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Hajj: origin and essence



Ya.M. khanmagomed

Ya.M. Hanmagomedov Hajj: origin and essence

Article is devoted to the analysis of essence and origin of a hajj - a classical form of a Muslim pilgrimage. Expanding a circle of a concept & #34; хадж" the author on the basis of the analysis of a large number of literature and sources including the Arab, considers social and economic, political and legal aspects of a hajj, opens its ideological sources. Bibl. 30 names.

On the essence, contents and scales a hajj - the unique phenomenon tracing the roots back to an extreme antiquity.

The Muslim legend builds a cult of the Kaaba and the related ceremonialism to the prophet Adam. According to Ibn al-Asiru after the House (Kaaba) was established, the angel left with Adam to Mount Arafat and taught him to all ceremonies which people at a hajj have to make. Then they went to the Kaaba and made tavaf (round) within a week then it returned again to India where it was lowered after the fall. It is reported that Adam after that 40 more times made a hajj (16, page 23).

According to the Quran, the Kaaba is the first building on Earth intended for worship of Allah. "Really, the first house which is established for people, - that which in Bakka (to Mecca. - Ya.H.), - blessed and in the management for the worlds". Bakka is phonetic option of Mecca. M.-H.O. Osmanov, referring to I.Yu. Krachkovsky, notes that this name, probably, was known to Greeks and it is connected with the valley Waca mentioned in Islam (22, page 427).

Otherwise also authors of some Arab sources approach explanation of this distinction of a mufassira (commentators) of the Quran. So, medieval exegetes Jalal ad-Din al-Machalli (1389-1459) and Jalal ad-Din al-Suiuti (1445-1505) connect the name "Bakka" with the Arab verb of a tank "to cut" and specify that they during all eras to any vituperator of this ancient temple cut a throat. Therefore Mecca people called Bakk (5, page 62). Points out the same feature also at-Tabar, telling that the Kaaba was exposed to destructions only "when changing the authorities", i.e. upon transition from hands of one tribe to another then each new trustee continued to esteem her as predecessors, strictly punishing at the same time for the slightest violation of the religious law (7, page 523-524).

Commenting on this ayah, al-Makhalli as-Suyuti notes that this "House" was built by angels on the earth by order of Allah long before creation of Adam by it (5, page 62).

According to Ibn al-Arabi, the Kaaba was lowered from heaven during era of Adam already in finished form, and it had only two doors: east and western. The house was lifted on the 4th sky during a flood, and then is lowered during an era of Ib-

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Rakhim who with the son lifted bases, using the old base and having left at the same time instead of two doors one (2, page 86).

In the Quran it is noted that Allah ordered to Ibrahim to clean the temple, commanded that entered there was in safety that people bypassed it around, bowed, bit there the dust. "And here we made the house gathering for people and the reliable place: "Also take yourself Ibrahim's place the place of a prayer". And we commanded to Ibrahim and Ismail: "Clean my house for making a round, both staying, and admiring, and biting the dust" (2:125).

According to other version this temple was built by Adam after exile of paradise. Construction stones were by itself from Mount Sinai where Jews received the law, Judee where Noah's Ark, and Hira on whom the prophet Mahomed retired subsequently stopped. During a flood it was taken up to heaven, and it was not lowered on the earth any more. And when Ibrahim with the son was here and began to build a new Kaaba, they used the old base. At the request of Ibrahim Allah did much good for Mecca, having allocated its and its inhabitants from all people: "And here Ibrahim told: "My God! Make it the country safe and allocate inhabitants with its fruits..." (2:126). The hajj - a pilgrimage to "Allah's house" as began to call this temple, became obligatory for all people who were able to make it.

According to Muslim representations, the Kaaba is also the center of the Universe, and our planet is obliged by the existence to this temple. The Muslim Theologian A. Maududi writes about it: "It (Kaaba. - Ya.H.) was enclosed in a body of the Islamic world as if heart in a human body. While heart fights, the person does not die. In the same way it "heart of the world" takes blood from far-reaching veins and pumps blood back on all arteries. While beating of this heart continues and while there is a blood circulation, it will be impossible to interrupt life of this body of Muslim Ummah what diseases it had" (25, page 272).

As we see, religious versions are so contradictory that to make any integral picture of emergence and the subsequent formation of this temple as cult and a hajj to it it is represented rather problematic. Both the legend builds toponymics of some objects of a hajj, and its sources and the beginning of emergence of ceremonialism to sources of activity of people, since Adam's pervochelovek.

We find the first authentic data on life and life of Arabs of Hijaz and other territories at Ancient Greek authors. So, the father of history Herodotus (5th century BC) collected data on the peninsula and in detail described economic activity of people. Feofrast (4th century BC) narrated about the well-known aromas of Arabia and trade in them. The historian Diodor (apprx. 9021 BC) and the geographer Strabo (apprx. 63 BC - apprx. 24 AD) painted even more tableau vivant of economic activity of the cities decorated with "magnificent sanctuaries and royal palaces" (14, page 15). Stra-

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the check, in particular, describes the caravan track going from India through Misters (bay of the modern gulf Bahrain) to the Persian Gulf and through the western part of the peninsula to the Aqaba gulf and also to the city of Petru (ancient capital of the Nabateysky kingdom).

At authors of the beginning of our era we already find much more the facts about life on the peninsula. The Roman historian Pliny in the 1st century makes the list of tribes, cities and settlements of the Central Arabia which allows to judge its rather close acquaintance with inhabitants of the country (14, page 12-19).

However in the mass of various data we do not find mentions neither of Mecca, nor of its shrine in compositions of the specified authors to the Kaaba, nor about a pilgrimage to it. And only in the 2nd century at the Greek geographer Ptolomey it is for the first time mentioned Mecca under the name Makorab. According to I.P. Pet-rushevskogo, this name came from the southern Arab word makrab "sanctuary" (28, page 8). However, judging by cash data, despite stay here of a sanctuary, in the 2nd century, later Mecca did not become more or less significant religious center. It was not as well shopping center or even the transit point. It is connected with the fact that the city became the arena of fight between various tribes. On the other hand, in our opinion, so far the city was not populated with the tribe which major activity was trade (which was the tribe kureysh), it could not apply for a role of the economic center.

The modern Arab researcher Jasim to a bn Mahomed al-Yasin, referring to Azraki, reports that the Kaaba was populated amalikita-m - on the Arab legends, some of the first tribes speaking Arabic. Amalikita were expelled by other tribe - dzhurkhum, belonging, according to legends, to ancient inhabitants of Yemen. Duration of an era of dzhurkhumit - 600 years (13, page 191). However after their arrival in Mecca disorders began. The Kaaba was robbed. They appropriated the gifts presented to the temple by pilgrims, were engaged in libertinism in the sanctuary for what, according to the legend, two of dzhurkhumit - ISAF and Niall turned into stones (7, page 523).

In the 3rd century of a dzhurkhumita were forced out by the southern Arab tribe to Bang Huzaa. Leaving Mecca, dzhurkhumita destroyed the Kaaba. Their leader Amr to a bn Haris, expecting defeat, left, having taken with itself two figurines of gazelles, a chain armor and a stone support which, having connected, threw into Zamzam. After that the source was filled up (7, page 524).

Huzaita restored the Kaaba, but did not begin to restore a source. Possibly, the population of Mecca during this period was insignificant. It is possible to assume also, as scales of a pilgrimage were small. The deputy-deputy was dug out much later by the grandfather of future prophet Abdul Taliban Muth who at recovery work found two gold images of gazelles and several swords and the chain armors dug obviously, dzhurkhumitam there. After guessing on arrows at Hubal's statue of a find became

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besides only figurines of gazelles were left property of the Kaaba. These gold gazelles, according to Ibn al-Asir, became the first gold jewelry which appeared in the temple (17, page 8).

Adnan, one of Ismail's descendants, married the daughter of the leader of huzait and lodged in Mecca. His great-great-grandson Fir known as Kureysh is considered the ancestor of the new tribe - kurayshit. Kurayshita reached such power over time that in 200 years the descendant Fira in the seventh knee Bite expelled the tribe of huzait half exterminated by plague epidemic from Mecca. Then, apprx. 440-450, i.e. approximately in 150 years prior to Mahomed's birth, a kurayshita completely seized both the city and the temple. The legend says that by this time there was also a primitive temple in the form of a high square stone fencing in which two sacred stones, and several other subjects to worship were walled. From now on we have an opportunity to track more or less reliable history of the Kaaba.

Kurayshita began to take special care of a sanctuary. So, Jasim to a bn Mahomed al-Yasin claims that Bite raised funds for repair of the temple which considerably decayed by then. The Kaaba was thoroughly repaired, and the roof from high-quality palm branches was for the first time established (13, page 191). Sakhikh is scarlet - Buhari contains data that kurayshita at restoration of the temple used Ibrahim and Ismail's basis (30, page 155-256).

The legend says that kurayshita were afraid of a divine penalty and at first did not dare to come in the Kaaba to begin repair. However Walid to Mugeyr's bn with words "Holy Christ! I wish nothing to you, except good" began to break old walls. Kurayshita, having sorted the temple to the base, restored it in the previous form from the blocks which are in advance prepared on old samples. And when business reached installation of "A black stone", between kurayshita there was a conflict which nearly developed into intertribal war. The Prophet Mahomed who offered Abu (woolen raincoat) prevented it, clinging to which tribes lifted it and established into place (15, page 9-10).

So the title of "the forbidden mosque" was assigned to the Kaaba, and it became the place of direct worship of God, and the territory adjoining to it - the sacred (forbidden) territory where all live was under the auspices of deities.

O.G. Bolshakov also believes that "at the end of the V-VI centuries there were such changes in the direction of economic relations which allowed kureyshita to join in world trade and, using advantages of the holy site, to ensure prosperity "(10, page 48).

However, paying tribute to a similar view, it should be noted that Mecca is obliged by acquisition of the provision of important trade point to ku-reyshita, being by tradition dealers. About scales of business which was done by mekkanets, demonstrates at least such fact that a caravan,

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equipped to Syria in 624 g, consisted of one thousand pack camels and it was loaded with goods worth 50 thousand mescals (valve cores) from which on 40 thousand was the goods belonging to members of the sort Omeyadov and other large Rich men. The income of merchants at the same time was never lower than 50% of their deposits to trade, sometimes it rose up to 100% of net profit (28, page 8).

The important role was played also that Mecca was favourably located at the intersection of the caravan tracks conducting from Yemen to Syria, Palestine, Iraq and Egypt. Across the Red Sea it was connected with East Africa.

Therefore, active participation of Mecca in the international transit trade and its transformation into important shopping center were at the same time and the reason of transformation of the city into the religious center, and the Kaaba in the main shrine "... Conventional religious center, - L.H. Avshalumova and M.V. Vagabov write in this regard, - Mecca became thanks to that role which it played in economic, social and spiritual life of the Arab tribes. It was located on a caravan track with a source the Deputy-deputy and for a long time actually was the shopping and cultural center of Arabs" (1, page 86).

A certain role in transformation of Mecca into the religious center was played by existence here of the Zamzam water source which is shrouded a set of legends and legends. It is possible to tell with confidence that this source was the prime cause of emergence of the city of Mecca, the Kaaba and all other attributes of a hajj because in desert and semidesertic Arabia in those ancient times the existence of a water source was the basic if not the only condition of emergence of settlements and the organizations of activity of people. There would be no Zamzam here, this area would remain lifeless, desert space. "It is possible to believe, - E.A. Belyaev considers, - that Mecca arose as a stopping point on the ancient caravan "way of aromas", at a source Zamzam... Zamzama water began to be considered as sacred, it is possible because it affected a stomach as laxative" (9, page 96).

In a complex of the reasons of the religious and economic eminence of Mecca it should be noted that maturing of considerable and social changes practically in all spheres of life, was connected with the events which were taking place not only in Arabia, but also in the countries, adjacent with it. Special value for them in the centuries which were directly preceding emergence of Islam had relations with two largest states - Iran and Byzantium whom "not mastering the fruitless deserts of Arabia, but domination over trade ways through the peninsula interested" (10, page 11). This threat from neighbors caused emergence of several unions of the Arab tribes.

At the same time formation of each of the union of tribes, being reflected in the sphere of ideology, under the terms of time affected also religious verovani-

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yakh. As I. Klimovich fairly notes, "process of association of the Arab childbirth and tribes received reflection and in the field of ideology" (20, page 29).

Unifying trends of the Arab tribes and childbirth in the field of religion were shown in acceleration of process of centralization of their ancient cults. Temples and Gods of the strongest childbirth and tribes began to hold dominant position in society. Temples and Gods of weak, dependent childbirth and tribes fell into a state minor and eventually indulged in oblivion or kept only limited, local value.

Features of a pre-Islamic hajj. The cult at Arabs in pre-Islamic Arabia had dual character - on the one hand, there was a simple idolatry. Ibn al-Kalbi lists names of 32 breeding idols and deities across all Arabian Peninsula to which about 90 Arab tribes worshipped (4). Names of five of them are mentioned also in the Quran: Vadd, Nasr, Yagus, Yauk and Suva.

Besides breeding deities on Arabian Peninsula there were also intertribal deities - idols to whom all Arabs worshipped. Three from them are mentioned also in the Quran. It is female deities Manat, al-Lat and al-Uzza.

Manat was an idol of the tribe huzayl and a huzaa, it stood on Mount Mushallal between Mecca and Medina. It is mentioned also that it was worshipped a quray-shity, he was esteemed by all Arabs and made near it sacrifices. However nobody esteemed him stronger, than tribes aus and hazradzh from Yasriba (4, page 18). Al-Lat the Arab tribes living in Taif worshipped. The sort Attab ibn Malik from the tribe sakif which erected in honor of its building was her keeper. But it was also read by kureyshita and all Arabs, and O.G. Bolshakov considers it a parallel of a feminine gender to a name Allah (10, page 19).

Al-Uzza there was in Nakhlyat an ash-Shamiya "at distance of two nights of a way from Mecca towards Iraq" (4, page 19-20). She was kureyshit most esteemed idol. They came to him, brought gifts and tried to win its favor a sacrifice. It is reported that the envoy of Allah mentioned it once. He told: "I presented al-Uzze a reddish goat when I followed belief of my relatives". The Quran absolutely rejects existence of these female deities: Whether "You saw al-Lat, and al-Uzzu, and Manat third... They are only names by which you called...".

Some lines uniting them are characteristic of above-mentioned breeding and intertribal deities. All of them were subjects to active worship on the eve of adoption of Islam. In the 6th century they had sanctuaries, to them the Arab tribes made a pilgrimage, for them were at war, asked them about the help.

At the same time all these tribes at the same time made a hajj in the Kaaba where, according to messages of the Arab sources, about 360 idols - deities of any given tribe were concentrated. Mecca at the same time was the political and cultural center.

As well as today, the pre-Islamic hajj was strictly established in vreme-

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- the last month of year according to the lunar calendar (storage-l-hidzha). All complex of ceremonies of a hajj resulted within three days in Mecca and its vicinities.

Entering the "sacred" area of Mecca (Haaram), Arabs took off the usual clothes and put on a special attire hadzhiyev, to so-called ikhra. Originally the ritual of worship was extraordinary simple: in the first day the sacrifice of a part of sacrificial animals accompanied with the loud prayful addresses to God in the forbidden territory of the Kaaba was made. Pilgrims drank water from a sacred well Zamzam and made ablution.

After that the ceremony of a sevenfold round of the Kaaba imitating as some researchers believe, the movement of seven planets known at that time began. The Kaaba was bypassed counterclockwise. Finishing the next circle, pilgrims kissed the Black stone or touched it by a hand.

The round of the Kaaba was followed by rough whistle, a clap in palms, loud shouts, glorifications in honor of God, singing of religious anthems. Subsequently similar actions found condemnation in the Quran: "... their prayer consists only in a svistaniye and applause" (18, page 35).

So, Nizaris (nizar - epony the most part of the North Arabian tribes) during the round exclaimed: "Here we before you, holy Christ! There is to you no associate who at you! You own both him, and what he owns" (4, page 15). I.e., recognizing the one God, they esteemed at the same time and the deities, giving, however, the power over them in his charge. It also found reflection in the Quran: "The most part from them does not believe in Allah without to attaching to him associates" (23, page 106).

An Akita, the drevnearabsky tribe living at the beginning of the 7th century in the Yemen Tihama, making a round, let ahead of themselves two slaves who cried out: "We are crows of akkit". And an Akita spoke after them: "Akkita obedient go to you! Slaves your Yemen! To make a pilgrimage once again!".

Kureyshita during the round of the Kaaba said such glorification: "I swear al-Lat, and al-Uzzoy, and Manat-third, other. Really they are vyshny cranes! And hope for their protection" (4, page 20). Kureyshita considered them Allah's daughters that is also condemned in the Quran (12, page 19-23).

After the Kaaba round ceremony the pilgrims directed to the hills towering near the temple al-Safa and is scarlet - Marv. On their tops there were idols of ISAF and Niall between whom pilgrims had to run seven times. If, according to an at-Tabara, ISAF and Niall are people from the tribe dzhurkhum which made fornication in the Kaaba then they turned into two stones (10, page 523), then as believes ash-Shakhrastan, they "in the form of married couple were brought by Amr ibn Lukhay from Syria together with Hubal" (8, page 84).

O.G. Bolshakov, referring on al-Azraki, claims that ISAF originally stood on as-Safa, and Niall - on it is scarlet - Marv. Then Bite, prarodi-

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the tel of kureyshit to whom the legend attributes honor of foundation of the city around the temple as if transferred them to the Kaaba and put on the parties from the Deputy deputy (10, page 233). However Ibn al-Kalbi speaks about transfer only of one idol, and that the Kaaba to Zamzam, but not from the specified hills (4, page 24).

After the events described above the pilgrims moved to sacred Mount Arafat. And when the sun fell to the horizon, pilgrims with shouts directed to Mount Muzdalifa and burned down fires at its bottom. This action was called an ifada (21, page 14).

Here they worshipped Kuzakhu-gromoverzhtsu, the master of the thunderstorms and rains irrigating fields and pastures. His pagan pilgrims caused fires and shouts, tambourines beats and whistle.

Kurayshita and their supporters did not go on Arafat as it was done by all others, and remained in Muzdalif, wishing to emphasize the superiority (5, page 31). This arrogance of kurayshit is condemned in the Quran: "Then move / about kurayshita, (13)/go there where other people" went (2:199).

Then all moved to Minh's valley where there were 7 idols or "sacred" stones. Here pilgrims threw stones at "shaitan", made sacrifices. Visit of these 3 shrines was the share of 9-10 storages-l-hidzha. After commission of all these ceremonies the pilgrims came back to the Kaaba and again bypassed around it. Pilgrims finished a hajj and removed to ikhra.

However at many tribes the hajj was not considered to the breeding shrines finished without worship. So, tribes aus and hazradzh from Yasriba surely finished it at especially esteemed idol of the Goddess Manat, at her bottom they shaved the heads (4, page 18).

The provided data, in our opinion, demonstrate that during the pre-Islamic period the ceremonies of manner of the Kaaba were not strictly established and regulated yet. A chaotic combination of whistle, shouts, a clap, singing of anthems, etc. - to that confirmation. Obviously, here not the last role was played by absence in the Kaaba of institute of hieratic priesthood as which, as a rule, establishment and departure of religious practices and rituals always entered.

The cult at pre-Islamic Arabs had dual character: everywhere there was a worship of the breeding deities and shrines and in parallel with it the hajj to the Kaaba which was the general subject to worship for all tribes of Arabian Peninsula was made.

Both the toponymics of objects of a hajj, and the beginning of emergence of its ceremonies go back to sources of activity of people.

Not regimentation of ceremonies was inherent in a pre-Islamic hajj that was expressed in their execution by various tribes on the of manners. "About hajj perversion degree during this period, - A. Maududi writes, - it is possible to judge by the fact that it rolled down to the level of an annual carnival... Chants, din, alcoholism and adultery were an obligatory part of holidays.

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The thought of God hardly came to somebody to mind" (25, page 251).

History of the Kaaba and a hajj to it is a mirror where the history of the Muslim world in general and Arab in particular is focused. Here political, social and economic, ideological, ethnoconfessional and other contradictions of the Arab-Muslim world intertwine.

Social and economic aspect of a hajj. The hajj both in pre-Islamic, and during the Islamic period of history of Arabs had great economic value.

As one of types of economic activity of pilgrims during a hajj commerce which is ambiguously perceived by society acts. The range of estimates of this activity is quite wide: from extreme condemnation before her perception as the normal, permitted from positions phenomenon Islam.

It should be noted that trade on canons of Islam is not forbidden. According to Muslim tradition the prophet Mahomed appears an ideal for Muslims in modern Theological literature. In references to its personal example the fact that, glorifying Islam, the Prophet was diligent not only in search of the truth, but also in work was especially allocated. Legends about trade activity of Mahomed and some of his sayings, including Hadith "Poverty - a way to disbelief", bring into confirmation of a thought that devout it is not necessary to neglect care of prosperity and economic prosperity. The asceticism and religious eagerness to the detriment of wordly duties and own welfare are not encouraged. Hadith how the Prophet happened to see the Muslim spending all the time in prayers is provided, in particular. "And who feeds him?" - Mahomed asked. "Brother", - answered him. "Then the brother is better than him", - the prophet concluded [11].

the Argument in favor of trade and economic activity the Theologians put forward the 198th ayah of the sura "Cow" where it is said: "There is no sin on you if you look for favor from your Lord..." (2:198). As commentators believe, the hint on a possibility of combination of a hajj with occupation trade contains here. In opinion al-Makhalli and as-Suyuti, the ayah "was sent in reply to those who denied trade during the hajj" (5, page 31).

Permission to commercial transactions during the hajj contains, according to commentators, and in other ayah of the sura "Hajj" which says: "To confirm useful to them and to remember a name of Allah in certain days..." (29, page 28).

The word "benefit" is used in plural and not concretized. According to Theologians, the benefits are wordly and beyond the grave. The wordly benefits as considers J. Zina, represent, for example, benefits from trade. If the pilgrim has with himself the trade capital, then, as a rule, receives benefit, making a pilgrimage that is the wordly benefit. Commentators of the Quran are unanimous in interpretation of a statement "and a sin for you will not look for benefit from your Lord": the aspiration to take material benefit in days of a pilgrimage is not indecent

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and sinful provided that commerce will not distract the pilgrim and to prevent it to make all established ceremonies.

It should be noted that now the authorities of Saudi Arabia make great efforts for creation of worthy conditions for pilgrims: the area of the Sacred mosque for the last two decades is expanded up to 390 thousand sq.m. Instead of 450 thousand praying now it contains 655 thousand. Around Minh 28 pedestrian tunnels, 18 bridges for vehicles, 18 tanks for water with a general volume of 2 million cubic meters, 14 thousand toilets and 100 km of paved roads are constructed (19).

In Jeddah (the seaport in 60 km from Mecca) the Islamic port is located, one of terminals of which is taken away for pilgrims. It represents a grandiose construction of 1.5 thousand sq.km in which 310 pavilions (24, page 25).

A hajj - the phenomenon many-sided. The pilgrim throughout long, at times wearisome, ways to Mecca and back and in the sanctuary, tests not only great satisfaction from the fulfilled duty, pleasure, beholding great shrines, but also fear not before supernatural, before the real falsities falling to its lot on the way of piety.

In Mecca and in Medina, pilgrims could become the victims of the most rough and impudent abuses of local community or administration and clergy. Continually for any satisfaction of religious requirements, for access to shrines, for various services rendered by conductors (dalilyama) and their attorneys (vakilyama) large sums of money were raised from them. As a result of it the considerable part of pilgrims robbed and robbed, having lost funds for a way back, was forced to remain in the foreign land and to drag there miserable existence, an opportunity to return home (27) was not represented yet.

Increase in number of pilgrims, naturally, involved a problem of satisfaction of need for water. 39 conduits from Mecca to all objects of a hajj were carried out.

In 1979 the accurate map of water sources was made. Water volume was much more increased - from 470 cubic to 765 cubic in an hour. Such power already allowed to satisfy requirements of 1 million visitors. In 1984 according to the order of the king Fahd Ibn Abd it is scarlet - Aziza was constructed factory on packaging of water in packages which performance was 50 million units during a season. Thus, the optimum power of a source in 12.5 million l was reached that allowed to satisfy as much as possible the needs for water even in pilgrimage peak. Problems of water supply and the sewerage are solved by specially created department. It was succeeded to overcome practically all difficulties connected with annual increase of number of pilgrims: here it should be noted that the authorities of Saudi Arabia accurately organized and adjusted work of various services on reception of pilgrims and the organization by it of the corresponding conditions for commission

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hajj. Most it became possible thanks to recently found oil fields and in a certain measure of profitability of the hajj. In a word, under a hajj the modern materialnotekhnichesky base is failed.

The Ministry of a hajj and donations created in 1977 prepares for reception of pilgrims, has them in the holy sites of the mosque, defines and arranges well the territory for camps, owns the park of buses in 7800 units for transportation of pilgrims, etc.

The Ministry of Health has at the order 22 hospitals on 5326 places and 137 health centers which are distributed on all objects of a hajj, carries out sanitary and preventive measures and renders all necessary medical services. Because in recent years the season of a hajj coincides with a summer perod, the ministry organized 6 modern specialized centers for assistance to victims of sunstroke and overheating.

Association of Red Crescent, having 428 ambulance cars at the order, provides outpatients to all necessary.

The national guard carries out transportation of patients with helicopters of civil defense, and the Ministry of mail and connection during a hajj are established on streets in addition by 1048 payphones, including 660 - international.

The association of scouts during a season of a hajj calls 1500 boys for participation in work of public institutions on rendering services to pilgrims.

The Ministry of Trade annually during a season of a hajj develops 3 thousand points of food and allocates 4400 autorefrigerators for sale of food products.

Especially it should be noted that the authorities developed and carried out the project on use of meat of sacrificial animals on the charitable purposes. Since 80th about 500 thousand sheep most of which part goes by planes to refugees in Sudan, to Djibouti and the Afghan emigrants in Pakistan are annually utilized (24, page 40-48).

The scientific center at the university in Mecca founded in 1975 deals with problems of development and improvement of the services offered by various government agencies to pilgrims and also studies a phenomenon of growth of number of pilgrims, issues guides and cards.

Political aspect of a hajj. Political history of the Kaaba of the Islamic period Is extremely rich and eventful: peace at times are replaced by the devastating attacks which were carrying away hundreds and thousands of lives, robberies, blasphemous defilement of shrines, political performances, revolts, provocations, etc. The bans occurring and implicitly carried out during an era of a so-called dzhakhiliya during a hajj on murder even of animals, violence and wars indulge in oblivion. Practical interests, ideological and political ambitions often okazyva-

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yutsyatsya above divine instructions and establishments.

Already by the end already 7th century Mecca and the Kaaba become subject to claims from adherents of different political groups and currents. Disagreements at Omeyadakh (660-750) in a question of sacred area around Mecca and Medina were most sharply shown, possession of which became considerable more important now, than before. If earlier there was no reason for discussion of distinctive signs of the Caliph, then now in the course of fight for this dignity there was a doctrine claiming that the true master is the one who possesses sacred area. It also predetermined political life of the Caliphate the next decades.

So, in the 680th Mecca where there lived an Abdullakh ibn az-Zubeyr nicknamed "anti-Caliph" was attacked from outside Syrian by the troops dispatched by the Caliph Yazid of I - the son Muaviya. The sacred city and its inhabitants strongly suffered from kamnemetaniye. In the Kaaba the fire began, its columns collapsed, and the Black stone broke up into four parts. But falling of Mecca was prevented in connection with the death of the Caliph Yazid of I.

Ibn az-Zubeyr's successor Abd is scarlet - Malik continued fight for capture of Mecca. Three applicants challenged from it the Caliphate: Mahomed nicknamed "the son of a hanifitka" (protege Alidov), Nadzha (protege of harid-zhit) and Abdallakh ibn az-Zubeyr.

Disintegration of the Muslim power was most brightly shown during the hajj of 688 g when pilgrims bore four banners hostile each other: Ab-dallakh, Mahomed, Abd is scarlet - Malik and Nadzha.

The unity of the Caliphate managed to be restored only after al-Hadzhadzh ibn Yusuf, the directed Abd is scarlet - Malik at the head of the Syrian army, in 622 g storm seized Mecca. Ibn az-Zubeyr died at city walls.

In accordance with the circumstances in the center of political events during the period considered by us there is also a so-called Black stone of the Kaaba.

In 929 the Bahraini karmata intruded in Mecca, plundered the Kaaba, broke out the Black stone, having segmented it, took away and during 21 year handled it blasphemously: over it: it served as the bottom of a toilet of their governor. Al-Fakhri describes this event so: "Abu Takhir's introduction to Mecca, murder of men, capture of women and children, capture of property, defilement of the sacred mosque... murder in Mekkey and its vicinities about 30 thousand people and capture of the same quantity... Plunder al-Kaaby, stealing of the Black stone. Repayment by his Caliph al-Muktadi... Abu Takhir's blasphemy in al-Kaabe. A view of the plundered mosque filled with bodies of the killed... Extraction of corpses from a well Zamzam, cleaning of blood of a well, walls al-Kaaby, all mosque" (6, page 34-35).

Upon return the Black stone was surrounded with a silver hoop which was replaced after that only once, in 1912, in this image it remains to this day.

The Kaaba during the hajj turns into the center of religious promotion,

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Ya.M. Hanmagomedov

political revolutions and disorders.

Attempts to use a pilgrimage to Mecca in political goals are made constantly, and already today the main mosque of Mecca became the arena of political passions more than once. And business was not limited to attempts of politicians to acquire the political capital, emphasizing religious piety.

So, on November 20, 1979 there was an occupation of the main mosque in Mecca "al-Haram" representatives of the illegal organization "The Movement of Muslim Revolutionaries on Arabian Peninsula". "the keeper of Muslim shrines" the king of Saudi Arabia suffered persecution: rebels accused him of violation of Sharia, recreancy from Islam, corruption, bribability and a prisluzhnichestvo before the West. Rebels demanded establishment of the Islamic republic. It is possible to assume that oppositionists decided to begin the performance from Mecca, hoping that the mosque is inviolable and consequently, they will be in safety. However the Saudi authorities found a way out of the situation: ulama published the fatwah which allowed to the king to take measures for elimination of crisis and to attack the mosque. "Several hundreds of Muslims died in the played battle at the main shrine of Islam... The head of this group 47-year-old Dzhukheyman al-Oteybu was beheaded together with 62 him companions on January 9, 1980" (26, page 95).

In 1980-83 there were collisions between the Iranian pilgrims and the Saudi police. In September, 1983 during the anti-American demonstrations about 30 people were wounded. In se?

Katie Beck
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