Vunder it is possible to call M. Weber's concepts, P. Bourdieu, the theory of modernization, the theoretical model J. Scott. The range of subjects which research she addresses is extremely wide. Proceeding from the concept of "shift of the 18th century", Vunder carries out the analysis of Christian anthropology of floors and norms and institutes of a gender system, a research of historical, political and legal discourses about a gender order. She addresses studying the gender relations among the burghers and the lowest nobility and reveals similarity of their social positions and interests during an era of early Modern times. In the researches the scientist mentions dynastic history, on the one hand, and history of "workers, housekeepers and housewives" - with another. One more research interest H. Vunder concerns the history of courage which study is carried out on the basis of men's autobiographies (see, e.g.: [24-27]).

We tried to allocate the main milestones of development of two popular historical subdisciplines - "female" and gender history, to tell the most important names from our point of view and a research, to allocate the studied problems and subjects, key terms. In general it should be noted that development of a historical feminologiya and gender history led to transformation of scientific paradigms and critical revision of standards of scientific work not only in own area, but also in the history in general.

In the last three and a half decades "female" and gender history widely extended in German-speaking researches. Magazines (including "Zeitschrift für historische Frauen-und Geschlechterforschung"), scientific series, thematic portals on the Internet are devoted to them (e.g., on researches of vedovsky processes). University divisions with professorate on female history and boards on award of scientific degrees, the research centers are created. Female and gender perspectives are presented practically in each local field of history.


1. L.P. Repina. Women and men in the history: new picture of the historical past. Essays. Anthology. M, 2002.
2. N.L. Pushkareva. Russian woman: history and present. Two centuries of studying "female subject" Russian and foreign science. 1800 — 2000. Materials to the bibliography. M, 2002.
3. N.L. Pushkareva. Women of Russia and Europe on a threshold of modern times//http://pushkareva.narod.rU//books/zrie.htm of 03.09.2005.
4. Histoire des femmes en Occident/Eds. G. Duby, M. Perrot. P., 1991-1992. Vol. I-V.
5. Pomata G. Histoire des femmes, histoire de genre. Observation sur le Moyen Age et l&epoque moderne dans l& "Histoire des femmes en

Occident"//Femmes et histoire/Eds. G. Duby, M. Perrot. P., 1993.

6. Wunder H. Frauen und Geschlechtergeschichte//Sozial-und Wirtschaftsgeschichte. Arbeitsgebiete-Probleme-Perspektiven. 100 Jahre Vierteljahrschrift fuer Sozial-und Wirtschaftsgeschichte. 2004.
7. J. Scott. A gender - useful category of the historical analysis//Introduction in gender researches. SPb.; Kharkiv, 2001. Part II.
8. N.L. Pushkareva. From "his-story" to "her-story": birth of a historical feminologiya//Adam and Eve. Almanac of gender history. 2001. No. 1.
9. N.L. Pushkareva. Gender methodology in the history//Gender kaleidoscope. Course of lectures. M, 2002.
10. L.P. Repina. "Female history": Problems of the theory and method//Middle Ages. 1994. No. 57.
11. Buddha G.F. Paul of history//Floor. Gender. Culture. German and Russian researches. M, 1999. Issue 1.
12. M.E. Fedotova. Women's professional activity in Germany in the 2nd half of the 19-20th centuries//Women and society. Tver, 2002.

Issue 2.

13. Kim S.G. Historical anthropology in Germany: methodological searches and historiographic practice. Tomsk, 2002.
14. Kim S.G. Historical and anthropological researches in the German science of the 80th years//Methodological and historiographic issues of historical science. Tomsk, 1999. Issue 24.
15. Geschlechtergeschichte: Normen und soziale Praxis//Fruehe Neuzeit. Muenchen, 2000.
16. R. Hof. Emergence and development of gender researches//Floor. Gender. Culture. German and Russian researches. M, 1999. Issue 1.
17. L.P. Repina. Gender history: problems and methods of a research//Modern and contemporary history. 1997. No. 6.
18. M. Foucault. Will to the truth: on that side of the power and sexuality. M, 1996.
19. M. Foucault. The speaking floor. Sexuality in the system of microphysics of the power//Modern philosophy. Kharkiv, 1995. T. 1.
20. R. Chartier. History today: doubts, calls, offers//Odysseys. Person in the history. 1995. M, 1995.
21. Chartier R. "Histoire des femmes en Occident": XVI-XVIII siecles. Différences entre les sexes et violence symbolique//Femmes et histoire/Eds. G. Duby, M. Perrot. P., 1993.
22. Bourdieu P. Remarques sur l& "Histoire des femmes en Occident"//Femmes et histoire/Eds. G. Duby, M. Perrot. P., 1993.
23. I. Shabert. Floor as category of a modern history of literature//Floor. Gender. Culture. M, 1999.
24. Wunder H. Ueberlegungen zum "Modernisierungsschub des historischen Denkens im 18. Jahrhundert" aus der Perspektive der Geschlechtergechichte//Geschlechtsdiskurs. Bd. 2: Anfaenge modernen historischen Denkens. Fr.a/M., 1994.
25. Wunder H. Wie wird man ein Mann? Befunde am Beginn der Neuzeit (15.-17. Jahrhundert)//Was sind Frauen? Was sind Maenner? Geschlechtskonstruktionen im historischen Wandel. Fr.a/M., 1996.
26. Wunder H. Normen und Institutionen der Geschlechterordnung am Beginn der Frueher Neuzeit//Geschlechterperspektiven Forchungen zur Fruehen Neuzeit. Helmer, 1998.
27. Wunder H. Dynastie und Herrschaftssicherung: Geschlechter und Gesschlecht//Dynastie und Herrschaftssicherung in der Fruehen Neuzeit: Geschlechter und Geschlecht. Berlin, 2002.

G.V. Grosheva


Tomsk state

At the beginning of the 21st century, as well as last century, among scientists-humanists the unity in approach to study and definition of phenomena of ethnic group and ethnicity is not observed. This situation is especially characteristic of the Russian scientific community. In 1990 - the beginning of 2000, during deep changes in the field of the theory and methodology of domestic science, rough discussions about the maintenance of concepts of ethnic group and ethnicity are developed, there is a huge number of the works devoted to reconsideration of the accumulated experience in studying essence of the ethnic phenomena and processes.

Nevertheless all available concepts and theories can be united in two methodologically opposite approaches to a problem of ethnic substance: "ontologic" (primordialistskiya or essentsialistskiya) and "functional" (constructivist, instrumentalist) (see: [1, page 3-6]).

Ontologic approach assumes availability of the ethnic substance having the primordialny, i.e. initial nature, either sociobiological, or evolutionary and historical. Supporters of the sociobiological direction interpret ethnicity as an objective reality, initial characteristic of mankind and believe that understanding of group accessory is put in the genetic code and is a product of early human evolution [2, page 29]. Supporters of evolutionary historicism proceed from recognition of ethnic communities as special material and spiritual formations on the basis of community of the territory, economic life, language, culture and psychology.

In general supporters of ontologic approach are inclined to consider ethnic associations

pedagogical university

as really and long ago the existing groups with attributes inherent in them, and ethnicity - as the conservative force which keeps models of mentality and behavior of the previous generations. Modern approaches within this tradition recognize increase of a role spiritual and organizational political factors in life of ethnic groups that does not deny the objective content of regularity and trends of development of ethnic processes [3].

In domestic ethnography the primordialist-sky approach was almost only prior to the beginning of 1990. Carry L.N. Gumilev (sociobiological direction) and Yu.V. Bromley (evolutionary and historical direction) to his most prominent representatives.

Denial of ethnic substance or its ignoring is characteristic of the functional approach which united constructivism and instrumentalism (hedonistic, situatsionistsky, mobilizatsionistsky concepts).

From the point of view of constructivists, ethnicity is a new social design and has no cultural roots. The ethnic feeling generated on the basis of differentiation of cultures, and the representations formed in its context and "doctrines" are defined as an intellectual construct. According to the concept, the state, political elite, intellectual ideologists, "any passer-by" can act as the designing force. Further this construct (ethnicity) is broadcast on potential representatives of ethnic group by means of various means having an opportunity to influence consciousness of members of community (an education system, mass media, books, movies, exhibitions and

Bradley Robert
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