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Development of the program of division into districts in the years of civil war (1918-1921) as a stage of administrative-territorial reforming of RSFSR



UDK 94(471.084.3

DEVELOPMENT of the PROGRAM of DIVISION INTO DISTRICTS in the years of CIVIL WAR (1918-1921) AS the STAGE of ADMINISTRATIVE-TERRITORIAL REFORMING of RSFSR

Article represents the historical analysis of administrativnoterritorialny reform of RSFSR in the years of civil war. An object of a research are activities of authorities for development and realization of reform of division into districts in 1918-1921. The purpose of work consists in studying the carried-out transformations and identification of their results by the critical analysis of archival documents. It is shown that a condition and a form of transition to socialist modernization was division into districts reform which allowed to refuse provincial and district division and to transform the administrative-territorial device according to the allocated economikogeografichesky regions.

The problem of economic division into districts arose before the Soviet power right after the October revolution as the main prerequisite of the Soviet construction. The period of 1917 - 1920 can be characterized as spontaneous process of crushing of the territory of the country which the Soviet power in process of the strengthening put under control of the central bodies.

The period of 1917 - 1920 can be characterized as spontaneous process of crushing of the territory of the country which the Soviet power in process of the strengthening put under control of the central bodies. In the Appeal of People's Commissariat for Internal Affairs to all Councils of working, soldier's, country and farm-labourer's deputies from December 24, 1917. "About the organization of local government" permission of a question of administrative division was transferred to competence of local Sovetov1. Decree of SNK RSFSR of January 27, 1918. "About an order of change of borders provincial, district and other" 2 developed the provision on need of carrying out division into districts for scales of the whole country. Thus, the main legal acts of the administrativnoterritorialny RSFSR device were drafted in the first year of the Soviet power.

As a result since March, 1918 at the initiative of local Soviet bodies large administrative-territorial formations - the regional associations of Councils including several provinces began to be created. The Western area (Western commune) formed on April 11, 1918 of the Smolensk, Vitebsk, Mogilev, Minsk and Grodno provinces and which existed till February 2, 1919 when it was divided into the Belarusian SSR and the Smolensk province which remained in RSFSR became one of them.

The end of civil war demanded strengthening of the economic principle in carrying out administrative division. In this regard since 1920 the transition to a practical solution of the problem of creation of new administrative division of the country began. Realization of reform of division into districts had to provide favorable spatial conditions for carrying out in life of the being outlined new economic policy that demanded decentralization of both economic, and administrative management.

The soviet leadership determined the content of administrative-territorial reform as creation of areas which had to represent hozyaystvennoodnorodny parts in themselves and differ in the economic relation from other parts of RSFSR thanks to what they could carry out a certain role in national economy in general. Thus, when carrying out reform of division into districts the economic principle was put in the head.

1 People's Commissariat for Internal Affairs bulletin. 1917. No. 5. Article 278.
2 Meeting of Legalizations and Orders of the Working and Country government RSFSR. 1918. No. 8. Article 324.

E.A. Ivanova

Public Educational Institution of Higher Professional Training St. Petersburg Institute of Foreign Economic Relations, Economies and Rights branch in Smolensk

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On April 1, 1921 the All-planning State Commission at Council of Work and Defense was founded (HUNDRED) at which the Commission on division into districts of RSFSR is formed. In the State Planning Committee the development of questions of methodology of new administrative state system with a support on economical geographical zoning concentrated. Division of the country on large was developed, hozyaystvenno self-sufficient administrative and territorial units are edges and areas which had to coincide with naturally developing economic rayonami3 generally.

By the end of 1921. The State Planning Committee and the Administrative commission of VTsIK developed different projects of a new grid of administrative and territorial units: the centers of areas in both options coincided, but there were divergences concerning their definition granits4. In the project of the Administrative commission of VTsIK the principle of rigid specialization meaning industry concentration, concentration of commercial crops, inclination of the population to industrial distribution points, accounting of the direction and the nature of railway, water and other means of communication, population and its national structure was the basis for formation of areas. The State Planning Committee recognized that areas have to be connected among themselves by means of well organized transport; to cultivate in the limits those types of production which can be developed in them with the smallest costs, both on natural, and on social conditions; and to represent the combined system of farms constructed on the principle of their maximum general working capacity i.e. on power printsipe5. As a result of discussions the project developed by the State Planning Committee of the USSR with partial amendments to a configuration of areas was approved.

Besides, in the report of the State Planning Committee of the II session of VTsIK in October, 1921 design stages of new economic units were developed:

1) allocation of the economic region applying for independent existence as a complete organism can be made only after thorough preliminary study of all factors of economic life: natural resources; distributions of population density, the existing industrial and technical values, transportation terms and the economic centers of the area;
2) studying transportation terms, internal and external barter of the area;
3) definition of the economic centers of the area by the power principle which is followed by utilization of water energy, melioration, etc.;
4) creation of development plans for productive activity of the area and their economic coordination with the state plan with establishment of sequence of expansion and drawing up both material, and value balances for areas and all federatsii6.

As a result of discussions the project developed by the State Planning Committee of the USSR with partial amendments to a configuration of areas was approved. The European Russia had to include Northwest area with the center in Petrograd; Northeast area with the center in Arkhangelsk; The Western area with the center in Smolensk; TsentralnoPromyshlennyy area with the center in Moscow; The Vyatka and Vetluga region with the center in Vyatka; The Ural region with the center in Yekaterinburg; Southwest area with the center in Kiev; The Southern Mining area with the center in Kharkiv; Central Black Earth area with the center in Voronezh; The Average and Volga region with the center in Samara; Southeast area with the center in Saratov; The Caucasian area with the center in Vladikavkaz. Asian Russia had to include the West Siberian area with the center in Omsk; The Kuznetsk-Altai area with the center in Tomsk; The Yenisei region with the center in Krasnoyarsk; The Lensk and Angarsk region with the center in Irkutsk; The Yakut area with the center in Yakutsk; The West Kyrgyz area with the center in Orenburg; The East Kyrgyz area with the center in Semipalatinsk; Turkestan with the center in Tashkent;

3 Economic problems of RSFSR and work of the state Obshcheplanovy Commission. M.: State publishing house, 1921. Page 57.
4 Decrees of the Soviet power. T. 13. Page 25.
5 Economic problems of RSFSR and work... Page 143.
6 Economic division into districts of Russia. Report of the State Planning Committee of the II session of VTsIK. M of 1921. Page 12.

E.A. Ivanova. Development of the program.

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Distant and East Republic with the center in Chite7.

For realization of the division into districts planned within reform it was necessary to carry out uniform placement of production, its approach to sources of raw materials and areas of consumption for elimination of irrational and excessively distant transportations; complex nature of development of economy of the main economic region of the country; the highest blossoming in the economic and cultural relations of all nationalities and narodov8.

the Purpose of reform of division into districts. Process of association around one village council of several small settlements, and with another - increase in number of counties and reduction of their territory was for this purpose assumed, on the one hand. It was planned that areas can be allocated on one of four main signs: soil climatic; to natural-historical; to physiographic; to economic. At the same time admitted that owing to difficulty of creation of an administrative and territorial unit on one of the listed elements their reasonable combination is necessary. The configuration of area was assumed such that in every respect conditions and elements of the national economy (natural resources, the socialized work and labor) were whenever possible uniform in the being, and association by quite finished.

The main administrative unit in regional construction designated the district which included the territory of 10-20 thousand quarter of versts with the population of 400 - 750 thousand inhabitants. At the same time two ways of formation of districts were supposed. The first option realized subsequently in the Urals provided formation of administrative and territorial units from large to small: division of area into districts, and districts - on areas. Other option embodied later at division into districts of the North Caucasus assumed association of areas on the basis of economic signs to districts which then formed area.

The area as the administrative cell solving social and economic, cultural and educational and other problems had to become a local administrative and territorial unit. Creation of tripartite administrativnoterritorialny division had to create conditions for the organization of the national economy of RSFSR on the planned beginnings, simplifications of the Soviet device, its strengthening and approach to the population.

However, at the IX Congress of Councils on December 22 - 27, 1921 issues of reform of administrative-territorial division began to be considered from the new party. In T.V. Sapronov's report the offer on reduction administrative edinits9 which was supported by a congress was heard, and the project on division into districts was subject to consideration by the III session of VTsIK of the ninth convocation. The last adopted the resolution which confirmed need of integration of provinces. Preservation of division of provinces into counties and volosts was provided in it; preservation of Ukraine, Kyrgyzstan, Siberia, Transcaucasia and the Southeast area of RSFSR in their present borders without their division into areas and without separation of parts from them to other areas. In other territory of RSFSR it was decided to be limited to the existing areas (Northwest, Northern, Ural) and to remove from turn questions of creation in the nearest future of any new areas, except Volga, about which expediency to charge to Presidium of VTsIK to develop a question practically to the next session together with the interested provinces (Saratov, Samara, Simbirsk, Nemkommuna, Tsaritsyn, Astrakhan) 10.

As a result on the project the following provinces were abolished: Rybinsk, Yaroslavl, Kostroma, Vladimir, Ryazan, Kaluga, Oryol, Vitebsk, Gomel, Pskov, Olonets, Novgorod, Cherepovets, North Dwin, Tyumen, Simbirsk, Penza, Tambov, Zaporizhia, Poltava, Kherson, Chernihiv, Volynsk, Stavropol, Ufa, Amu-Daryinsky. This project was distributed in

7 Division into districts of the USSR. Sb. materials on division into districts from 1917 to 1925 / under the editorship of K.D. Egorov of M, 1926. Page 48.
8 State Archive of the Russian Federation (SARF). T. 6984. Op. 1. 1. L. 54.
9 The IX All-Russian Sovetov: Verbatim record. M, 1921. Page 79.
10 I - The IV sessions of VTsIK of the VIII convocation: Verbatim record. M, 1925. Page 364.
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A State Planning Committee, VSNKh, People's Commissariat for Agriculture, People's Commissariat for Internal Affairs, Narkomfin for discussion and receiving responses which went directly to the administrative commission of VTsIK.

Wrote a State Planning Committee in the answer that it "partial and unsuccessful permission of the general question of economic division into districts in connection with new administrative-territorial division of RSFSR, and therefore has to be rejected in full and transferred as material to the Commission of VTsIK on division into districts of Russia (under the chairmanship of M.I. Kalinin)" 11.

VSNKh pointed to a possibility of gradual reduction of provinces, but without tough schemes, taking into account the changing situation in strane12.

The narcomat of agriculture considered this project unacceptable since in it the unified methodological reasonable plan without which "it is impossible to make reductions of provinces" 13 was not offered.

People's Commissariat for Internal Affairs, recognizing need of administrative-territorial reform, considered that it is necessary to create the commission on coordination of all offered projects of division into districts to create uniform, suitable for Russian deystvitelnosti14.

The narcomat of finance supported the idea of reduction of provinces since it would affect "cut in expenditure on the organization and keeping of administrative facilities that will be in full accordance with the general direction of economic policy and the principles of sufficient data of the budget" 15.

The administrative commission of VTsIK at a meeting on January 11, 1922, having listened to the conclusions of narcomats, decided "to recognize the marked project as unacceptable and to transfer him to the Commission on division into districts under the chairmanship of comrade Kalinin as material on development of basic provisions of final division into districts of RSFSR" 16.

Thus, by 1922 the basic theoretical provisions necessary for carrying out administrative-territorial reform in Russia which realization began after the XII congress of RCP(b) in April, 1923 were developed

DEVELOPMENT OF THE PROGRAM OF DIVISION INTO DISTRICTS WITHIN CIVIL WAR (1918-1921) AS THE STAGE OF ADMINISTRATIVE-TERRITORIAL REFORMING OF RSFSR

11 State Archive of the Contemporary History of the Smolensk Region (SACHSR). T. 5. Op. 1.
12 Division into districts of the USSR... Page 55.
13 GANISO. T. 5. Op. 1. 59. L. 80.
14 In the same place. L. 84.
15 In the same place. L. 85.
16 I - The IV sessions of VTsIK of the VIII convocation: Verbatim record. Page 312.

The St. - Petersburg institute of foreign economic relations, economy and the rights,

Branch in Smolensk

E.A. IVANOVA

of The article gives the historical analysis of administrative and territorial reformation of the RSFSR in the years of the Civil War. The object of research is government bodies& activity aiming at working out realization of the division into districts reform in 1918-1921. The aim of the work is to study the reforms made and to find out their results by means of critical analysis of archival documents. It is shown that division into districts was the main condition and way of translation to the socialist modernization. The reform allowed to give up the division into provinces and uyezds and change administrative and territorial arrangement according to the appointed economic and geographical regions.

59. L. 74.
Imogen Isabella
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