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The initial stage of development of the Komi-izhemtsami of the territory of the Northern Trans-Ural region according to registers of births of churches of Berezovsky of the district (the end of the 1830th the beginning of the 1860th)

a nachalny stage of development of the Komi-izhemtsami of the territory of the Northern Trans-Ural region according to registers of births of churches of Berezovsky of the district (the end of the 1830th — the beginning of the 1860th) N.A. Povod

The article describes certain aspects of migration of the Izhemsky group of the Komi people into the North Upper Ural basin. For this purpose, author attracted data of church registers of the mid-19h century from the Beryo-zovo Okrug. Subject to examination was a family structure of the first migrants, as well as dates of their appearance on the Beryozovo Territory. The author identified places of their registry, as well as routes and dates of their moving across the Okrug. Besides, certain aspects of ethnodemography were traced, such as birth rate, mortality rate, and choice of a nuptial partner. Basing on the quantitative data, author identifies priorities in relations of the Komi-Zyiryane with the Russians and the indigenous population of the Beryozovo Territory.

The question of the initial stage of development of the Komi-izhemtsami of the territory of the Northern Trans-Ural region was repeatedly brought up in ethnographic and historical literature. It is noted that resettlement of the Komi-izhemtsev to the Urals began in the first half of the 19th century due to the need of expansion of pasturable grounds and development of trade and exchange activity. From the middle of the 19th century their permanent residence in settlements of the North of the Tobolsk province [Alkvist, 1999, page 46105, 107 is registered; Bartenev, 1998, page 117, 136; Dunin-Gorkavich, 1996, page 112; L.N. Zherebtsov, 1982, page 180; I.L. Zherebtsov, 1998, page 95-98; Kanakas, Kotov, 1991, page 49-51; Perevalova, 2000, page 347; Filatova, 1994, page 96-97].

Reconstruction of some details of process of resettlement of the Komi-izhemtsev and their residence in the Northern Trans-Ural region is possible with attraction of mass archive materials — marriage investigations, registers of births and ispovedny paintings. The case of the earliest sources is presented in materials of registers of births of Beryozovo and the county of fund of the Tobolsk spiritual consistory [TF GATO. T. 156. Op. 20] where the facts of participation of the Komi-izhemtsev in various church ceremonies — baptisms are reflected, weddings and burial services. Metrics of all churches of Berezovsky of edge from 1730 to 1762 and Trinity Church of the village of Kushevat for 1875 remained

For the analysis materials of registers of births of fund of the Tobolsk spiritual consistory from 1839 for 1862 were used [TF GATO. T. 156. 743-766-I]. Registers of births contain the sections "About Been Born", "About Brakosochetavshikhsya" and "Ob-dorska Dead". In the section "About Been Born" date of birth of the Komi-Zyrian children is specified, the information about parents, their birth status and the place of an addition are provided; besides, when fixing a baptism the name, birth status and the place of an addition of godfathers is given. The section "About Brakosochetavshikhsya" contains data on the number of the registered marriages at Komi-Zyrians, the age of the groom and bride, birth status is specified in record about registration, at the bride the information about parents and the place of their addition is supplied, the groom has data on the place of an addition, the information about parents is sometimes supplied. The Komi-Zyrian surnames are often mentioned in the information about guarantors for the groom and the bride both Komi-Zyrians, and indigenous people of the Tobolsk and Arkhangelsk provinces. Information on age of the dead, a cause of death, the place of burial is provided in the section "Ob-dorska Dead", in case of the death of children the information about parents, their estate and the place of an addition is specified.

The sample and the analysis of all records of participation of Komi-Zyrians in church ceremonies allows to reveal the family list of the Komi-izhemtsev, the first begun to master the Northern Trans-Ural region; terms of appearance of various families in the territory of Berezovsky of edge; the place of their addition, routes and terms of their movement on the district; to track birth rate, mortality, ways of naming of newborns; to define some aspects of relationship of Komi-Zyrians, the Russian and indigenous people of edge.

Reconstruction of number of the Komi-izhemtsev

In registers of births of church for the sake of Saint Pervoverkhovny Apostles Pyotr and Pavel of the village of Obdorskogo from 1839 for 1862 235 cases of participation of Komi-Zyrians in 95 records of church ceremonies are recorded. In Archangel Michael Church of the village of Muzhevskogo from 1840 to 1862 645 cases of participation in 266 ceremonies are revealed that makes nearly 62% of records of the Komi-Zyrian surnames in the studied source. In registers of births of Holy Trinity Church of the village of Kushevat the Komi-Zyrian surnames are registered in 1840, 1842, 1848, 1850, 1853, 1859-1862, 63 cases of participation of Komi-Zyrians in 29 records of ceremonies are noted. Fixing of Komi-Zyrians in registers of births of Church of the Nativity of the Virgin in Beryozovo begins since 1841, Resurrection Cathedral of Beryozovo — since 1843; in 1841, 1843-1846, 1848, 1852, 1856, 1858, 1860-1862 in Beryozovo are celebrated 23 cases of participation of the Komi in 21 record of a ceremony. Appeals of Komi-Zyrians to church for the sake of Christmas of the village of Sosvinskogo (Sartynya) are noted in 1845, 1847 and 1852-1861, all 73 cases of participation of Komi-Zyrians in 24 ceremonies are revealed.

Fig. 1. Distribution of number of Komi-Zyrians in Berezovsky the district on arrivals and years

The analysis of the meeting Komi of surnames and names allows to define a number of people (including registration of the dead), recorded in different years in registers of births of different arrivals (fig. 1). These data are not reflection of dynamics of number of the Komi-Zyrian population in Berezovsky the district as at calculation the family composition was not considered, besides people could participate in several church ceremonies of different arrivals. Materials of the analysis show that Kunovatsky and Obdorsky volosts (the district of the village were the territory of priority development of the Komi-izhemtsami in the Northern Trans-Ural region. Men and the village of Obdorsk) where increase in number of Komi-Zyrians, especially since the end of the 1850th is noted; in Sosvinsky and Lyapinsky volosts and in Beryozovo their number increased slightly; in the Podgorodny volost the Komi-Zyrians are sporadically fixed to the village of Kushevat and the only time — in the village. He is plump.

For determination of total number of the Komi - the Izhma population in Berezovsky edge in various years of the studied period and reconstruction of dynamics of number the tables reflecting posemeyny structure with fixing of date of birth of family members were made. As a result of it became possible to reveal change of number of family by years. On the basis of entry in registers of births of one of family members the number of people who could stay in the territory of a certain arrival in this year was defined. In some cases family relations did not manage to be established therefore only the fact of single record was considered. That there was no double accounting, also cases of entries of members of one family in registers of births of different arrivals in one year came to light. Unfortunately, data of church account do not reflect the valid population as some families could not participate in church ceremonies and, therefore, their possible stay in the territory of Berezovsky of edge remained unrecorded. The obtained data show that the Komi's number - the Izhma population in the region increased from 11 people in 1839 up to 169 people in 1862 (fig. 2).

Fig. 2. Reconstruction of dynamics of number of the Komi - the Izhma population

Birth status and place of an addition

All marked-out Komi-izhemtsy were the state peasants attributed to settlements of the Arkhangelsk province (except for F.Z. Rochev and S.F. Rochev who since 1857 were attributed to Muzhevsky to rural society [TF GATO. T. 156. Op. 20. 761. L. 508ob., 525ob.]). The place of an addition and administrative division was not always specified in records of registers of births precisely: the same village appeared in maintaining the Mokhchensky, Izhma volost, the Izhma volost was called the Izhma slobodka, the Izhma department, arrival was in certain cases specified (Voznesensky arrival, the Peter and Paul church and so forth), divergences in writing of names of settlements are observed (for example: the village of Mokhchenskoye, the Mokchursky village, Moksyunskaya, Mokhshenskaya, Bukurinskaya, Mukurinskaya and so forth), in certain cases the place of an addition was not specified, in several cases was not defined because of illegible handwriting. The place of an addition of the Komi-Zyrians who are marked out in 1839-1862 in Berezovsky edge (at 20 families) in 20 cases specified the Arkhangelsk province, in 8 cases — the Mezen County, in 18 — the Mokhchensky volost, in 72 — the Izhma volost, in 47 — the village of Mokhchenskoye, in 19 — Zlobskaya, in 16 — Lastinskaya, in 16 — Bukurinskaya, in 14 — page. Izhma, in 10 — Sizyabskaya, in 5 — Kozhvinskaya, in 3 — Krasnoborskaya, in 2 — Gamskaya, in 2 — Voryshskaya, in 1 — the Ustyug volost, in 1 — the Pustozersky volost.

Family structure and terms of appearance of the first families

Regular records of the Komi - the Izhma surnames appeared in the register of births of church for the sake of Saint Pervoverkhovny Apostles Pyotr and Pavel of the village of Obdorskogo in 1839 [TF GATO. T. 156. Op. 20. 743]. In different years the following Komi - the Izhma surnames are marked out: Anufriyev — 2 families, Arteev — 2, Vokuyev — 1, Vityazev — 2, Istomina — 5, Kanev — 2, Konev — 4, Kozhevina — 4, Popov — 7, Rochev — 17, Smetanina — 1, Samodurova — 1, Semyashkina — 1, Terentyev — 6, Filippova — 6, Hozyainova — 2, Chuprova — 1. Members of some families of the presented surnames are recorded as well in registers of births of churches of villages Men and Sosva. The first in Obdor-sk families of peasants of the Zlobsky village of the Mezen County of the Arkhangelsk province are marked out: brothers Arteev Fatey and Feofan (1839 and 1841), Rochev Kuzma Feodorov's brothers (1839 and 1844

— in Obdorsk, 1842 and 1848 — in Kushevat, 1851 — in Men) and Rochev Andrey (Androna, Andronika) Feodorov (1839, 1844, 1853 — in Obdorsk, 1845, 1846, 1855 — in Men). In the 1850th there are regular records of members of families of Anufriyev of Gerasim Filippov (Sizyabsk), Istomin Theodore Fomin (Izhma volost), Kanev Gabriel Feodorov (Izhma volost), Konev Stachys Melentyev (Izhma volost) and Nikita Ivanov (Sizyabsk), Popov Stephana Elizariye-va (Izhma volost) and Grigory Yakovlev (Mokhchenskoye), Rochev of Ilya Kuzmin (Zlobskaya), Faddei Grigoriev and Alexey Grigoriev (Izhma volost), Smetanin Ivan Trofimov (village of Krasnoborskoye), Terentyev of Gerasim Akindikov from of Bukur (in 1841 its stay in Men, in 1848 — in Kushevat, since 1854 — in Obdorsk was recorded), Filippov Ivan Kirillov (Izhma volost). In the 1860th, records of members of families Vityazev Matfey Simeonov and Vasily Simeonov (village of Mokhchenskoye), Dyachkov of Ivan Matfeev (Izhma volost) and Kozhevin Onesiphorus Grigoriev (Izhma volost) appear.

In the village. Men in different years, since 1840, are fixed the following surnames: Anufriyev — 8 families, Arteev — 15, Babikova — 1, Batmanova — 1, Bakurina — 1, Vokuyev — 3, Dyachkova — 10, Istomina — 2, Kanev — 5, Kozhevina — 1, Kozhevnikova — 1, Konev — 41, Popov — 16, Rochev — 13 families, Semyashkina — 4, Smetanina — 5, Terentyev — 11, Filippova — 8, Hozyainova

— 4, Chuprova — 7. Some representatives of these surnames are marked out also in registers of births of churches of other settlements: in the 1840th — in the village of Kushevat (20 families) and Beryozovo (3 families), in the 1850-1860th — to the village of Obdorsk (14 families) and in the village of Sosva (4 families), in 1842 — in the village of Kunovat (K.F. Rochev.), in 1855 — in the village. He is plump (I.S. Filippov).

In church registers of births of page. Men the first are marked out members of families of Dyachkov from the Mokh-chensky village: from 1840 to the 1860th members of families of Dyachkov Artemy Ivanov, Akim Ivanov, Nikon Alexandrov, Grigory Alexandrov, since 1855 were registered here Dyachkov Pyotr Alexandrov appears. Among Anufriyevy (Onufriyev) who were registered as peasants of the village of Mokhchenskogo (Mokhchensky volost) in the first half of the 1840th Evlampy Zakharov, since the end of the 1840th is marked out

— Xenophon Alekseev, since the end of the 1850th — Evfimy Faddeev. Arteev appear since 1842 (1 case), in 1849 the stay of 4 families is noted, since 1855 regular records of participation in ceremonies of members of families of Arteev Ivan Foteev (Mokhchensky volost), since 1856 — Arteev Iosif Akakov (Sizyabsk) appear. Since 1849 in Men the stay of family of Vokuyev (Waugh-koyeva, Vakuyev, Vykulov, Vukulov) of Nikifor Ivanov (Zlobskaya), since 1858 — Vokuyeva of Roman Trofimov is annually fixed (Zlobskaya). At the end of 1857 and in 1858 2 families Istominykh from the Mokhchensky village are marked out; in 1849-1851 — 5 families of Kanev from Izhma, the Lastinsky village and the Ustyug volost. Since 1848 in registers of births Muzhevskoma church the surname Konev appears; almost annually members of families of Konev Stefan Savvateev and Gabriel Feodu-lov (Lastinskaya), Koneva of Semyon Ekimov (Zlobskaya), Konev of Vasily Pavlov participated in church ceremonies (Varysh,

Sizyabsk), Pyotr Pavlov and Egor Yepifanov (Izhma volost). In 1842-185Q-K, members of the family of Popov Ivan (Iokim) Nifantov (Mokhcha), in 1843-1848 — Popova Moisey Nifantov (Mezen County), since 1846 — Feodor Pavlov (Mokhchensky volost) and Popov's Popova Ivan Ivanov (village Izhma), since 1851 — Andrey Iovlev are marked out (Mokhcha). The surname Rochev appears in Men since 1843, from now on records of members of the family of Rochev Philemon Sosimow who was written down as the peasant of the Gamsky village (in several cases constantly occur in registers of births — the Zlob-sky village), since 1857 the place of its addition specifies Muzhevskoye village of Kunovatskoy of the volost of Berezovsky of the district. With 185Q g annually (except 1852-1854) is noted Rochev Anikiya (Anika) Iovlev's family (Zlobskaya). In 1854, records of members of the family of Semyashkin Ivan Stepanov (Krasnoborsky volost) appear. Since 1843, isolated cases of participation in church ceremonies of Terentyev attributed to the village of Mokhchensky are celebrated (or of Bukurinskaya). From 1846 to 1855 the regular stay in Men of family of Filippov Timofey Sidorov is fixed (Bukur), isolated cases of participation in ceremonies of members of other families Filippov are celebrated in 1849-1851, 1855 and 1858-

1861 . From the second half 184Q^ revealed stay of Filippov attributed to the village of Mokhchensky, of Bukurinskaya, of the Zlobsky and Izhma volost. In 1849, 1855, 1858 and 1861 are made single records of 4 families of Hozyainov attributed to of Lastinskaya (Mokhchensky volost). With 184Q^ appear Chuprova; regular records of members of families Chuprov from the Mokhchensky volost are noted: Vasily Petrov (since 1842) and Konstantina Petrova (since 1849).

The majority of the Komi-Zyrian surnames noted in registers of births of Holy Trinity Church of the village of Kushevat are recorded also in registers of births of other churches. There are no records in which members of one family would regularly be fixed; the greatest number of records is made in 1848 — 37 people (including newborns).

In registers of births of churches of Beryozovo regular records of members of the family of Istomin Ermolai Ivanov (1841-1848, Zlobskaya), Filippov Ivan Semyonov (1852-1861, the Mokhchensky volost), Dyachkov Pyotr Grigoriev and Alexey Grigoriev were made (186Q, 1861, the village of Mokhchenskoye).

In registers of births of church for the sake of Christmas of the village of Sosvinskogo in 1845 and 1847 Kozhevin Zotik Antipov is marked out (village of Mokhchenskoye), in 1841 he was also recorded in Beryozovo. In 185Q^ are made records of members of 9 families Arteev: Leonti Denisov and Ivan Denisov (Kozh-vinsky arrival), Arkhip Ivanov and Semyon Ivanov (Kozhvinskaya), Vasily Eliferyev and Stepan Eliferyev (Arkhangelsk province), Grigory Fokeev (village Izhma), Trifon, Pyotr and Zosi-m (Izhma volost). In 1856-1861, members of the family of Vokuyev Pavel Maximov (village of Mokhchenskoye) are written down, 2 families of Filippov (Izhma), 2 families of Popov (Izhma), 1 family of Istomin (Izhma) and also Arkhipov, Makashov, Kushtvolev are also recorded. Almost all immigrants from of Kozhvin-skaya were marked out in the village of Sosvinskom.

In 1855 in church of the Dormition of the Theotokos of page. He is plump stay of family of Filippov Ivan Semyonov (Mokhchensky volost) who since 1852 was registered in registers of births of churches of Beryozovo is recorded.

Surnames of families of the Komi of the immigrants who are marked out in Berezovsky edge correspond to the family list of the Komi-izhemtsev of the Izhmo-Pechorsky region of the first half of the 19th century [Solovyov, 1985, page 1Q2].

Terms and routes of movement on the district

The greatest number of church ceremonies in which Komi-izhemtsy participated falls on the winter period — from October to April, less records are fixed in May and September, and isolated cases — in summer months (fig. 3). In Beryozovo the seasonal periods of influx of the Komi-izhemtsev are not allocated; in the village of Sosvinsk (Sartynye) the participation of the Komi-izhemtsev in church ceremonies is noted in June, July, September, November and December, in other months is distributed from 7 (in January) up to 1 (in February) a case in a month. In Kushevat the inflow of izhemets was noted in February-March; in Obdorsk and Men — during the period from October to April.

As indirect confirmation to the fact that most of the Komi-izhemtsev were in the area Ob-dorska and Muzhey only in winter time serve also the facts of a baptism of the children who were born in summertime, only in October-November. In Kushevat (1848, 1959), Obdorsk and Men are noted also the facts of a delay of a baptism of the children who were born in January-February christened them in February-March, in certain cases — in April. Possibly, increase in inflow of the Komi-izhemtsev in winter months in the Lower Priobye is connected with distribution of the pendular migrations caused by features of a reindeer-breeding cycle and participation in the Obdorsky fair.

Reindeer breeding remained to

one of primary branches of economy of the Izhma immigrants in the Northern Trans-Ural region [Alkvist, 1999, page 1Q5-1Q6]. The route of movements of the Komi-izhemtsev which developed by the end of the 19th century is known: they spent summer months with the herds in the Urals; in September-October passed to the place of a wintering, the most part of reindeer breeders remained on a wintering from November to March between the Lyapin and Synya Rivers, a part went to Syni's pool and to Ob, passed it in October or November, beyond Ob were between Poluy and Kunovaty, reached in the east upper courses of Poluya, in certain cases — the river Nadym; the return transition began in March [Dunin-Gorkavich, 1995, page 12Q; Kozmin, 199Q, page 73]. Perhaps, separate families of izhemets

reindeer breeders, noted in the village. Men, passed Ob, stopping in Kushevat; in December-January wandered to Entre Rios of the Kunovat and Poluy Rivers, in February-March came back towards page. Men, stopping in the village of Kushevat again.

■ Kusheeat

□ Berezov in Sosva

□ Ovdorsk p Men

Fig. 3. Distribution of cases of participation of Komi-Zyrians in church ceremonies on months

Since the beginning of the 1950th the significant growth in cases of the appeal of izhemets to the Peter and Paul church of the village of Obdorska where also surnames of representatives of families of the Komi who are marked out in registers of births of page met is noted. Men. From now on activization of participation of the Komi in the Ob-dorsky fair (January) and a page fair is noted. Men (October-November) [Alkvist, 1999, page 46; Perevalova, 2000, page 346]. In the middle of the 1850th to a fair to Obdorsk there came from 40 to 60 Komi-Zyrians, in 1858 Komi-Zyrians there were more than 205 people, except children and women [TF GATO. T. 417. Op. 1. 638. L. 15]. The main quantity of goods on a fair was brought from the Arkhangelsk province [In the same place. L. 14]. The reasons of considerable influx of Komi-Zyrians specified the shortage of food in the Mezen County and the favorable relation of the local administration in Obdorsk which rendered them "in trade and in all other protection" [In the same place. L. 15-15ob.].

Since the end of the 1840th the separate families of the Komi-izhemtsev began to be in Berezovsky edge all the year round, from now on the Izhma surnames are fixed in registers of births of villages Men, Obdor-ska, Beryozovo and in summer months. In July, 1843 Rochev Philemon Sosimow's family is marked out in Beryozovo [TF GATO. T. 156. Op. 20. 747. L. 8ob.-9]. In 1848 he lived in page. Men, where had the house [Konakov, 1993, page 73]. With 1847 and till 1862 in summer months members of his family and members of families of three of his married daughters, and since 1857 and it are marked out, and his son Sergey Filimonov Rochev become attributed to page to Muzhevsky Kunovatskoy the volost. Since 1850 in summer months the participation in church ceremonies of members of the family of Vokuyev Nikifor Ivanov is almost annually noted (Zlobskaya).

The number of the Komi-Zyrian families which members participated in church ceremonies in summer months began to increase since the beginning of the 1850th, for example, in August, 1852 the stay in page is noted. Men of members of the family of Dyachkov Grigory Alexandrov, in September, 1854 — Ivana Semyashkina, in May, June and September, 1855 — Feodor Konstantinov, Savvatey Arteev, Rochev Ivan Iovlev's Chuprova, in August, 1858 — Popova of Feodor Yefimov, in June, August, 1858 — Arteev Semyon Ivanov, Semyashkin Abram Stepanov, Rochev Feodor Andreyev, in July, 1859

— Filippov Yakov Stepanov, in June, 1861 — Koneva of Pyotr Pavlov, in May, June, August

1862 — Ivana Semyashkina, Terentyeva of Makar Naumov, Konev of Egor Yefimov and so forth

In Obdorsk the Komi-Zyrians in summer months began to be fixed only since the end of the 1850th: for example, summer of 1857 and 1861 Konev of Nikita Ivanov, Filippov Grigory Fokin's families are marked out; in June, 1860 — Popova of Stefan Elizariyev; in June, August, 1861 — Istomin Theodore Fomin's families, Anufriyeva of Gerasim Filippov, in July, 1862 — Terentyeva of Ivan Martynov, etc.

Ethnodemographic processes

For the studied period 12 cases of a wedding at the Komi-izhemtsev, from them 6 marriages of mononational and 6 marriages of the Komi with Russians are noted. Marriages of three Komi of men with the Russian women were registered in Beryozovo, three women of the Komi married the Russian men in the village. Men. Besides, marriages with representatives of indigenous people (The Arkhangelsk province and the Sosvinsky volost) of two men with the Komi are recorded by surnames (Kanev, Arteev), one of which was noted as "yasashny" the Arkhangelsk province of the Ustyug volost, and the second — "foreigner" of Rezamovy yurtas (in the Podgorodny volost there were Rezimova yurtas [Sokolova, 1983, page 196], in the Kazymsky volost — Rezansky yurtas [In the same place, page 179]).

According to registers of births, the birth of 256 children of Komi-Zyrians, from them in 5 cases — the births of twins is noted. All children were born in full families, only one case of appearance of the illegitimate child is recorded [TF GATO. Op. 20. 749. L. 355ob.-356]. Boys were born more, than girls (144 and 112 respectively). In several cases date of birth of children was not specified. In noted cases the overwhelming number of days of births were the share of winter time (from October to March): 188 children against 65, been born in summer months — from April to September (fig. 4). These data disperse from the general indicators of birth rate in the Tobolsk province and Siberia in general at the end of the 19th century where in aestivo-autumnal time the intensity of birth rate in comparison with the winter and spring period increased [Zverev, 2001, page 135]. Possibly, actually children were born more, than it is recorded in registers of births as part of them could christen in the Arkhangelsk province, some children could die soon after the birth non-Christian (for example, because of remoteness of church parish). It is possible that biological cycles of women in societies with the reindeer-breeding economy defining production seasons were affected by other factors, than in country culture.

Date of a baptism of children probably depended on migration mobility of the Komi-izhemtsev and was caused by a possibility of the address to church parish for performance of an occasional office: in winter time 214 cases of a baptism, in summer — only 42 are noted (see fig. 4). The Epiphany of children was usually made within a week after their birth; in case of the birth of children in the conditions of remoteness from church parish the baptism was postponed for several months. In several cases the baptism of children was held in several years after their birth. Naming of the child was caused by date of a baptism and was defined in most cases by the "initial" calendar, i.e. the lists of names located in a calendar order [Perper, 1984, page 33-35; Eastern Orthodox liturgical calendar, 1998, page 72-99]. So, in 5 Komi-Zyrian families there were children with identical names. Usually the next name by day of a baptism undertook, sometimes the name was chosen according to date of birth. In rare instances the child was called probably by name by one of relatives or the godfather. Thereof the repertoire of names was limited. In the 18401860th among the Komi-Zyrian children the existing of 55 man's names and 35 women's is revealed. Among men's names Vasily (17 children), Feodor (17), Ioann (13), Mikhail (12), Nikolay (7), Alexey were the most widespread (6); among women's — Eudoxia (20), Maria (14), Anna (10), Matrona (10), Darya (6), Ulyana (6).

Fig. 4. Distribution of cases of the birth and a baptism of children on months

During the studied period only 22 families which stay in edge was noted for not less than 5 years are allocated. Among them in one family one child is fixed (perhaps, it

it is connected with the period of long widowhood of the man), in three families — on 2 children, in seven families it is noted on 3 children; in two families on 4 children, in three families — on 5 children, in three families

— on 6, in two — on 7, in one — 8 children.

The Rodzhayemost at the Izhma population of Berezovsky of the district considerably exceeded mortality. During the studied period at Komi-Zyrians 50 cases of a lethal outcome, from them 30 — at males, 20 — women's are noted. Child mortality was very high: aged up to 1 month 4 boys and 9 girls, aged up to 1 g — 7 boys and 6 girls, up to 15 years — 9 boys and 4 girls, after 15 years — 10 men and 1 woman died. Almost all deaths belong to the period from September to May, in four cases — by summer months. It is obvious that some deaths among the studied population which especially took place in summer months were not celebrated; for example, in 1848 Vasily Pavlov and Evlampiya Filimonova's Konev is got married, in 1858 it is noted as the widow [TF GATO. 762. L. 567ob.-568] also marries Dyachko-va of Artemy Ivanov [TF GATO. 750. L. 338ob.-339] which also marries the second time, and the death of his wife in registers of births is not recorded.

In noted cases female mortality exceeded men's only during the perinatal period, in the subsequent men's mortality prevails, especially among adults. The cause of death of children specifies in the basic a diarrhea, a fever and rodimets and also smallpox, prematurity, weakness and so forth. Adults have a typhus fever, in one case a tuberculosis, and one woman died in childbed. Burial of the dead was made for the second or third day after death, in three cases burial delays from a week to 10 days are noted. Buried the dead at the parish cemetery.

According to the section "Ob-dorska Dead" in registers of births it is possible to reveal distribution and the nature of epidemics and also their influence on increase in mortality of the Komi-Zyrian population. At the beginning of the second half of the 19th century it is noted several epidemics which influenced increase in mortality of Komi-Zyrians: in 1855 ("fever") and in 1862 (perhaps, diphtheria — "a guttural disease", "a throat tumor"). Mortality of Komi-Zyrians was much lower, than indigenous people. So, in 1855 in the village. Men of all 103 persons, from them Komi-Zyrians — 10 died, in Obdorsk all 235 people, from them Komi-Zyrians — 5 died, in Sosva 135 people died, Komi-Zyrians had no dead. In 1862 mortality was much lower in comparison with 1855, generally deaths with similar symptoms of a disease are celebrated among the Russian and Komi-Zyrian population: for Muzhevsky to arrival only 19 people, from them Komi-Zyrians — 6, in parish of Obdorsky Peter and Paul church 24, from them Komi-Zyrians — 1 died.


Data of registers of births can confirm interaction of the Komi with the population of the district. The frequency of contacts reflected at record of godfathers in an office of Baptism and guarantors at a wedding reveals priorities of relationship of the Komi with representatives of various ethnic groups.

1 or 2 persons could be godfathers at an office of Baptism, in several records the godfathers are not specified. In 256 cases in an office of Baptism of children Komi-Zyrians, from them took part in 120 cases — men. Children at the age of 910 years became godfathers sometimes and are more senior, all about 30 such cases are revealed. In 134 cases godfathers children of Komi-Zyrians had Russians, from them 57 times godfathers were clergymen and members of their families. In other cases it were residents of that settlement where the baptism was made; or the members of families who had friendly or related relations with Komi-Zyrians as a result of interethnic marriages (for example, Danilov, Lapotnikova, Starkova, Pervova, etc.), or, in isolated cases, the people who had the "high" social status (merchants, officials, sluzhily and so forth). Representatives of local indigenous people were vospre-emnik at a baptism of children of Komi-Zyrians only in one case: in 1858 in the village. Men the wife yasashny the Kuno-vatsky volost of Muzhevsky yurtas of M.P. Talyzin [TF GATO was a vospreemnitsa. T. 156. Op. 20. 762. L. 548ob.]. Komi-Zyrians were godfathers at a baptism of children in family of Russians also only in one case: in 1860 in Beryozovo in family of the peasant K.A. Pervov [TF GATO. T. 156. Op. 20. 764. L. 8ob.].

Komi-Zyrians or Russians (priests or parishioners), in rare instances — representatives of indigenous people of Berezovsky of the district were godfathers at a baptism of the Samoyeds of the Arkhangelsk province accepting Christian religion. Growth of christianization of the Arkhangelsk Samoyeds in the territory of Berezovsky of the district is observed from the second half of the 1850th, perhaps, under the influence of activity of the Obdorsky spiritual mission [Mavlyutova, 2001, page 62]. In total 101 Komi-Zyrians participating in an office of Baptism as the godfather at representatives of indigenous people of the European North are recorded. 83 Komi-Zyrians became vospreemni-ka at representatives of local indigenous people: 2 persons — at Samoyeds of Kondinsky office are (1855), 40 people — at Kunovatskoy's "foreigners" are volosts (the end of the 1840th — the beginning of the 1860th), 16 people — Samoyeds ("foreigners") of the Obdorsky volost have (1849-1861), 2 persons — at

"foreigners" of the Kazymsky volost (1850, 1857), 20 people — at "foreigners" of the Lyapinsky volost is (1846, 1850) and 3 persons — at "foreigners" of the Sosvinsky volost (1850th).

4 persons were guarantors for the groom and the bride at a wedding usually, sometimes it is more or less, as guarantors men always acted. In 13 cases of marriage at Komi-Zyrians 51 Komi-Zyrians acted as guarantors. In most cases they were fellow countrymen with parents of the groom or the bride. 12 people of Russians spoke as guarantors at a wedding in 5 cases of a wedding of Komi-Zyrians with Russians. Some surnames of these guarantors occurred as well among names of godfathers (for example, Beshkiltsev, Bulatnikov, Shchepetkin, Kokouling). In one case the Russian made a speech as the guarantor at Arteev's wedding, "the foreigner of Rezamovy yurtas" and the daughter of "the foreigner of Sosvinsky arrival" (1862, Berezov). Guarantors at a wedding at Komi-Zyrians the representatives of local indigenous people never were.
2 Komi-Zyrians were guarantors for the groom or the bride at a wedding of Russians: in 1846 in the village. Men on the groom A.V. Bulatnikov, in 1861 in Obdorsk on the bride Chechurovy F.M. Poruchitelyami at a wedding of the Arkhangelsk Samoyeds acted 18 Komi-Zyrians. In the 1850th as guarantors at a wedding of aboriginals of the Obdorsky volost 4 Komi-Zyrian, Kunovatskoy the volost — 10, the Lyapinsky volost — 6 Komi-Zyrians acted.


Thus, migration processes of representatives of the Izhma group of Komi-Zyrians to the Northern Trans-Ural region begin already since the end of the 1830th. According to registers of births a large number of both single, and regular records for many years (including in summer months) the Komi-Zyrian surnames is noted. These facts demonstrate distribution of pendular migrations and subsidence of some Izhma families in the territory of the North of the Tobolsk province.

Increase in number of the Komi-izhemtsev in the territory of the Trans-Ural region was caused by natural and mechanical increase in population. Natural increase was caused by the high level of birth rate several times exceeding mortality that can be qualified as a population explosion [Boyarsky, etc., 1980, page 194-195]. In the region of Komi in the 19th century the izhemets showed the highest rates of increase in population in comparison with other groups of the Komi: in their 1785 there were a little more than 2000 people, at the end of the 19th century — over 15,000 people [Lashuk, 1972, page 237]. This trend remained also at migrants in Northwest Siberia.

In the middle of the 19th century the page was the main center of formation of the Komi-Zyrian diaspora in Berezovsky edge. Men; local groups in the basin of Lyapin River (with the center in Saranpaula), in Obdorsk and Beryozovo began to develop. Regular movements on the district were characteristic of early immigrants that is confirmed by the address to parishes of different churches.

The obtained quantitative data characterizing contacts of Komi-Zyrians with the surrounding population in Berezovsky edge in the middle of the 19th century can confirm high feeling of group solidarity, maintaining compatriot traditions, free integration with local community. According to participation of the inoetnichesky population as godfathers and guarantors in families of Komi-Zyrians, despite their openness for all groups, orientation to priority contacts with Russians is traced.


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Baldwin David
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